41 results in English
Map of Persia, Turkey in Asia: Afghanistan, Beloochistan
Samuel Augustus Mitchell (1792–1868) was a renowned American geographer and cartographer. The majority of his work focused on the United States, but he also made maps of other parts of the world, including this 1868 map of the Ottoman Empire, Persia (present-day Iran), Afghanistan, and Baluchistan. The main territorial units that Mitchell shows are Turkey, meaning the core of the Ottoman Empire comprised of present-day Turkey, Iraq, Syria, and Lebanon; Persia; Afghanistan; and Baluchistan (mainly present-day Pakistan). Egypt and much of the Arabian Peninsula were at that time technically ...
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Demonstration of the Truth
Izhar al-Haqq (Demonstration of the truth) is a work of Islamic apologetics that broke new ground in the Muslim approach to the Bible and to Christian doctrine. Written by Indian scholar Rahmatullah al-Dihlawi (circa 1817−91), it received the approbation of the Ottoman sultan, Abdülaziz (reigned 1861−76). It was printed in 1867 at the imperial press in Istanbul for distribution among Arabic-speaking Muslims. Rahmatullah based his innovative approach on analysis of European Protestant historical or higher criticism, i.e., on reinterpretations and reformulations of biblical historiography made by European ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Pilgrimage to the Caaba and Charing Cross
Hafiz Ahmed Hassan was an Indian Muslim, treasurer and advisor to the nawab of Tonk, Muhammad ‘Ali Khan (died 1895). Tonk was a principality in northwest India and is today part of the state of Rajasthan. When the nawab was deposed in 1867, the author accompanied him into exile, going first to Benares and then, in 1870, to the Muslim holy cities on pilgrimage. After completing thehajj, Hafiz proceeded to England where he spent a short time before returning to India. The focus of the book is his travel ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Map of Russian America or Alaska Territory
Imperial Russia sold Alaska to the United States in 1867. Acquisition of the territory was negotiated for the United States by Secretary of State William H. Seward for the bargain price of about two U.S. cents per acre (five cents per hectare). Even though most commentary was highly critical of “Seward’s Folly,” some Americans gradually began to travel to and settle in the new territory. At first they possessed little knowledge of its geography. There thus was a great need for maps and nautical charts to assist Americans ...
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Map of Part of the United States Exhibiting the Principal Mail Routes West of the Mississippi River
As the United States expanded toward the Pacific Ocean, few services proved more critical than a functioning postal system. Mail delivery became crucial to new settlers writing home, businesses opening branches in the West that had their main offices in cities in the East, and merchants who needed supplies from industries and factories “back East.” Mail service was also important for government administration and keeping Washington in touch with state and territorial capitals. For a short time in the early 1860s, the Pony Express provided service between Missouri and California ...
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Annamite Bibliography
Bibliographie annamite (Annamite bibliography) is a bibliography of books, periodical articles, manuscripts, and maps from or about Vietnam, going back to the arrival of the first French priest in the country in the 17th century. It lists 470 items, including works in French, English, German, Portuguese, Spanish, and Italian. The bibliography is organized in five parts. Part one lists books and articles published in major journals. Part two is a compilation of documents published in specialized journals, compendia of voyages, collections of letters by missionaries, and other works. Part three ...
Syr Darya Oblast. Remains of the Former Kokand Fortress inside Fort Perovskii
This photograph is from the historical part of the Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The compiler of the first three parts was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V ...
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Syr Darya Oblast. Orthodox Church at the Fortification of Perovskii
This photograph is from the historical part of the Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The compiler of the first three parts was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V ...
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Syr Darya Oblast. Fortification of Perovskii
This photograph is from the historical part of the Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The compiler of the first three parts was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Syr Darya Oblast. Orthodox Church at the Fortification of Dzhulek
This photograph is from the historical part of the Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The compiler of the first three parts was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V ...
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Syr Darya Oblast. Monument Commemorating the Russian Soldiers Killed in the Siege of Ak-Mechet
This photograph is from the historical part of the Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The compiler of the first three parts was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Syr Darya Oblast. Fortification of Dzhulek
This photograph is from the historical part of the Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The compiler of the first three parts was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V ...
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Recipients of the Cross of Saint George, Awarded with the Highest Military Honor. For the Capture of the Fortification of Yani-Kurgan on June 5, 1867. Private Trafimov and Professional Soldiers Kotliarov and Kozakov, Private Dolgikh, Retired Soldier Shestakov of the 69th Provincial Battalion; Private Aksamentov of the 1st Turkestan Rifle Battalion, and Others
This photograph is from the historical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The compiler of the first three parts was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii ...
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Recipients of the Cross of Saint George, Awarded with the Highest Military Honor. For the Capture of Yani-Kurgan on June 5, 1867: Non-Commissioned Officer Vodolazov of the Ural Cossack Troops
This photograph is from the historical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The compiler of the first three parts was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Recipients of the Cross of Saint George, Awarded with the Highest Military Honor. For the Capture of Yani-Kurgan on June 5, 1867: Non-Commissioned Officer Durmanov of the Ural Cossack Troops
This photograph is from the historical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The compiler of the first three parts was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii ...
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Recipients of the Cross of Saint George, Awarded with the Highest Military Honor. For the Capture of Yani-Kurgan on June 5, 1867: Non-Commissioned Officers Mukhin, Koshkin, Bagriakov and Nalimov of the 5th Turkestan Line Battalion
This photograph is from the historical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The compiler of the first three parts was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Recipients of the Cross of Saint George, Awarded with the Highest Military Honor. For the Capture of Yani-Kurgan on June 5, 1867: Paymaster Mikhailov of the Ural Cossack Troops
This photograph is from the historical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The compiler of the first three parts was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Recipients of the Cross of Saint George and Those Awarded with Golden Sabers. For Action near Akbulak on June 7, 1867: Captain K.K. Abramov of the Artillery
This photograph is from the historical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The compiler of the first three parts was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Tsar's Ratification of the Alaska Purchase Treaty
The original treaty for the purchase of Alaska by the United States from the Russian Empire, written in parallel columns in French and English, is presented here with the signatures of U.S. secretary of state William H. Seward and the Russian minister to the United States, Eduard de Stoeckl. The diplomatic language of the Russian imperial court was French, so there was no official Russian version of the treaty. The Russian tsar, Alexander II, affixed his signature at the end of this copy of the treaty following a short ...
French Translation of the Tsar's Ratification of the Alaska Purchase Treaty
The Russian tsar, Alexander II, affixed his signature at the end of this copy of the Alaska purchase treaty following a short commentary on his ratification in Russian. This copy includes a lengthy listing of the tsar’s historical titles in Russian on the first page, which is absent in the American version. Since both of these portions of the ratified text in the tsar’s copy were written in Russian, they subsequently were translated into French. The diplomatic language of the Russian imperial court was French, so this constituted ...
Senate Ratification of the Treaty on Cession of the Territory of Alaska
Under the provisions of the U.S. Constitution relating to treaties, the U.S. Senate is required to give its advice and consent, by a two-thirds vote, for any treaty to be ratified and become law. On April 9, 1867, the Senate gave its advice and consent to the Alaska Purchase treaty by the necessary number of votes. Shown here is the notification, by John W. Forney, Chief Clerk, of the Senate’s action. Secretary of State William H. Seward relied on a number of supporters within the Senate to ...
Original of Treaty with Russia for Cession of Alaska
The original treaty for the purchase of Alaska by the United States, written in parallel columns in English and French, is presented here with the signatures of the U.S. secretary of state William H. Seward and the Russian minister to the United States, Eduard de Stoeckl. The diplomatic language of the Russian imperial court was French, so there was no official Russian version of the treaty. Following consent by the U.S. Senate, President Andrew Johnson affixed his signature to the end of this copy of the treaty on ...
Certificate of Exchange
On June 20, 1867, U.S. secretary of State William H. Seward and the Russian minister to the United States, Eduard de Stoeckl, exchanged the official instruments of ratification of the Alaska purchase treaty in Washington, D.C. While the Russian government rubber-stamped the tsar’s authorization of the treaty, under the terms of the U.S. Constitution, the U.S. Senate had to consent to the treaty on the American side. The final exchange of ratified treaties took place approximately three months after the signing of the agreement in ...
Belleville, Saint Clair County, Illinois, 1867
This panoramic map shows Belleville, Illinois, as it appeared in 1867. The name of the town is French, meaning “beautiful city.” Belleville was founded in 1814 and was officially incorporated as a city in 1850. An index at the bottom of the map indicates points of interest, including the public square, court house, railroad depot, coal mines, schools, and churches for German Protestant, Presbyterian, Baptist, Methodist, German Methodist, and Catholic congregations. The panoramic map was a cartographic form popularly used to depict U.S. and Canadian cities and towns in ...
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Cairo, Illinois, 1867
This panoramic map shows Cairo, Illinois, as it appeared in 1867. The city was located at the southernmost point of Illinois, at the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, across the Mississippi from Missouri. On this map, the settlement can be seen on the peninsula-shaped point located between the two rivers, with the Ohio River in the foreground and the Mississippi River in the background, with Missouri visible on the far shore of the Mississippi. Numerous steamboats are seen traversing the two rivers, indicating the importance of the area ...
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Madison, Wisconsin, 1867
This panoramic map shows Madison, Wisconsin, as it appeared in 1867. The capital of Wisconsin, the city was named for the fourth U.S. president, James Madison (1751–1836), one of the signers of the U.S. Constitution in 1787. Streets in the city are named for the other signers of the U.S. Constitution. In this view, the city is shown situated between two lakes: Lake Mendota and Lake Monona. A bridge crosses Lake Monona in the lower left foreground, and sailing vessels and other ships are visible on ...
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The Amazon and Madeira Rivers: Sketches and Descriptions from the Note-Book of an Explorer
Franz Keller was a German engineer who spent 17 years in Brazil. In 1867, Keller and his father were commissioned by the minister of public works in Rio de Janeiro to explore the Madeira River in order to determine the feasibility of building a railroad to circumvent rapids that made steamship navigation impossible on part of the river. This book, published some seven years later, describes the river and its rapids, the native tribes that Keller and his party encountered, and the animals and vegetation of the virgin forest of ...
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Portuguese Possessions in Oceania
This book by Affonso de Castro, an infantry captain in the Portuguese Army who served as governor of East Timor (present-day Timor-Leste) from 1859 to 1863, is one of the earliest historical studies of this former Portuguese colony. The work is in two parts. The first part examines the history of East Timor from its occupation by the Portuguese in the 16th century, and recounts Queen Mena's conversion to Christianity and the disputes with the Dutch over the region. In the second part of the study, the author examines ...
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View of Beirut, Looking Towards Body of Water
This image by the firm of Maison Bonfils depicts the city of Beirut, Lebanon, sometime in the last third of the 19th century. Maison Bonfils was the extraordinarily prolific venture of French photographer Félix Bonfils (1831-85), his wife Marie-Lydie Cabanis Bonfils (1837-1918), and their son, Adrien Bonfils (1861-1928). The Bonfils moved to Beirut in 1867 and, over the next five decades, their firm produced one of the world's most important bodies of photographic work about the Middle East. Maison Bonfils was known for landscape photographs, panoramas, biblical scenes, and ...
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Aerial Panoramic View of Beirut
This image by the firm of Maison Bonfils depicts the city of Beirut, Lebanon, sometime in the last third of the 19th century. Maison Bonfils was the extraordinarily prolific venture of the French photographer Félix Bonfils (1831-85), his wife Marie-Lydie Cabanis Bonfils (1837-1918), and their son, Adrien Bonfils (1861-1928). The Bonfils moved to Beirut in 1867 and, over the next five decades, their firm produced one of the world's most important bodies of photographic work about the Middle East. Maison Bonfils was known for landscape photographs, panoramas, biblical scenes ...
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Wills Concerning the School in Gabrovo
The Gabrovo School was the first secular school in Bulgaria. Founded in 1835, it trained Bulgarian teachers and employed such notable Bulgarian scholars as Neofit Rilski. This work contains the wills of several men associated with the Gabrovo School, including one of its co-founders, V. E. Aprilov. The wills appear in Bulgarian with the corresponding Greek translation on opposite pages. Printed at the end of the book are illustrations of the grave monuments of Aprilov and the school's other co-founder, N.S. Palauzov.
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Damascus. The Great Mosque and View of Damascus.
This photograph by the firm of Maison Bonfils depicts the Great Umayyad Mosque of Damascus (Jāmi' al-Umawī al-Kabīr) as it appeared in the late 19th century. Constructed in the eighth century on the site of earlier places of worship, the mosque is a site of spiritual significance to both Sunni and Shi’a Muslims. It also is said to house the head of John the Baptist. Maison Bonfils was the extraordinarily prolific venture of the French photographer Félix Bonfils (1831-85), his wife Marie-Lydie Cabanis Bonfils (1837-1918), and their son, Adrien ...
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Bulgarian Haiduts
Georgi Stoikov Rakovski (1821-67) was a famous Bulgarian revolutionary who drew inspiration from the haiduts, the traditional bandits who lived in the mountains of Bulgaria and robbed from the Ottomans. He intended to write a larger history of the haiduts in Bulgaria, but was able to send his publisher only the 39 pages that comprise Book I before he died of tuberculosis at the age of 46.
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Two Opium Smokers on Java
This carte-de-visite photograph shows two opium smokers on the island of Java. Opium smoking was introduced into Java by the Dutch, who established a major port at Batavia (present-day Jakarta) and imported Indian-grown opium for local sale and later for re-export to China. Opium smoking was at first mainly a part of social life among Javanese upper classes, but in the 19th century it increasingly spread to the laborers who served the expanding colonial economy. The photograph was taken by the firm of Woodbury & Page, which was established by ...
The Young Maiden Oshichi
The term ukiyo-e, literally “pictures of the floating world,” refers to a genre of Japanese artwork that flourished in the Edo period (1600–1868). As the phrase “floating world” suggests, with its roots in the ephemeral worldview of Buddhism, ukiyo-e captured the fleeting dynamics of contemporary urban life. While being accessible and catering to “common” tastes, the artistic and technical details of these prints show remarkable sophistication, their subjects ranging from portraits of courtesans and actors to classical literature. From the series Edo Meisho (Famous sites of Edo), this 1867 ...
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Sketch of the Careysburg Road
Careysburg, Liberia, was established in late 1856 by order of the Liberian Senate and House of Representatives. It was the country’s first interior settlement, and was deliberately situated on a plateau surrounded by hills in order to provide a healthier environment for settlers unable to cope with the heat, humidity, and disease-carrying mosquitoes of the coastal lowlands. The town was named for the Reverend Lott Carey (1780-1828), a former slave from Richmond, Virginia, the first American Baptist missionary to Africa, and an important figure in the early affairs of ...
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Syriac Grammar
This work is a grammar of Syriac written in Garshuni (Arabic in Syriac letters). The Syriac words and expressions are partially vocalized, and the section titles are in both Arabic and Syriac. In the colophon, the work is called a musawwada (draft) and there are numerous corrections and annotations to the text. It is also stated that the copy was completed on the 18th of Ab, meaning August, 1867. It was first created at the Monastery of Saints Cyprian and Justina at Deir Kfīfāne in Lebanon; later it belonged to ...
Alphabet Book for Primary Schools in the Bosnian Vilayet
The first printing house in Bosnia and Herzegovina was founded in 1519 by Božidar Goraždanin, in the city of Goražde, in eastern Bosnia. Two years later, in 1521, the establishment closed and was moved to Romania. Subsequently, a small number of books written in Bosnia and Herzegovina were sent outside the country to be printed, in Venice, Vienna, Rome, and elsewhere, but books were not produced in the country. In the second half of the 19th century, there was a revival of interest in printing and publishing in Bosnia and ...
Harrison Mansion, Front Elevation. 18th and Locust Streets, Philadelphia
This hand-colored 1867 lithograph by architect Samuel Sloan (1815–84) was a plate in an architectural design book; it illustrated the front facade of a symmetrical, Italian-style, suburban mansion. The mansion was located on the edge of Rittenhouse Square, on the northeast corner of 18th and Locust Streets. It was built in 1855–57 after designs by Samuel Sloan, for Joseph Harrison, Jr., a prominent Philadelphia man known for his innovative design of a locomotive engine. This print was produced by the firm of Louis N. Rosenthal, a pioneer chromolithographer ...
Residence of Joseph Harrison, Esquire. Rittenhouse Square, Philadalphia
This hand-colored 1867 lithograph by architect Samuel Sloan (1815–84) was a plate in an architectural design book; it illustrated a perspective view of a symmetrical, Italian-style, suburban mansion. The mansion was located on the edge of Rittenhouse Square in Philadelphia, on the northeast corner of Eighteenth and Locust Streets. It was built in 1855–57 after designs by Samuel Sloan, for Joseph Harrison, Jr., a prominent Philadelphia man known for his innovative design of a locomotive engine. In this view, pedestrian traffic is seen passing in front of the ...
Bennett's Tower Hall, Front Elevation. 518 Market Street, Philadelphia
This circa 1867 lithograph by architect Samuel Sloan (1815–84) was a plate in an architectural design book; it shows an exterior view of Bennett's Tower Hall, a five-and-one-half story, tower-shaped clothing store located at 518 Market Street in Philadelphia. The building was altered by architect Samuel Sloan circa 1867. This view includes a partial, faded view of adjacent properties. Colonel Joseph M. Bennett (1816–98) established his business at this address in 1849; he named it “Tower Hall” in 1853. Bennett was a successful businessman who used his ...