79 results in English
Antietam, Maryland. Allan Pinkerton, President Lincoln, and Major General John A. McClernand: Another View
At the outset of the U.S. Civil War, Mathew Brady dispatched a team of photographers to document the conflict. Among them was a Scottish-born immigrant named Alexander Gardner, the photographer who took this photo of Lincoln at Antietam as well as other famous wartime shots. The man to Lincoln's right is Allan Pinkerton, founder of the Pinkerton National Detective Agency, whom Lincoln had as head of a personal security detail during the war. Gardner titled another shot of Pinkerton and his brother William at Antietam “The Secret Service ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Fortress of Brum in Pernambuco
This 19th-century plan, made by a captain in the Brazilian Army’s inspectorate of fortresses, shows the fortress at Brum, which was constructed by the Dutch and the Portuguese in the 17th century.
Map Showing the Different Routes Surveyed for the Union Pacific Rail Road Between the Missouri River and the Platte Valley
President Abraham Lincoln signed the Pacific Railroad Act into law on July 1, 1862. The act gave two companies, the Union Pacific Railroad and the Central Pacific Railroad, responsibility for completing the transcontinental railroad. The Union Pacific was to lay track westward from a point near Omaha, Nebraska toward Ogden, Utah; the Central Pacific was to build eastward from Sacramento, California. The Union Pacific began construction on December 2, 1863. This map, submitted to Secretary of Interior James Harlan on September 18, 1865, by Lieutenant Colonel J.H. Simpson of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Johnson’s Turkey in Asia, Persia, Arabia, etc.
This map of the Middle East and Central and South Asia extending from the Nile Valley to the boundary of Afghanistan with British India is from Johnson’s New Illustrated Family Atlas, published in New York in 1864. The map shows national capitals, provincial capitals, principal towns, and railroads. The Suez Canal, under construction at this time, is shown as proposed. The map provides a detailed overview of the towns and cities along the Nile in Egypt, Nubia (present-day southern Egypt and northern Sudan), and Sennar (present-day Sudan), and of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Personal Narrative of a Year’s Journey through Central and Eastern Arabia (1862–63)
William Gifford Palgrave (1826–88) was a famous English traveler to Arabia who inspired a generation of European explorers and missionaries. He became fluent in Arabic while serving as a Jesuit missionary in Syria. In 1862 he undertook a year-long journey through the Arabian Peninsula with the stated aim of studying the “moral, political, and intellectual conditions of living Arabia.” He was also working as a secret agent for the French emperor, Napoleon III (1808–73). Palgrave disguised himself as a Syrian doctor and was accompanied by his assistant, Barakāt ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Journey through the Atmosphere on an Airship
Al-riḥla al-jawwīya fī al-markaba al-hawā'iya (A journey through the atmosphere on an airship) is an Arabic translation by Yusuf Ilyan Sarkis (1856−1932 or 1933) of Cinq Semaines en Ballon (Five weeks in a balloon), a novel by the French author Jules Verne originally published in 1863. Shown here is a second edition of this work, produced by the Jesuit print shop in Beirut in 1884 (the first edition having been published in 1875). The novel tells the story of an explorer, Dr. Samuel Ferguson, who, accompanied by a ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Alphabet of the Five Parts of the World
This abecedarium, published in Paris in 1863, is made up of color lithographs, purportedly illustrating the people of the different countries of the world. Each letter is associated with a country, which is represented by individuals in traditional dress, usually a couple, who are supposed to reflect the place and its population. These representations, somewhat romantic, are more theatrical than anthropologically accurate. Many are very approximate, sometimes even unrealistic or inaccurate. For the letter Q, for example, “Quebec” is represented by a woman in oriental dress, and a minaret and ...
Unidentified African American Soldier in Union Uniform with Wife and Two Daughters
In May 1863, U.S. Secretary of War Edwin Stanton issued General Order Number 143 creating the Bureau of U. S. Colored Troops. This photograph shows an unidentified African American soldier in a Union uniform, with his wife in dress and hat, and two daughters wearing matching coats and hats. The image was found in Cecil County, Maryland, making it likely that this soldier belonged to one of the seven United States Colored Troop regiments raised in Maryland. The photograph is from the Liljenquist Family Collection of Civil War Photographs ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Actors Backstage Sugoroku
Actors Backstage Sugoroku is an e-sugoroku (picture board game) that depicts the backstage area of a Kabuki theater (playhouse). Published in 1863, towards the end of the Edo period, it contains pictures by Utagawa Kunisada II (also seen as Utagawa Toyokuni IV, 1823−80). This is a type of sugoroku called tobi-sugoroku (flying sugoroku), in which the squares are not lined up in order and the player moves around the board by jumping from square to square, depending on the roll of the die. From the furi-hajime (start) at the ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
Lectures Notes on Natural Law, International Law, Constitutional Law, Political Economy, and Statistics
In 1853, after the arrival of Commodore Matthew C. Perry (1794–1858), there was an urgent need to introduce Western learning and technology in Japan. The Bakufu (shogunate) therefore devised a plan to acquire Western ships and to send Japanese to study abroad. At first Japan considered the United States as the best country from which to order warships and to send students, but it was unable to do so because of the American Civil War. The Bakufu therefore approached Holland and negotiated and finalized with the Dutch an order ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
A Street Vendor from Bahia
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. In 1862, the government of Spain under Queen Isabella II sent a team of naturalists to South America to collect objects for Spanish museums. The endeavor was known as ...
A Street Vendor from Bahia
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. In 1862, the government of Spain under Queen Isabella II sent a team of naturalists to South America to collect objects for Spanish museums. The endeavor was known as ...
The Battery at a Fort in Bahia
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. The Fort of San Marcelo, also known as the Sea Fort, is located on a slab of land in the Bay of All Saints off the coast of Bahia ...
Commentary on the Mysteries of Revelation, the Perfection of Locution, and Comprehensive Interpretation
Al-Kashshāf (Commentary) is among the most widely known tafsirs (explications or exegeses) of the Qurʼan. Written in 12th-century Persia by Mahmud ibn ʻUmar Zamakhshari, it remains the object of study and debate among exegetes, who argue against its Mu’tazilite rationalism, even as they recognize its deep learning and linguistic sophistication. The work is taught, if not admired, by all the Sunni and Shia schools of interpretation. Modern scholar Kifayat Ullah states that “no other work in the history of tafsir has been commented on in the forms of glosses ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Assault and Siege of the Fortified City of Chimkent from September 19–25, 1864
This topographic map shows the Russian battle plan for the siege of Chimkent (also seen as Shymkent, in present-day southern Kazakhstan) in September 1864, when Russian forces under General Cherniaev captured the city by defeating the forces of the Kokand khanate. The map is from the historical part of the Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Recipients of the Cross of Saint George, Awarded with the Highest Military Honor. For the Capture of the City of Turkestan on June 12, 1864: Professional Soldiers Tatarinov, Prokof'ev, and Kashin
This photograph is from the historical part of the Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The compiler of the first three parts was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Recipients of the Cross of Saint George, Awarded with the Highest Military Honor. For Action near Murza-Rabat on April 5, 1865: Ensign M.G. Bogdanov
This photograph is from the historical part of the Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The compiler of the first three parts was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Recipients of the Cross of Saint George, Awarded with the Highest Military Honor. For Action near Murza-Rabat on April 5, 1865: Staff Captain Aleksandr E. Efremov
This photograph is from the historical part of the Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The compiler of the first three parts was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Blockade and Siege of the Fortified City of Tashkent from May 9 to June 15, 1865
This topographic map shows the battle plan used by Russian forces in the blockade and siege of the ancient city of Tashkent in May-June 1865. The Russians under the command of General Cherniaev captured the city by overcoming the forces of the Kokand khanate commanded by ʻAlimqul, who died in the battle. The map is from the historical part of the Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Recipients of the Cross of Saint George, Awarded with the Highest Military Honor. For the Capture of Ak-Mechet (Fort Perovskii) on June 22, 1853: Non-Commissioned Officer Sharapov of the Orenburg Cossack Troops
This photograph is from the historical part of the Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The compiler of the first three parts was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Recipients of the Cross of Saint George, Awarded with the Highest Military Honor. For the Capture of Ak-Mechet (Fort Perovskii) on June 22, 1853: Kirgiz Safarov
This photograph is from the historical part of the Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The compiler of the first three parts was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Recipients of the Cross of Saint George, Awarded with the Highest Military Honor. For the Capture of Tashkent on June 18, 1865: Non-Commissioned Officer Gladyshev of the Medical Company
This photograph is from the historical part of the Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The compiler of the first three parts was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Recipients of the Cross of Saint George, Awarded with the Highest Military Honor. For the Capture of Tashkent on June 18, 1865: Professional Soldier Smoliak
This photograph is from the historical part of the Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The compiler of the first three parts was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Recipients of the Cross of Saint George, Awarded with the Highest Military Honor. For the Capture of Tashkent on June 18, 1865: Non-Commissioned Officer Bukin of the Ural Cossack Troops
This photograph is from the historical part of the Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The compiler of the first three parts was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Recipients of the Cross of Saint George, Awarded with the Highest Military Honor. For the Capture of Tashkent on June 18, 1865: Private Mozgatov of the Chinaz Local Company
This photograph is from the historical part of the Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The compiler of the first three parts was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Brigadier General Joseph Hooker
Joseph Hooker (1814‒79) was a Union general in the American Civil War. Born in Hadley, Massachusetts, he graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point and served in the Mexican War (1846‒48). During the Civil War, he commanded a division in the Peninsular Campaign of 1862 and as a corps commander led the initial Union attacks at the Battle of Antietam. In January 1863 he replaced Ambrose Everett Burnside as commander of the Army of the Potomac, but he was relieved of his command by President ...
Captain David Farragut
David Farragut (1801‒70) was a Union naval officer in the American Civil War. He entered the U.S. Navy in 1810, at the age of nine, and fought against the British in the War of 1812 and later against pirates in the Caribbean. During the Civil War, he led the Union forces that captured New Orleans in April 1862, and worked closely with the army of General Ulysses S. Grant in the siege and capture of Vicksburg in July 1863. He was promoted to admiral in 1866 and remained ...
Australia in 142 Photographic Illustrations after a Decade of Experiences
William Blandowski (1822−78) was a pioneer in many ways. Born in Gleiwitz, Upper Silesia (present-day Gliwice, Poland), he went to Australia in 1849 to compile "a natural history, a botanical classification, and a geological arrangement of this country." He joined an early gold rush in Victoria, where he invented a powerful water pump. Blandowski went on several expeditions, on which he collected numerous specimens and attempted to compile the first checklist of the mammals and birds of Victoria. His drawings are notable for their accuracy and artistic value. Largely ...
Young America
“Young America” is a print, copyrighted by Edward Anthony (1818‒88) in 1862, that was intended as a commentary on slavery, the major cause of the American Civil War (1861‒65) then raging. A counterpart print, “Young Africa: Or, The Bone of Contention”, also copyrighted by Anthony in 1862, shows an African-American child (presumably a slave) of similar age. Both prints were included in an album of mostly Civil War-era portraits by the famous American photographer Matthew Brady (circa 1823‒96) that belonged to Emperor Pedro II of Brazil (1825 ...
Young Africa: Or, The Bone of Contention
“Young Africa: Or, The Bone of Contention” is a print, copyrighted by Edward Anthony (1818‒88) in 1862, that was intended as a commentary on slavery, the major cause of the American Civil War (1861‒65) then raging. The print depicts a young African-American child, presumably a slave. A counterpart print, “Young America,” also copyrighted by Anthony in 1862, shows a white child of similar age. Both prints were included in an album of mostly Civil War-era portraits by the famous American photographer Matthew Brady (circa 1823‒96) that belonged ...
Lieutenant General Winfield Scott
Winfield Scott (1786‒1866) was one of four generals during the American Civil War to hold the post of general in chief of the armies of the United States, the others being George McClellan, Henry Halleck, and Ulysses S. Grant. Scott was born in Virginia, graduated from William and Mary College, and then studied law and was admitted to the bar. He joined the army during the War of 1812, in which he was captured by the British, released in a prisoner exchange, and then severely wounded at the Battle ...
Major General George B. McClellan
George McClellan (1826‒85) was one of four generals during the American Civil War to hold the post of general in chief of the armies of the United States, the others being Winfield Scott, Henry Halleck, and Ulysses S. Grant. McClellan was born in Philadelphia, graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1846, and served in the engineer corps during the Mexican War (1846‒48). He left the army in 1857 to work in the railroad industry, but returned when the Civil War broke out. After ...
A Street Vendor from Bahia
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. In 1862, the government of Spain under Queen Isabella II sent a team of naturalists to South America to collect objects for Spanish museums. The endeavor was known as ...
Field of Santana
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. This field, photographed by Rafael Castro y Ordonez during the Scientific Commission of the Pacific in 1862, has at various times been known as the Field of Santana, Republic ...
Rio de Janeiro: a View
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. In 1862, the government of Spain under Queen Isabella II sent a team of naturalists to South America to collect objects for Spanish museums. The endeavor was known as ...
Sugar Loaf
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. In 1862, the government of Spain under Queen Isabella II sent a team of naturalists to South America to collect objects for Spanish museums. The endeavor was known as ...
Dom Pedro I Square
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. This statue, erected in 1862, was the first civic monument in Rio de Janeiro. The sculpture features Emperor Pedro I on horseback. Around the base are four figures in ...
Statue of Dom Pedro I
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. This statue, erected in 1862, was the first civic monument in Rio de Janeiro. The sculpture features Emperor Pedro I on horseback. Around the base are four figures in ...
Public Promenade: View 1
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. The Passeio Publico, which was built in 1779 and opened to the public in 1793, is the oldest park in Brazil and one of the oldest in the Americas ...
Botanical Garden: Avenue of Imperial Palms
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. The Botanical Garden of Rio de Janeiro was founded in 1808 by King John VI of Portugal and opened to the public in 1822. It remains one of the ...
Aqueduct of Saint Teresa: House Under the Arches
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. The Carioca Aqueduct, also called the Arcos da Lapa or simply, the Arches, was built in the early 18th century to carry fresh water from the Carioca River to ...
Santa Teresa: A View
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. This view of the area surrounding the Church of Our Lady of Lapa was photographed by Rafael Castro y Ordonez during the Scientific Commission of the Pacific. The church ...