213 results in English
Ethnographic Map of the Balkan Peninsula
The dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the end of World War I transformed the political organization of the Balkans. The war had started in the Balkans with the assassination of the Habsburg Archduke Franz Ferdinand by a militant Bosnian Serb seeking independence for his country from the dual empire. Jovan Cvijić, the author of this “ethnographic map” of the Balkans, published in 1918 by the American Geographical Society of New York, was a professor of geography at the University of Belgrade. Cvijić completed his doctorate at the University of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Union Bank, 8th War Loan; Peace Through Victory
In World War I, all sides used posters as tools to mobilize their populations for the war effort. This poster, published in Vienna in 1918, is an advertisement for the eighth war loan being raised by Austria-Hungary, Germany’s chief ally in the war. It shows a young woman offering a bowl of coins at an altar decorated with the Austrian coat of arms. The artist was Thomas Fasche, who created several other World War I posters, but about whom little is known.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Tonhalle: Exhibition of Works by German Prisoners of War Interned in Switzerland
This poster advertises an exhibition of artwork by interned German prisoners of war at the Tonhalle in Zurich, Switzerland, in May–June 1918. The location, times of opening, and the entry fee of 20 pfennigs are indicated. Exhibition proceeds were to benefit a Bavarian organization that assisted prisoners of war. The poster features the image of a German soldier who seems to be lost in thought, seated in front of the symbol for the Red Cross. Under arrangements worked out by the Red Cross in late 1914 and implemented starting ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Those Who are God’s Warriors. The Czechoslovak Army in France
This World War I poster is one of a series by Czech artist Vojtěch Preissig (1873–1944) urging Czech and Slovak volunteers living in the United States to join the Czechoslovak Legion to fight against Germany and Austria-Hungary. It shows a soldier on horseback carrying the flag of the Hussites, followers of the Czech religious reformer Jan Hus (circa 1369–1415). The Czech lands and Slovakia were part of Austria-Hungary and leaders of the national independence movement believed that the cause of an independent Czechoslovak state could be furthered by ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Togo: The Hugues Le Roux Mission
Robert Charles Henri Le Roux (1860–1925), better known by his pen name of Hugues Le Roux, was a French writer and journalist who specialized in travel literature and books about the French colonies. Close to French official circles, he helped to build support in France for the idea that France had a unique civilizing mission (mission civilisatrice) in the less-developed parts of the world. In 1918–19, Le Roux produced for the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs a series of small books on the French colonies in Africa, as ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Manifesto to the Czechoslovak People in America
In World War I, all sides used posters as tools to mobilize their populations for the war effort. “'Manifest k Ceskoslovenskému lidu v Americe!" (Manifesto to the Czechoslovak people in America) is one of a series of posters created by Vojtech Preissig (1873-1944) that encouraged Czech and Slovak volunteers to fight with the Czechoslovak Legion against Austria-Hungary and Germany to further the cause of an independent Czechoslovakia. Preissig was a Czech artist living in the United States. The poster was designed and printed at the Wentworth Institute in Boston and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
"Times Are Hard Your Majesty - You Leave Us Nothing to Do"
This U.S. World War I propaganda poster shows a devil, accompanied by two smaller devils, telling Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany that he was leaving them with no work to do. On the left is shown the home of the devils, a cave with its opening covered with cobwebs, over which hangs a sign, “To Let.” Using a word from the Hebrew Bible identified with Hell, the cave is called the “Gehenna Apartments.” The Kaiser has a bloody sword extending from beneath his cape. Also shown is the Kaiser ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Britain Expects Every Son of Israel to do His Duty
This 1918 World War I recruiting poster was designed to encourage Jewish immigrants to Canada to enlist in the Canadian armed forces to help the Allied war effort against Germany and Austria-Hungary. Underlining British sympathy for the oppressed Jewish populations of central and eastern Europe, the poster shows a soldier cutting the bonds from a Jewish man, who strains to join a group of soldiers running in the distance and says, "You have cut my bonds and set me free—now let me help you set others free!" The message ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Dawn after Darkness!
This 1918 poster is one of a series of six lithographs by artist Alexander Oscar Levy (1881–1934) made toward the end of World War I. These lithographs celebrated the U.S. victory and commemorated the sacrifices made by the U.S. armed forces during the war. This poster shows the allegorical figure of Liberty leading troops to victory; in the foreground are German prisoners of war and refugees. The text of a separate poster advertising the set of prints declared: “This tribute to our American heroes who made the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Your Fatherland is in Danger, Register!
This poster, produced in Germany shortly after the end of World War I, was used to recruit volunteers to the Garde-Kavallerie-Schützen-Division (Horse Guards Rifle Division), one of the German Freikorps units formed after the national defeat of November 1918. It depicts a German infantryman holding a grenade in one hand and a rifle in the other. He stares at the viewer; in the background are a barbed wire fence and flames rising into the sky. The text urges men to enlist, and explains the benefits of serving, including field pay ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
He Is Piling up His Thrift Stamps, Are You? Buy Thrift Stamps
This World War I poster, produced in Canada in 1918, promotes Thrift Stamps, a form of wartime savings directed especially at children. The poster, by an unknown artist, shows a squirrel hiding nuts in a tree. The caption reads, “He is piling up his Thrift Stamps, are you?” Canada, a dominion within the British Empire, was a major combatant on the Allied side during World War I. To raise money for the war, countries sold interest-bearing war bonds. Canada began calling its war bonds “Victory Bonds” (or “Victory Loans”) in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Historical Concert for the Benefit of Widows and Orphans
This poster by the Hungarian designer and graphic artist Josef von Divéky (1887–1951) advertises a January 1918 concert for the benefit of the widows and orphans of Austro-Hungarian soldiers killed in World War I. It shows five military musicians in uniforms from different historical periods; the coat of arms of Austria-Hungary is at the top. The emperor and empress of the Austro-Hungarian Empire are listed as patrons of the concert, which was organized with the support of the Ministry of War. Austria-Hungary suffered an estimated 1,100,000 killed ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Joan of Arc Saved France. Women of America, Save Your Country--Buy War Savings Stamps
This World War I poster, issued by the United States Department of the Treasury, urges women to buy war savings stamps to help finance the war effort. The War Savings Stamps (W.S.S.) program aimed to instill patriotism in citizens as well as raise funds. Stamps were available in 10-cent and 25-cent versions, and were bought by school-age children and other small savers. This poster invokes the figure of Joan of Arc (circa 1412–31), the traditionally recognized patriot and martyr of France who led the fight against the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Peace on the Enemy's Terms
This World War I poster from France shows Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany pointing a dagger at a woman (representing Romania), while he shows her the Traité de Paix (peace treaty) and simultaneously steps on a man (representing Russia). In late 1917, after the Russian army had all but collapsed and the communists had taken power, the new Russian government signed an armistice favorable to Germany. Defeated and isolated on the eastern front, Russia’s erstwhile ally Romania had no choice but to conclude a similar armistice with the Germans ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Lend the Way They Fight. Buy Bonds to Your Utmost
This World War I poster, showing an American infantryman hurling a hand grenade at German soldiers in a trench, invokes the image of Americans in combat on the Western front in France to urge citizens at home to purchase bonds to finance the war. The United States government issued bonds, also called Liberty Bonds, in 1917 and 1918, raising a total of $21.5 billion for the war effort. Many of the bonds were bought by banks and financial institutions as investments, but a massive public relations campaign was mounted ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Lest They Perish. Campaign for $30,000,000. American Committee for Relief in the Near East: Armenia-Greece-Syria-Persia
The American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief was established in 1915 with the cooperation of the United States Department of State, for the purpose of providing humanitarian relief to Armenians forcibly deported from Anatolia to other parts of the Ottoman Empire during World War I. The Ottoman parliament passed a law by which privately collected funds from the United States could be distributed to displaced Armenians via the U.S. embassy in Constantinople. This poster, showing a woman carrying a baby on her back surrounded by the rubble of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
For Your Country. Subscribe to the Loan. Crédit Foncier d'Algérie et de Tunisie
This World War I poster, sponsored by the Crédit Foncier d'Algérie et de Tunisie, a financial institution serving Algeria and Tunisia, urges people to subscribe to the fourth national loan, issued by the French government in 1918. The poster shows Algerian and Tunisian soldiers on horses charging into battle. France recruited troops from its overseas territories and colonies, and between 1914 and 1918, the French army deployed 172,800 soldiers from Algeria and 60,000 soldiers from Tunisia to Europe. Initially, most colonial troops were volunteers, but as the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
For the Return, Subscribe. 4th National Loan. Crédit Foncier d'Algérie et de Tunisie
This World War I poster, sponsored by the Crédit Foncier d'Algérie et de Tunisie, a financial institution serving Algeria and Tunisia, urges people to subscribe to the fourth national loan, issued by the French government in 1918. The poster shows a ship steaming into the beautiful harbor of Algiers, with Algerian women and children overlooking the harbor and as they await the return of their husbands, fathers, and brothers. The poster implies that victory in the war and the return of the men to Algeria will be hastened by ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Remember We Must Feed Daddy Too
This World War I poster, issued by the Canada Food Board, promotes food conservation. The illustration shows a young mother feeding a boy on her lap from a sparsely-stocked table, while a vignette of a soldier with his rifle raised appears in the background, as if in her imagination. The words, “Remember we must feed Daddy too” appear below the image, set in quotation marks. A major producer and exporter of meat, grains, and other foodstuffs, Canada ramped up output during the war to help meet the needs of Britain ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Save the Serbians from Cholera
This World War I poster, issued in New York in 1918 to raise funds for the Franco-Serbian Field Hospital of America, shows the figure of Death reaching down from storm clouds to menace a devastated populace. Of all the belligerents on either side in the war, Serbia suffered the highest number of military deaths as a share of the population: 22.7 percent killed of all males between the ages of 15 and 47, and 5.7 percent killed of the total population. War-related casualties were compounded by the effects ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Stage Women's War Relief
This World War I poster for the Stage Women's War Relief organization in New York shows a woman on a theater stage, throwing off a scarlet, fur-trimmed cloak to reveal her white volunteer's uniform. The image is reflective of the wide range of groups that became involved in volunteer war work once the United States entered the conflict against Germany. The poster is by James Montgomery Flagg (1877–1960), best known for his iconic “I Want You for U.S. Army” recruiting poster featuring a finger-pointing Uncle Sam ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Yours Not to Do and Die - Yours But to Go and Buy Victory Bonds, 1918
This World War I poster, showing soldiers holding bayonets and poised to charge, was issued by Canadian authorities to promote the sale of Victory Bonds. The text, “Yours not to do and die - Yours but to go and buy Victory Bonds,” echoes “The Charge of the Light Brigade,” the famous poem of Alfred, Lord Tennyson (1809–92) referencing the Crimean War of 1853–56: “Theirs not to make reply, / Theirs not to reason why, / Theirs but to do and die:” The imagery and words in this poster contrast and draw ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
For Czech Independence, the Czech National Association
This World War I poster is one of a series by the Czech artist Vojtech Preissig (1873–1944) produced to promote the creation of an independent Czechoslovak state after the war. The poster shows doubled-headed eagles nailed to crosses. The eagles are a symbol of the Austrian monarchy, and bear medallions around their necks labeled “FJI,” an abbreviation that stands for the emperor, Franz Joseph I. On the crosses are signs airing Czech grievances against the Austrian monarchy, including:  “Za třistaletý útisk” (For 300 years of oppression), and “Z Kramáře ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Subscribe to the 8th War Loan
Like the other powers that fought in World War I, Austria-Hungary financed its war effort by borrowing heavily from its own citizens. This was done through the issuance of loans at semiannual intervals, every November and May, beginning in November 1914. This 1918 war poster is an appeal to citizens to subscribe to the eighth war loan, issued that year. The poster shows a winged goddess driving a chariot pulled by four horses. She holds a laurel wreath as she crushes three dragons, symbols of Austria-Hungary’s enemies. The poster ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Tidal Wave. July 4, 1918: 95 Ships Launched
The Emergency Fleet Corporation (EFC) was established under congressional mandate by the United States Shipping Board in April 1917, ten days after the United States declared war on Germany. Its purpose was to acquire, maintain, and operate the merchant ships that were needed to transport American troops and their supplies to France. In 1917, the United States was acutely short of merchant ships, shipyard workers, and yards to build ships, owing to the relative weakness of the merchant marine in the prewar years. This poster, showing a line of ships ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Letter from Gabriela Mistral, November 14, 1918, Punta Arenas, Chile, to Manuel Magallanes Moure, Concepción, Chile
Gabriela Mistral (1889–1957), the pseudonym of Lucila Godoy Alcayaga, was an educator, diplomat, and poet, who in 1945 became the first Latin American author to win the Nobel Prize in Literature. Born in the northern city of Vicuña, Chile, Mistral developed an early interest in poetry, literature, the Bible, and the natural environment, particularly that of her childhood town of Monte Grande. Largely self-educated, she began working at age 15 as a teacher’s aide to support herself and her mother, and in 1910 she obtained a teaching certificate ...
Album of the Coats of Arms of Ukraine
This collection of prints depicts the historic coats of arms and flags of Ukraine. The work is by Mykola Bytynsʹkyĭ (1893–1972), a Ukrainian painter and expert on heraldry. Bytynsʹkyĭ fought in the Ukrainian War for Independence at the end of World War I and later immigrated to Prague where he studied arts and produced several works on heraldry. After World War II, he lived in a displaced persons camp in Germany, before immigrating to Canada. The coat of arms of Ukraine, a trident on a blue shield, was officially ...
National Highways Map of the United States
This map, issued in 1918 by the National Highways Association (NHA), shows the 150,000-mile (241,402-kilometer) network of roads proposed by the NHA. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated a “four-fold system” of roads that would include national highways to be built and maintained by the federal government, and systems of state, county, and township or town roads. The map associates the building of roads with national defense and “preparedness” for U.S. involvement in World War I, as symbolized by James Montgomery Flagg’s ...
Summary of Petition of Railroad Workers of Hungarian Origin and Protection of Minorities in Czechoslovakia
After World War I, the states of central and southeastern Europe were compelled by the victorious Allied and Associated Powers to sign agreements guaranteeing religious, social, and political equality to their minority populations. The states covered were Austria, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Yugoslavia. Groups or individuals who believed they had been discriminated against for ethnic or linguistic reasons could petition the League of Nations for redress by the Council. The Minority Section within the League Secretariat was responsible for screening incoming petitions, requesting responses from the accused ...
Al-Arab, Volume 2, Number 1, January 1, 1918
The newspaper Al-Arab (The Arabs) was first published in Baghdad on July 4, 1917, some four months after British troops captured the city from the Turks, thereby ending three centuries of Ottoman rule. The paper appeared at a critical period in the history of Iraq. Issued by the British authorities, it served as a mouthpiece for the British administration at a time of rising Iraqi and Arab nationalism. It depicted the Ottomans as foreigners and the British as liberators and sought to advance broader British military and political strategy against ...

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Map of Western Asia, Circa 1918−20
This map of western Asia produced by the American Geographical Society (AGS) of New York dates from the period immediately after World War I. A similar map in the collection of the American Geographical Society Library at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee is thought to have been made by the AGS for the use of the American delegation to the peace negotiations in Versailles in 1918−19. The map shows Turkey, the Arabian Peninsula, Persia (present-day Iran), and Afghanistan. Iraq is still shown as part of Turkey (the Ottoman Empire). The ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Marjory Stoneman Douglas World War I Service Card
Marjory Stoneman Douglas, best known as an environmentalist and author of The River of Grass (1947), served in the United States Navy during World War I, from April 1917 to May 1918. Frank Bryant Stoneman, Marjory’s father and editor-in-chief of the Miami Herald, sent his daughter to cover the story of the first woman in the Miami area to enlist in the armed forces during World War I. Douglas was the first to arrive at the recruiting office, and became the very woman she was sent to report on ...
British Battles During 1918 (8th August to 11th November 1918)
This colorful map was produced by the Geographical Section of the General Staff of the UK War Office, printed by Waterlow & Sons, and made available for public sale shortly after the end of World War I. It provides a summary of the Hundred Days offensive by British, American, and British Empire troops that led to the German surrender on November 11, 1918. It shows the Allied advance as distinctly ordered phases, colored first yellow, then green, red, and blue. Diagonal stripes in these same colors show German withdrawals. The numbers ...
Contributed by The British Library
Approximate Distribution of the Rites or Schools of Law and Religious Sects of Islam in Arabia
This map illustrates the varieties of religious affiliation in the Muslim populations of the Middle East. It shows the locations of adherents to the four schools of Sunni jurisprudence and the distribution of Shia populations. Where it is impossible to portray this diversity visually, the sheet provides a few paragraphs of further explanation, such as on the Senussi order in Medina, the Maliki school of Islamic law in Syria, and the Hanafi school as the official law of the Ottoman provinces. The map is rich in detail, and shows a ...
"The Daily Telegraph" War Map of Egypt and the Near East (Number 6)
This general map of the Middle East was published in London 1918. It shows Anatolia, Egypt, and the Arabian Desert.  Despite the title, it is not focused on the region as a theater of battle. The political borders shown on the map are vague, except for the eastern border of Egypt and the Iranian and Russian frontiers. The map was issued at the end of World War I, before the division of Ottoman territories by the League of Nations. Armenia is shown to cover a large portion of Asia Minor ...
Economic Map of Georgia
This economic map of the Democratic Republic of Georgia in French was produced in 1918, the year in which Georgia declared its independence from the Russian Empire under a social democratic government. The map shows the borders of the new republic with Circassia (the Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus) in the north, Turkey and the Republic of Armenia in the south, and Azerbaijan in the southeast. Also shown are towns and villages, ports, railroads, and the ferries linking the Black Sea port of Batoum (present-day Batumi) to Odessa (present-day ...
German Intrigues in Persia: The Diary of a German Agent
In November 1914, after the Ottoman Empire entered World War I on the side of Germany and the Central Powers, Sultan-Caliph Mehmed V issued a call for a worldwide jihad against Britain and France. The Germans and their Turkish allies hoped to stir up Muslims against British rule in India and to draw Persia and Afghanistan, both of which had declared their neutrality, into the war on the side of the Central Powers. In furtherance of these objectives, Germany, with the active support of the Turks, sent a mission led ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Order of Battle on Western Front. 11 a.m., November 11, 1918
World War I ended with the entering into effect of the armistice at 11 a.m. on November 11, 1918. This map, drawn up at the headquarters of the General John J. Pershing, commander of the American Expeditionary Forces, shows the order of battle at the time the fighting stopped. Allied forces are arrayed in a wide arc stretching from the Swiss border to the North Sea, with the Belgians and British on the left, the French in the center and on the right, and the Americans occupying a central ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Presumed Enemy Order of Battle. October 7, 1918
This U.S. Army map from World War I shows the U.S. and opposing German lines and presumed enemy order of battle in the vicinity of Sommerance, France, on October 7, 1918. German forces are classified by their quality of fighting skill; the best units are ranked as first class and poorest as fourth class. Units are broken down into division and then regiment. The length of time a unit had spent on the front line is noted as such information could help planners determine the combat effectiveness or ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Allied and Enemy Positions in the Sommerance Region. October 2, 1918
This U.S. Army map shows the situation in the Sommerance region of the Western front on October 2, 1918, a little more than a month before the end of World War I. The map, which identifies German positions, was distributed to officers down to the company commander level. A notice reads: “Information from captured German maps, prisoner’s statements and recent aeroplane photographs.” Behind the German trench line sits the Kriemhilde Stellung, the eastern end of the larger Hindenburg Line comprising a vast system of defenses in northeastern France ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Meuse-Argonne Offensive. Map Showing Daily Position of Front Line
World War I ended with the entering into effect of the armistice at 11 a.m. on November 11, 1918. The final chapter of the war began on September 26, when the British, French, Belgian, and American armies attacked along a wide front with 123 divisions, with 57 divisions in reserve. Defending were 197 German divisions, of which only 51 were classed by allied intelligence as fully battle worthy. The main American attack was carried out by the First Army under General John J. Pershing in the approximately 35-kilometer wide ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Loading of a 305 Cannon
This photograph taken in 1918 shows Italian soldiers manning an artillery piece, identified as a 305-millimeter gun. Italian forces in World War I were equipped with the 305-millimeter, Model 1911 Austro-Hungarian siege howitzer, manufactured by the Skoda works in Bohemia (present-day Czech Republic). The Kingdom of Italy entered World War I on the side of the Triple Entente—Great Britain, France, and Russia—on April 26, 1915. Prior to the war, Italy was part of the Triple Alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary, but it switched sides after Britain, France, and ...