166 results in English
His Excellency: George Washington Esq: L.L.D. Late Commander in Chief of the Armies of the U.S. of America and President of the Convention of 1787
In 1787, the confederation of the 13 American states was descending into disarray. The coffers were empty, New York and New Jersey were in a dispute over duties charged on goods crossing state lines, farmers in Massachusetts were rebelling, and Spain and Britain were encroaching on American territories in the west. The Federal Convention was called to address the problems of governing the young republic under the existing Articles of Confederation. The convention responded by framing the document that became the United States Constitution. The convention delegates elected George Washington ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Topographical Notes on Notable Places Visited by Her Imperial Majesty in Belarusian Vicegerencies
This book, published in Saint Petersburg in 1780 by the Russian Imperial Academy of Science, is about the history of and conditions in the eastern Belarusian lands visited by the Empress Catherine (the Great) in May of that year. The work includes detailed information about localities in the Polotsk and Mogil'ov territory (namestnichestva), including the population and descriptions of castles, palaces, churches, and monasteries. Descriptions of places in Belarus start on page 38. The book also contains information about places along the route from Saint Petersburg to Belarus, such ...
Map of Holland: According to Astronomical Observations, Measurements of Schnellius & c. and the Superiorly Redesigned Special Maps of F. L. Güssefeld
This map of the Netherlands coast is the work of Prussian cartographer Franz Ludwig Güssefeld (1744-1807). It was drawn based on the calculations of the renowned Dutch mathematician Willebrord Snellius (1580-1626), a professor of mathematics at the University of Leiden, who conceived the idea of measuring the earth using triangulation. Snellius’s discoveries helped to determine the radius of the earth as well as led to more accurate ways of measuring the distance between two cities.
Extent and Location of the Governments of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Matogroso, Cuyaba, and Towns of Native Americans Called Chiquitos
This map shows the present-day Bolivian provinces of Santa Cruz de la Sierra and Chiquitos, and the Brazilian state of Mata Grosso. The map indicates the settlements of native people, known at that time as Chiquitos. This area was a center of Jesuit activity and many of the settlements may have been the remnants of Jesuit centers, called reducciones (reductions or townships). The Jesuits began their missionary work in South America in 1609. At the height of their activity, they sponsored 40 communities that were home to more than 150 ...
Guide to Astronomy
This handwritten copy of Tian wen bei kao (Guide to astronomy) was made in 1790 by Pingbo, whose seals are on the cover of the first of the two juan. No other information on the copyist is available. Juan one is a collection of texts taken from Xing jing (Star manual) by Shi Shen (circa 350 BC), Tian wen xing zhan (Astronomic star observation) by Gan De (between 475 and 221 BC), Shi ji (The records of the grand historian), Tian wen zhi (Astronomy treatise) in Han shu (History of ...
Contributed by National Central Library
Map of the Brazilian Coast, Which Goes from Santa Ana Island to the Joatinga, Copied from a Portuguese Map and Printed on January, 1785
This Spanish map showing part of the Brazilian coast is a copy of an earlier Portuguese map. The inset map in the upper left shows the harbor of Rio de Janeiro.
Geographical Game of the French Republic
J.N. Mauborgne, a former professor of geography in Paris, created this “geographical game of the French Republic” in honor of the government of the National Convention during the French Revolution. Mauborgne’s game involves traveling around republican France, which was divided into 83 “departments,” the new unit of territorial administration that the Revolution introduced to replace the much larger historical provinces. Each space on the map shows a different department with its departmental capital, or chef-lieu. Players move counter-clockwise about the board from department to department, ending on the ...
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The Macedonian Landscape
Franz Johann Joseph von Reilly (1766−1820) was an Austrian writer and poet, geographer, bookseller, and art dealer. His cartographic works included a world atlas, published in 1794−96, an atlas of Germany (1803), and his Allgemeiner Postatlas (General postal atlas), a work of 1799 with 40 maps showing postal routes, the first such atlas published anywhere in the world. Shown here is von Reilly’s map of Macedonia, which includes parts of present-day Greece and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM). Bordered on the north by Serbia and ...
The Insect Book
Ehon mushi-erami (The insect book) is by the ukiyo-e painter Kitagawa Utamaro (circa 1753−1806). It was created by him before he produced the bijin-ga (pictures of beautiful women) for which he is famous. Each double page of the book contains a painted illustration of a plant and two species of insects, along with two kyōka (a poem style originating from waka, literally, Japanese poems). The kyōka are ostensibly insect-themed love poems. In all, 15 colored wood-block prints are included. The work demonstrates Utamaro’s skill at drawing, as well ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
Edict Prohibiting Traveling Shows Throughout Tuscany
This edict, dated February 1, 1780, was promulgated by Domenico Brichieri Colombi, fiscal auditor of the city of Florence, in execution of orders issued by Pietro Leopoldo of Lorraine, Grand Duke of Tuscany (reigned 1765−90). It prohibited public performances by traveling entertainers so as not to give to the people “opportunities to dissipate themselves vainly.” The edict applied to “Charlatans, Cantimbanchi [street singers], Storytellers, Puppeteers, Peddlers, Jugglers, and all those who carry on freak shows, exhibit Machines, Animals, or who sell secrets, and to any other foreigner who goes ...
Map of the New Discoveries in the Eastern Ocean
This Russian map of 1781 depicts parts of eastern Siberia and the northwestern part of the North American continent, including places reached by the Russians Mikhail Gvozdev and Ivan Sind, the English explorer Captain James Cook, and others. In 1732, the expedition led by Gvozdev and the navigator Ivan Fedorov crossed the Bering Strait between Asia and America, discovered the Diomede Islands, and approached Alaska in the vicinity of Cape Prince of Wales. The expedition landed on the shore of the North American mainland, marked on the map as the ...
A New Map of Arabia: Divided into Its Several Regions and Districts
This map of Arabia, published in London in 1794, is an English translation of a map by the French cartographer and geographer Jean-Baptiste Bourguignon d’Anville (1697−1782). Appointed the first geographer to the king of France in 1773, d’Anville was one of the most important mapmakers of the 18th century, known for the accuracy and scientific quality of his maps. The work presented here is said to contain “Additions and Improvements from Mr. Niebuhr,” a reference to Carsten Niebuhr (1733–1815), a German-born Danish explorer and civil engineer ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Arabia: According To Its Modern Divisions
“Arabia According to Its Modern Divisions” shows the Arabian Peninsula with the three-part division traditionally used in European sources into Arabia Petraea, Arabia Deserta, and Arabia Felix. Deserts, seaports, and the pearl beds along the coast are indicated. Qatar is shown as Catura. Four different distance scales—Arabian miles, Turkish miles, Persian parasangs, and British miles—are provided. Published in 1794, the map was compiled and drawn by Samuel Dunn (circa 1723−94), a teacher of mathematics and navigation who made original contributions to solving the problem of determining longitude ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
A Map of Saint Petersburg Province and County
The complete title of this 1792 watercolor manuscript map is “A map of Saint Petersburg province and county including parts of other counties belonging to the province, such as Shlisselburg, Sofeisk, Оranienbaum and Rozhdestveno with Saint Petersburg as the administrative center from which it radiates for 40 versts.” The text goes on to explain that part “of this province, previously called Ingria, was conquered from Sweden in 1702 and according to the Treaty of Nystad, in 1721 Ingria was formally ceded to Russia by Sweden. On May 16, 1703 Saint ...
A Grant of Indian Territory from the Upper Creek Indians as also the Lower Creeks and Seminoles to Colonel Thomas Brown Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Southern District of North America
This document is an enclosure originally submitted by Henry Lee IV to Florida territorial judge Augustus Brevoort Woodward in September 1824. Lee sought Woodward’s assistance in securing claim to property purchased by his father, General Henry Lee, from Thomas Brown in 1817. On March 1, 1783, several “Kings and Warriors” representing Upper Creek, Lower Creek, and Seminole towns affixed their names and family marks to a document granting Thomas Brown, a British superintendent of Indian affairs, substantial territory west of Saint Augustine in what was then British East Florida ...
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen Adopted by the National Assembly during its Sessions on August 20, 21, 25 and 26, 1789, and Approved by the King
On June 17, 1789, the members of Third Estate (those members of the pre-revolutionary French parliament, the Estates-General, who were not from the First Estate, the nobility, or the Second Estate, the clergy) gathered and declared themselves the National Assembly of France. Alarmed at this radical development, King Louis XVI (1754−93) decided to end their deliberations and barred access to the room in Versailles where they had been meeting. Over the next several days, most members of the clergy in the Estates-General and a significant number of the nobility ...
The Moon-Mad Monk, or Crazy Gazing at the Moon
Shown here is an illustrated anthology, in color, published in 1789 by Tsutaya Jūzaburō (1750−1797), a publisher of the Edo period (1600−1868). It contains 72 kyōka (humorous and satirical Japanese poems of 31 syllables) written about the moon and five pictures painted by the ukiyo-e artist Kitagawa Utamaro (circa 1753–1806). The title Kyōgetsubō (The moon-mad monk, or crazy gazing at the moon) means a man driven mad by the moon, but it is said to be a reference to the poet Gyōgetsubō (Reizei Tamemori 1265−1328), who ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
Map of Arabia, the Persian Gulf, and the Red Sea; Including Egypt, Nubia, and Abyssinia
This map of the Arabian Peninsula and surrounding areas was most likely created by the French cartographer and hydrologist Rigobert Bonne (1727−94). It is probably a proof copy of the map of the same title published in his Atlas des toutes les parties connues du globe terrestre (Atlas of all known land surfaces of the globe). The Arabian Peninsula is the main focus of the map, but it also covers much of the Nile Valley on the western shore of the Red Sea. The atlaswas created to serve ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Map of the Empire of Germany: Including All the States Comprehended Under that Name with the Kingdom of Prussia
Produced on the eve of the Industrial and French revolutions, this 1782 map by Louis Delarochette represents the German Empire nearly a century before Otto von Bismarck’s unification of the country. It is part of Thomas Kitchen’s General Atlas, originally created by Louis Stanislas d'Arcy Delarochette and purportedly designed to show the entire universe. Kitchen, whose name was also frequently spelled “Kitchin,” was a London-based cartographer and engraver of maps of England, greater Europe, and parts of the British Empire who was employed as a senior hydrographer ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Essay on Paper, Read in the Public Meeting held by Cercle des Philadelphes, August 15, 1788
In the second half of the 18th century, the French colony of Saint-Domingue emerged as one of the wealthiest territories in the Western hemisphere. Its economy was heavily based on slave labor and the production of sugar. Cap-Français (present-day Cap-Haïten) was the cultural capital of the colony and one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Americas. In August 1785 a group of white residents of the city founded the Cercle des Philadelphes, a society whose aim was to elevate the intellectual and cultural level of their colony. In its ...
Proclamation. In the Name of the Republic. We, Léger-Félicité Sonthonax, Civil Officer of the Republic, Delegate in the Islands of the French West Indies to Re-establish Law and Public Order
In August 1791, slaves in the French colony of Saint-Domingue (present-day Haiti) staged a massive revolt, setting in train the chain of events that ultimately led to the founding of independent Haiti in 1804. In 1792, the de facto government of revolutionary France sent Etienne Polverel and Léger-Félicité Sonthonax as civil commissioners to the colony for the purpose of enforcing a decree by the National Assembly, which enfranchised free blacks and mulattoes but did not yet free the colony’s slaves. Presented here is a broadside with the text of ...
Proclamation. In the Name of the Republic. We, Etienne Polverel and Léger-Félicité Sonthonax, Civil Officers of the Republic, Whom the French Nation Sent to this Country to Establish Law and Order
The broadside presented here is a rare copy of the official Creole text, translated from the French, of a proclamation issued in the colony of Saint-Domingue (present-day Haiti) granting freedom to enslaved women and to the children of newly emancipated slaves. The articles describe the procedures by which slaves could be married and the laws that governed the status of women and children after marriage. The document also specifies the value of women and of children of both sexes by age and thereby the amount of indemnity to be paid ...
Map of the Ocean Showing the Different Routes of the Navigators around the World
Carte de l'Océan où sont tracées les différentes routes des navigateurs au tour du monde (Map of the ocean showing the different routes of the navigators around the world) was made by the French cartographer Jean-Nicolas Buache (1741−1825) to plan and subsequently chart the discoveries made on the voyage around the world of the French explorer Jean-François de Galaup La Pérouse (1741−88). In 1783 the French government decided to send an expedition to the Pacific to complete the work begun by the British explorer James Cook, and ...
Map Containing Part of the Coast of California
This pen-and-ink and watercolor Spanish map of 1787 rather sketchily covers the coast of what are now Oregon, Washington, British Columbia, and southeastern Alaska from the 44th to the 61st parallels. It includes coastline, coastal features, islands, navigational hazards, and pictorial representation of selected coastal mountains. The map was prepared by Bernabé Muñoz under the direction of Pedro Rivelles of the Real Escuela de Navegación, Cadiz, Spain. The Real Escuela de Navegación was a mapping agency that operated within and performed services for the Spanish Royal Navy. Exactly when the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the Terrain on the Left Bank of the James River Across from Jamestown, Virginia, Where a Battle Took Place on July 6, 1781, between the American Army led by the Marquis de La Fayette and the English Army under the Leadership of Lord Cornwallis
This pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map was drawn by Jean Nicolas Desandrouins (1729–92), an engineer with the French army of General Rochambeau during the American Revolution. It shows the layout of the Battle of Green Spring, in southeastern Virginia, on July 6, 1781. This battle came near the end of the war, and involved Continental Army troops under the Marquis de Lafayette and General Anthony Wayne and British troops under General Lord Cornwallis. The battle was a minor victory for the British and the last land battle in Virginia ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of Portsmouth, Virginia
This pen-and-ink manuscript map shows Portsmouth, Virginia, at the time of the American Revolution. Portsmouth served as a primary British post and naval base. On July 4, 1781, British general Charles Cornwallis (1738–1805) left Williamsburg, Virginia in order to cross the James River at Jamestown and reach Portsmouth. Once at Portsmouth, the British army loaded onto transports. Cornwallis and his men then sailed to Yorktown, where their defeat at the Siege of Yorktown would conclude the American Revolution. The map shows forts, bridges, country homes, marshes, a windmill, and ...
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Map of the Fortifications of Portsmouth, Virginia
This 1781 pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map shows the fortifications and houses of Portsmouth, Virginia, at the time of the American Revolution. Portsmouth served as a primary British post and naval base. On July 4, 1781, British general Charles Cornwallis (1738–1805) left Williamsburg, Virginia, in order to cross the James River and reach Portsmouth. Once at Portsmouth, the British army loaded onto transports. Cornwallis and his men then sailed to Yorktown, where the British defeat at the Siege of Yorktown would conclude the American Revolution. The map shows the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Detailed Map of West Point on the York River, at the Confluence of the Pamunkey and Matapony Rivers
This 1781 pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map shows the region around West Point, Virginia, situated at the point where the Pamunkey and Matapony (present-day Mattaponi) Rivers join to form the York River. The map shows soundings and channels in the rivers, as well as ferries, roads, and vegetation. The villages of Bingham, Delaware, and Brackson are shown, along with Brackson’s Plantation, and the Meredy, Smith, Dodleys, and other plantations. The road to Williamsburg is visible in the lower left, running inland from the right bank of the York River ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the Environs of Williamsburg, York, Hampton, and Portsmouth
This pen-and-ink manuscript map of 1781 shows the towns of Williamsburg, York, Hampton, and Portsmouth, Virginia, as well as the surrounding regions of southeastern Virginia. The area shown on the map extends from Cape Henry on the Atlantic Ocean to Williamsburg and south to the Effroyables Marais, the French term for the area known as the Dismal Swamp. The map shows part of the Chesapeake Bay as well as the James and Elizabeth Rivers and the Hampton Roads waterway. It notes towns, roads, rivers, creeks, bridges, mills, and a salt ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Rochambeau’s Army, 1782. Map of the Williamsburg, Virginia Area, Where the French and American Armies Camped out in September 1781
This topographic pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map of the Williamsburg, Virginia, area was made in 1782 by Jean Nicolas Desandrouins, a French army engineer and cartographer, shortly after the October 1781 Battle of Yorktown. It shows the encampments and positions of the French and American forces in September 1781, on the eve of the battle. The map provides a detailed plan of Williamsburg and its environs, and shows the location of estates, towns, and other significant sites. It shows houses and public buildings in Williamsburg, plantations in the countryside, roads ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Connecticut, from the Best Authorities
This map of Connecticut first appeared in General Atlas for Carey’s Edition ofGuthrie’s Geography Improved, published in Philadelphia in 1795. The map was created “from the best authorities,” including information from William Blodget’s extraordinarily detailed map of 1791, the first official map of the state. Amos Doolittle (1754–1832), a copperplate engraver in New Haven, produced the map on a scale of 7.5 miles to one inch (12 kilometers to 2.4 centimeters). Largely self-taught, Doolittle was originally a jeweler and silversmith who first attempted ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Georgia, from the Latest Authorities
This map of Georgia first appeared in General Atlas for Carey’s Edition ofGuthrie’s Geography Improved, published in Philadelphia in 1795. It shows the state of Georgia extending through the present-day states of Alabama and Mississippi. The map stretches west to the Mississippi River, south into parts of Florida, northeast to South Carolina, and north to the “Tennassee Government.” The map notes the location of Indian tribes, including the Chacataws (Choctaws), Cherokees, Creeks, Natches (Natchez), and Seminoles. The map is the first to identify Georgia’s counties. Tallahassee ...
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A Map of Kentucky from Actual Survey
Kentucky was admitted to the Union on June 1, 1792, becoming the 15th state of the United States. In 1793, Elihu Barker created the most accurate map of Kentucky up to that date, A Map of Kentucky from Actual Survey. The map includes Kentucky as well as the bordering “North Western Territory,” Virginia, and the “Tennassee Government.” It shows the mountains of eastern Kentucky and those between the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers in western Kentucky and indicates salt licks throughout the state as well as principal trails, towns, and settlements ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
City, Port and Harbor of Baltimore, Maryland
Ville, port, et rade de Baltimore (City, port and harbor of Baltimore) is a manuscript map, in pen-and-ink and watercolor, that depicts the harbor and environs of Baltimore, Maryland, towards the end of the Revolutionary War. The map was created by Louis-Alexandre Berthier (1753–1815), a young French officer who accompanied the army of the Comte de Rochambeau to North America in 1780 and served on his general staff. Berthier later became a marshal in the French army and chief of staff to Napoleon. The map shows fortifications, troop encampments ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of Portsmouth Harbor Drawn by Sight
This pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map made by engineers of the French Army shows the city and harbor of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, as they appeared in the early 1780s. The map shows part of the fleet of Admiral Charles Louis de Ternay, which brought General Rochambeau and 6,000 troops from France to fight with the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War in the United States. The fleet reached Portsmouth on July 10, 1780. The map centers on the Piscataqua River that flows through Portsmouth to the Atlantic Ocean. It ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Portsmouth, New Hampshire
This manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor made by engineers of the French Army shows the city and harbor of Portsmouth, New Hampshire as they appeared in the early 1780s. The map is oriented with north to the right. Relief is represented by hachures and shading. The map indicates three ships from the French fleet of Admiral Charles Louis de Ternay, the Pluton, Auguste, and Bourgogne, anchored to the right of Newcastle Island. The map centers on the Piscataqua River that flows through Portsmouth to the Atlantic Ocean. It charts ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The State of New Hampshire. Compiled Chiefly from Actual Surveys
This map of New Hampshire was completed in 1794 by Samuel Lewis (1753 or 1754–1822), a Philadelphia draftsman and engraver, for inclusion in General Atlas for Carey’s Edition ofGuthrie’s Geography Improved, published in Philadelphia in 1795. It shows the five counties of New Hampshire‒Cheshire, Grafton, Hillsborough, Rockingham, and Stratford‒with their boundaries, principal towns and settlements, roads and waterways, mountains, and islands. Much of the map’s northern region is blank, with a note across the top, “Indian carrying place” (canoe portage). Lewis identifies the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The State of New Jersey, Compiled from the Most Authentic Information
This map of New Jersey appeared in General Atlas for Carey’s Edition ofGuthrie’s Geography Improved, published in Philadelphia in 1795. The map extends from the Delaware River to the Atlantic Ocean and indicates the state’s principal towns, roads, and counties, as well as mountains, rivers, and the bordering states of New York, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. The map shows the counties of Bergen, Burlington, Cape May, Cumberland, Essex, Gloucester, Hunterdon, Middlesex, Monmouth, Morris, Salem, Somerset, and Sussex. The map was engraved in 1795 by William Barker (active ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Position of the Combined Army at Philipsburg from July 6 to August 19
This pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map is attributed to cartographer Louis-Alexandre Berthier (1753‒1815), who served with the Marquis de Lafayette (1757–1834) and the Comte de Rochambeau during the American Revolution and who later was one of Napoleon’s marshals. Berthier stayed in America from September 30, 1780 until December 24, 1782 and accompanied the combined French-American army on its march from New England to Yorktown, Virginia and its return march to Boston. This map depicts the Philipsburg, New York camp that the two armies occupied from July 6 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of New York and Surrounding Islands
This hand-drawn map in pen-and-ink and watercolor, probably made in 1781, depicts New York City and its surrounding islands. The map covers the area from Blackwell’s Island in the northeast to Red Hook (in present-day Brooklyn) in the south, and includes a street plan of southern Manhattan. The map includes Fort George, towns such as Bedford on western Long Island, roads, ferries, redoubts, some vegetation, and relief. Islands include Bucking Island, Bedloes or Kennedy Island, and “the Governors Island.” Relief is shown by hachures. Soundings indicate water depth. The ...
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Map of New York and its Environs
This manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor, most likely made by a French military cartographer in 1781, shows New York and its environs near the conclusion of the American Revolution. The map extends from Yonkers, New York in the north to Staten Island in the south and from New Rochelle, New York in the east to Totowa, New Jersey in the west. The map identifies roads, fortifications, redoubts, batteries, vegetation, and relief. A legend on the right side of the map is keyed to earthworks, fortifications, and batteries on Manhattan ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Northern Part of New York Island
This manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor was probably created in 1781 by a French military cartographer engaged in reconnaissance work during the final stages of the Revolutionary War in the United States. The map is oriented with north to the right. The British captured New York in September 1776. In the summer of 1781, General George Washington, commander of the Continental Army, considered an attack on New York, but he and the Comte de Rochambeau instead feigned preparations for an attack on the city while stealthily moving their troops ...
Contributed by Library of Congress