Illuminated manuscripts are handwritten books that have been decorated (illuminated) with gold, silver, or brilliant colors. Illuminations may include small illustrations (miniatures), initials, borders, or other decorative elements. They were used to indicate divisions in a text, to tell stories, and to add beauty and visually memorable elements to texts. The earliest surviving examples of such works date from late antiquity (third-fifth century). Manuscript illumination reached its high point in medieval Europe, when illuminators, working within workshops called scriptoria, produced illuminated psalters, Bibles, liturgical texts, illustrated saints’ lives, and other works. Illuminated manuscripts continued to be produced after the invention of printing, and printed books also were often illustrated with illuminations. Presented here are illuminated manuscripts produced in Europe between 764–83 and 1889, held in the collections of WDL partner libraries and museums in Europe and North America.