101 results in English
His Excellency: George Washington Esq: L.L.D. Late Commander in Chief of the Armies of the U.S. of America and President of the Convention of 1787
In 1787, the confederation of the 13 American states was descending into disarray. The coffers were empty, New York and New Jersey were in a dispute over duties charged on goods crossing state lines, farmers in Massachusetts were rebelling, and Spain and Britain were encroaching on American territories in the west. The Federal Convention was called to address the problems of governing the young republic under the existing Articles of Confederation. The convention responded by framing the document that became the United States Constitution. The convention delegates elected George Washington ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Topographical Notes on Notable Places Visited by Her Imperial Majesty in Belarusian Vicegerencies
This book, published in Saint Petersburg in 1780 by the Russian Imperial Academy of Science, is about the history of and conditions in the eastern Belarusian lands visited by the Empress Catherine (the Great) in May of that year. The work includes detailed information about localities in the Polotsk and Mogil'ov territory (namestnichestva), including the population and descriptions of castles, palaces, churches, and monasteries. Descriptions of places in Belarus start on page 38. The book also contains information about places along the route from Saint Petersburg to Belarus, such ...
Extent and Location of the Governments of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Matogroso, Cuyaba, and Towns of Native Americans Called Chiquitos
This map shows the present-day Bolivian provinces of Santa Cruz de la Sierra and Chiquitos, and the Brazilian state of Mata Grosso. The map indicates the settlements of native people, known at that time as Chiquitos. This area was a center of Jesuit activity and many of the settlements may have been the remnants of Jesuit centers, called reducciones (reductions or townships). The Jesuits began their missionary work in South America in 1609. At the height of their activity, they sponsored 40 communities that were home to more than 150 ...
Map of the Brazilian Coast, Which Goes from Santa Ana Island to the Joatinga, Copied from a Portuguese Map and Printed on January, 1785
This Spanish map showing part of the Brazilian coast is a copy of an earlier Portuguese map. The inset map in the upper left shows the harbor of Rio de Janeiro.
The Insect Book
Ehon mushi-erami (The insect book) is by the ukiyo-e painter Kitagawa Utamaro (circa 1753−1806). It was created by him before he produced the bijin-ga (pictures of beautiful women) for which he is famous. Each double page of the book contains a painted illustration of a plant and two species of insects, along with two kyōka (a poem style originating from waka, literally, Japanese poems). The kyōka are ostensibly insect-themed love poems. In all, 15 colored wood-block prints are included. The work demonstrates Utamaro’s skill at drawing, as well ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
Edict Prohibiting Traveling Shows Throughout Tuscany
This edict, dated February 1, 1780, was promulgated by Domenico Brichieri Colombi, fiscal auditor of the city of Florence, in execution of orders issued by Pietro Leopoldo of Lorraine, Grand Duke of Tuscany (reigned 1765−90). It prohibited public performances by traveling entertainers so as not to give to the people “opportunities to dissipate themselves vainly.” The edict applied to “Charlatans, Cantimbanchi [street singers], Storytellers, Puppeteers, Peddlers, Jugglers, and all those who carry on freak shows, exhibit Machines, Animals, or who sell secrets, and to any other foreigner who goes ...
Map of the New Discoveries in the Eastern Ocean
This Russian map of 1781 depicts parts of eastern Siberia and the northwestern part of the North American continent, including places reached by the Russians Mikhail Gvozdev and Ivan Sind, the English explorer Captain James Cook, and others. In 1732, the expedition led by Gvozdev and the navigator Ivan Fedorov crossed the Bering Strait between Asia and America, discovered the Diomede Islands, and approached Alaska in the vicinity of Cape Prince of Wales. The expedition landed on the shore of the North American mainland, marked on the map as the ...
A Grant of Indian Territory from the Upper Creek Indians as also the Lower Creeks and Seminoles to Colonel Thomas Brown Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Southern District of North America
This document is an enclosure originally submitted by Henry Lee IV to Florida territorial judge Augustus Brevoort Woodward in September 1824. Lee sought Woodward’s assistance in securing claim to property purchased by his father, General Henry Lee, from Thomas Brown in 1817. On March 1, 1783, several “Kings and Warriors” representing Upper Creek, Lower Creek, and Seminole towns affixed their names and family marks to a document granting Thomas Brown, a British superintendent of Indian affairs, substantial territory west of Saint Augustine in what was then British East Florida ...
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen Adopted by the National Assembly during its Sessions on August 20, 21, 25 and 26, 1789, and Approved by the King
On June 17, 1789, the members of Third Estate (those members of the pre-revolutionary French parliament, the Estates-General, who were not from the First Estate, the nobility, or the Second Estate, the clergy) gathered and declared themselves the National Assembly of France. Alarmed at this radical development, King Louis XVI (1754−93) decided to end their deliberations and barred access to the room in Versailles where they had been meeting. Over the next several days, most members of the clergy in the Estates-General and a significant number of the nobility ...
The Moon-Mad Monk, or Crazy Gazing at the Moon
Shown here is an illustrated anthology, in color, published in 1789 by Tsutaya Jūzaburō (1750−1797), a publisher of the Edo period (1600−1868). It contains 72 kyōka (humorous and satirical Japanese poems of 31 syllables) written about the moon and five pictures painted by the ukiyo-e artist Kitagawa Utamaro (circa 1753–1806). The title Kyōgetsubō (The moon-mad monk, or crazy gazing at the moon) means a man driven mad by the moon, but it is said to be a reference to the poet Gyōgetsubō (Reizei Tamemori 1265−1328), who ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
Map of Arabia, the Persian Gulf, and the Red Sea; Including Egypt, Nubia, and Abyssinia
This map of the Arabian Peninsula and surrounding areas was most likely created by the French cartographer and hydrologist Rigobert Bonne (1727−94). It is probably a proof copy of the map of the same title published in his Atlas des toutes les parties connues du globe terrestre (Atlas of all known land surfaces of the globe). The Arabian Peninsula is the main focus of the map, but it also covers much of the Nile Valley on the western shore of the Red Sea. The atlaswas created to serve ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Map of the Empire of Germany: Including All the States Comprehended Under that Name with the Kingdom of Prussia
Produced on the eve of the Industrial and French revolutions, this 1782 map by Louis Delarochette represents the German Empire nearly a century before Otto von Bismarck’s unification of the country. It is part of Thomas Kitchen’s General Atlas, originally created by Louis Stanislas d'Arcy Delarochette and purportedly designed to show the entire universe. Kitchen, whose name was also frequently spelled “Kitchin,” was a London-based cartographer and engraver of maps of England, greater Europe, and parts of the British Empire who was employed as a senior hydrographer ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Essay on Paper, Read in the Public Meeting held by Cercle des Philadelphes, August 15, 1788
In the second half of the 18th century, the French colony of Saint-Domingue emerged as one of the wealthiest territories in the Western hemisphere. Its economy was heavily based on slave labor and the production of sugar. Cap-Français (present-day Cap-Haïten) was the cultural capital of the colony and one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Americas. In August 1785 a group of white residents of the city founded the Cercle des Philadelphes, a society whose aim was to elevate the intellectual and cultural level of their colony. In its ...
Map of the Ocean Showing the Different Routes of the Navigators around the World
Carte de l'Océan où sont tracées les différentes routes des navigateurs au tour du monde (Map of the ocean showing the different routes of the navigators around the world) was made by the French cartographer Jean-Nicolas Buache (1741−1825) to plan and subsequently chart the discoveries made on the voyage around the world of the French explorer Jean-François de Galaup La Pérouse (1741−88). In 1783 the French government decided to send an expedition to the Pacific to complete the work begun by the British explorer James Cook, and ...
Map Containing Part of the Coast of California
This pen-and-ink and watercolor Spanish map of 1787 rather sketchily covers the coast of what are now Oregon, Washington, British Columbia, and southeastern Alaska from the 44th to the 61st parallels. It includes coastline, coastal features, islands, navigational hazards, and pictorial representation of selected coastal mountains. The map was prepared by Bernabé Muñoz under the direction of Pedro Rivelles of the Real Escuela de Navegación, Cadiz, Spain. The Real Escuela de Navegación was a mapping agency that operated within and performed services for the Spanish Royal Navy. Exactly when the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the Terrain on the Left Bank of the James River Across from Jamestown, Virginia, Where a Battle Took Place on July 6, 1781, between the American Army led by the Marquis de La Fayette and the English Army under the Leadership of Lord Cornwallis
This pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map was drawn by Jean Nicolas Desandrouins (1729–92), an engineer with the French army of General Rochambeau during the American Revolution. It shows the layout of the Battle of Green Spring, in southeastern Virginia, on July 6, 1781. This battle came near the end of the war, and involved Continental Army troops under the Marquis de Lafayette and General Anthony Wayne and British troops under General Lord Cornwallis. The battle was a minor victory for the British and the last land battle in Virginia ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of Portsmouth, Virginia
This pen-and-ink manuscript map shows Portsmouth, Virginia, at the time of the American Revolution. Portsmouth served as a primary British post and naval base. On July 4, 1781, British general Charles Cornwallis (1738–1805) left Williamsburg, Virginia in order to cross the James River at Jamestown and reach Portsmouth. Once at Portsmouth, the British army loaded onto transports. Cornwallis and his men then sailed to Yorktown, where their defeat at the Siege of Yorktown would conclude the American Revolution. The map shows forts, bridges, country homes, marshes, a windmill, and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the Fortifications of Portsmouth, Virginia
This 1781 pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map shows the fortifications and houses of Portsmouth, Virginia, at the time of the American Revolution. Portsmouth served as a primary British post and naval base. On July 4, 1781, British general Charles Cornwallis (1738–1805) left Williamsburg, Virginia, in order to cross the James River and reach Portsmouth. Once at Portsmouth, the British army loaded onto transports. Cornwallis and his men then sailed to Yorktown, where the British defeat at the Siege of Yorktown would conclude the American Revolution. The map shows the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Detailed Map of West Point on the York River, at the Confluence of the Pamunkey and Matapony Rivers
This 1781 pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map shows the region around West Point, Virginia, situated at the point where the Pamunkey and Matapony (present-day Mattaponi) Rivers join to form the York River. The map shows soundings and channels in the rivers, as well as ferries, roads, and vegetation. The villages of Bingham, Delaware, and Brackson are shown, along with Brackson’s Plantation, and the Meredy, Smith, Dodleys, and other plantations. The road to Williamsburg is visible in the lower left, running inland from the right bank of the York River ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the Environs of Williamsburg, York, Hampton, and Portsmouth
This pen-and-ink manuscript map of 1781 shows the towns of Williamsburg, York, Hampton, and Portsmouth, Virginia, as well as the surrounding regions of southeastern Virginia. The area shown on the map extends from Cape Henry on the Atlantic Ocean to Williamsburg and south to the Effroyables Marais, the French term for the area known as the Dismal Swamp. The map shows part of the Chesapeake Bay as well as the James and Elizabeth Rivers and the Hampton Roads waterway. It notes towns, roads, rivers, creeks, bridges, mills, and a salt ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Rochambeau’s Army, 1782. Map of the Williamsburg, Virginia Area, Where the French and American Armies Camped out in September 1781
This topographic pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map of the Williamsburg, Virginia, area was made in 1782 by Jean Nicolas Desandrouins, a French army engineer and cartographer, shortly after the October 1781 Battle of Yorktown. It shows the encampments and positions of the French and American forces in September 1781, on the eve of the battle. The map provides a detailed plan of Williamsburg and its environs, and shows the location of estates, towns, and other significant sites. It shows houses and public buildings in Williamsburg, plantations in the countryside, roads ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
City, Port and Harbor of Baltimore, Maryland
Ville, port, et rade de Baltimore (City, port and harbor of Baltimore) is a manuscript map, in pen-and-ink and watercolor, that depicts the harbor and environs of Baltimore, Maryland, towards the end of the Revolutionary War. The map was created by Louis-Alexandre Berthier (1753–1815), a young French officer who accompanied the army of the Comte de Rochambeau to North America in 1780 and served on his general staff. Berthier later became a marshal in the French army and chief of staff to Napoleon. The map shows fortifications, troop encampments ...
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Map of Portsmouth Harbor Drawn by Sight
This pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map made by engineers of the French Army shows the city and harbor of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, as they appeared in the early 1780s. The map shows part of the fleet of Admiral Charles Louis de Ternay, which brought General Rochambeau and 6,000 troops from France to fight with the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War in the United States. The fleet reached Portsmouth on July 10, 1780. The map centers on the Piscataqua River that flows through Portsmouth to the Atlantic Ocean. It ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Portsmouth, New Hampshire
This manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor made by engineers of the French Army shows the city and harbor of Portsmouth, New Hampshire as they appeared in the early 1780s. The map is oriented with north to the right. Relief is represented by hachures and shading. The map indicates three ships from the French fleet of Admiral Charles Louis de Ternay, the Pluton, Auguste, and Bourgogne, anchored to the right of Newcastle Island. The map centers on the Piscataqua River that flows through Portsmouth to the Atlantic Ocean. It charts ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Position of the Combined Army at Philipsburg from July 6 to August 19
This pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map is attributed to cartographer Louis-Alexandre Berthier (1753‒1815), who served with the Marquis de Lafayette (1757–1834) and the Comte de Rochambeau during the American Revolution and who later was one of Napoleon’s marshals. Berthier stayed in America from September 30, 1780 until December 24, 1782 and accompanied the combined French-American army on its march from New England to Yorktown, Virginia and its return march to Boston. This map depicts the Philipsburg, New York camp that the two armies occupied from July 6 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of New York and Surrounding Islands
This hand-drawn map in pen-and-ink and watercolor, probably made in 1781, depicts New York City and its surrounding islands. The map covers the area from Blackwell’s Island in the northeast to Red Hook (in present-day Brooklyn) in the south, and includes a street plan of southern Manhattan. The map includes Fort George, towns such as Bedford on western Long Island, roads, ferries, redoubts, some vegetation, and relief. Islands include Bucking Island, Bedloes or Kennedy Island, and “the Governors Island.” Relief is shown by hachures. Soundings indicate water depth. The ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of New York and its Environs
This manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor, most likely made by a French military cartographer in 1781, shows New York and its environs near the conclusion of the American Revolution. The map extends from Yonkers, New York in the north to Staten Island in the south and from New Rochelle, New York in the east to Totowa, New Jersey in the west. The map identifies roads, fortifications, redoubts, batteries, vegetation, and relief. A legend on the right side of the map is keyed to earthworks, fortifications, and batteries on Manhattan ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Northern Part of New York Island
This manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor was probably created in 1781 by a French military cartographer engaged in reconnaissance work during the final stages of the Revolutionary War in the United States. The map is oriented with north to the right. The British captured New York in September 1776. In the summer of 1781, General George Washington, commander of the Continental Army, considered an attack on New York, but he and the Comte de Rochambeau instead feigned preparations for an attack on the city while stealthily moving their troops ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Reconnaissance, July 1781
This manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor was probably created in 1781 by a French military cartographer engaged in reconnaissance work during the final stages of the American Revolutionary War. The map is oriented with north to the right. The British captured New York in September 1776. In the summer of 1781, General George Washington, commander of the Continental Army, considered an attack on New York, but he and the Comte de Rochambeau instead feigned preparations for an attack on the city while stealthily moving their troops to Yorktown, Virginia ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Reconnaissance, July 1781
This manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor was probably created in 1781 by a French military cartographer engaged in reconnaissance work during the final stages of the American Revolutionary War. The map is oriented with north to the right. The British captured New York in September 1776. In the summer of 1781, General George Washington, commander of the Continental Army, considered an attack on New York, but he and the Comte de Rochambeau instead feigned preparations for an attack on the city while stealthily moving their troops to Yorktown, Virginia ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Environs of New York, Long Island, Etcetera
This manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor was probably created in 1781 by a French military cartographer. The map is oriented with north to the right. The British captured New York in September 1776. In the summer of 1781, General George Washington, commander of the Continental Army, considered an attack on New York, but he and the Comte de Rochambeau instead feigned preparations for an attack on the city while stealthily moving their troops to Yorktown, Virginia. There, the British under General Charles Cornwallis (1738–1805) were forced to surrender ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Reconnaissance of the Fortifications on the Northern Part of New York Island for Which Principal Points Were Geometrically Identified on July 22 and 23
This manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor was created in July 1781 by a French military cartographer engaged in reconnaissance work during the final stages of the American Revolutionary War. The map is oriented with north to the right. The British captured New York in September 1776. In the summer of 1781, General George Washington, commander of the Continental Army, considered an attack on New York, but he and the Comte de Rochambeau instead feigned preparations for an attack on the city while stealthily moving their troops to Yorktown, Virginia ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Position of the American and French Armies in Kings Ferry, Peak's Hill, Crompond and Hunts Tavern from September 17 to October 20, 1782
This pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map of 1782 is attributed to cartographer Louis-Alexandre Berthier (1753‒1815), who served with the Marquis de Lafayette (1757–1834) and the Comte de Rochambeau during the American Revolution and who later was one of Napoleon’s marshals. Berthier stayed in America from September 30, 1780 until December 24, 1782 and accompanied the combined French-American army on its march from New England to Yorktown, Virginia and its return march to Boston. The map depicts the positions of the French and American armies in New York ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the City, Port, and Harbor of Newport, with Part of Rhode Island, Occupied by the French Army under the Command of Monsieur Count de Rochambeau and the French Squadron Commanded by Monsieur le Chevalier Destouches
Plan de la ville, port, et rade de Newport, avec une partie de Rhode-Island occupée par l'armée française aux ordres de Mr. Le comte de Rochambeau, et de l'escadre française commandée par Mr. le Chevalier Destouches (Map of the city, port, and harbor of Newport, with part of Rhode Island, occupied by the French army under the command of Monsieur le comte de Rochambeau and the French squadron commanded by Monsieur le Chevalier Destouches) is a pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map dating from around 1780. The map is ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the City, Port, and Harbor of Newport and Rhode Island. Landing in 1780
Plan de la ville, du port, et de la rade de New-port et Rhode Island. Debarquement en 1780 (Map of the city, port, and harbor of Newport and Rhode Island. Landing in 1780) is a manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor. The map is oriented with north to the right. This was a preliminary draft for other French maps of Newport, Rhode Island. The map shows the defense plan for Newport and its environs during the Revolutionary War. It highlights General Rochambeau’s main troop encampments around the city as ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the Position of the French Army around Newport and the Squadron Moored in the Harbor of this City
Plan de la position de l'armée françoise autour de Newport et du mouillage de l'escadre dans la rade de cette ville (Map of the position of the French Army around Newport and the squadron moored in the harbor of this city) is a manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor of Newport, Rhode Island, during the Revolutionary War. The map is oriented with north to the upper left. It includes very detailed information on streets and buildings in Newport. It shows the defense plan for the city and its ...
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Four Positions of the French Fleet and the Positions of the English Fleet
This pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map dates from 1780. It shows the positions and movements of French and English ships-of-war during an unnamed naval battle off the coast of Rhode Island during the Revolutionary War. The French vessels are listed by name and associated number on the map; the English vessels are only noted by a generic x. The French ships were part of the fleet commanded by Admiral Charles Louis de Ternay that conveyed the French expeditionary army led by General Rochambeau to North America. Ternay’s fleet departed ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
March of the French Army from Providence to the North (Hudson) River
Marche de l'armée française de Providence à la Rivière du Nord (March of the French Army from Providence to the North [Hudson] River) is a manuscript map in black and red pen-and-ink and watercolor, dating from 1781. The map is accompanied by a manuscript text on the itinerary of the march (not shown here). The two documents contain the plan for the movement of French Army troops from Providence, Rhode Island, to the Hudson River. Roads, towns, villages, rivers, creeks, ferry crossings, and troop symbols are listed prominently. Relief ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of York, Virginia Showing the Attacks by the French and American Armies in October 1781
This pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map shows the movements of the French and American armies in the vicinity of York, Virginia, in October 1781, during the Battle of Yorktown. The map is by Querenet de la Combe, a cartographer and lieutenant colonel of engineers with the army of the French commander, General Rochambeau. York (more commonly known as Yorktown after the Revolutionary War) was founded in 1691 and became a major port for the export of tobacco. The map shows British defenses at Yorktown, as well as the parallel formations ...
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Map of the Fortifications of Yorktown, Virginia
This pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map shows an unfinished plan for the Siege of Yorktown in September‒October 1781. York (more commonly known as Yorktown after the Revolutionary War) was founded in 1691 and became a major port for the export of tobacco. The map shows the British defenses, advance redoubts, and roads leading into the town. It is oriented with north to the upper left. Relief is shown by hachures, and scale is approximately 1:5,000. The map has imperfections, including trimming on the upper and right edges ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Notes on the Environs of York
This pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map of 1781 shows the area from Williamsburg to Yorktown, between the James and York Rivers, at the time of the Battle of Yorktown, which took place in September‒October of that year. Williamsburg was founded in 1632, and it was the capital of colonial Virginia from 1699 until 1780. York (more commonly known as Yorktown after the Revolutionary War) was founded in 1691 and became a major port for the export of tobacco. The map shows roads, houses, hospitals, and a church, and it ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Notes on the Environs of York. Map Provided by Local Land Surveyors
This pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map is a draft containing information provided by local land surveyors that was used by a French military cartographer to create a finished map. It shows the area from Williamsburg to Yorktown, Virginia, between the James and York Rivers, where the Battle of Yorktown was fought in September‒October 1781. Williamsburg was founded in 1632, and was the capital of colonial Virginia from 1699 until 1780. York (more commonly known as Yorktown after the Revolutionary War) was founded in 1691 and became a major port ...
Contributed by Library of Congress