51 results in English
Topographical Notes on Notable Places Visited by Her Imperial Majesty in Belarusian Vicegerencies
This book, published in Saint Petersburg in 1780 by the Russian Imperial Academy of Science, is about the history of and conditions in the eastern Belarusian lands visited by the Empress Catherine (the Great) in May of that year. The work includes detailed information about localities in the Polotsk and Mogil'ov territory (namestnichestva), including the population and descriptions of castles, palaces, churches, and monasteries. Descriptions of places in Belarus start on page 38. The book also contains information about places along the route from Saint Petersburg to Belarus, such ...
Edict Prohibiting Traveling Shows Throughout Tuscany
This edict, dated February 1, 1780, was promulgated by Domenico Brichieri Colombi, fiscal auditor of the city of Florence, in execution of orders issued by Pietro Leopoldo of Lorraine, Grand Duke of Tuscany (reigned 1765−90). It prohibited public performances by traveling entertainers so as not to give to the people “opportunities to dissipate themselves vainly.” The edict applied to “Charlatans, Cantimbanchi [street singers], Storytellers, Puppeteers, Peddlers, Jugglers, and all those who carry on freak shows, exhibit Machines, Animals, or who sell secrets, and to any other foreigner who goes ...
Map of the New Discoveries in the Eastern Ocean
This Russian map of 1781 depicts parts of eastern Siberia and the northwestern part of the North American continent, including places reached by the Russians Mikhail Gvozdev and Ivan Sind, the English explorer Captain James Cook, and others. In 1732, the expedition led by Gvozdev and the navigator Ivan Fedorov crossed the Bering Strait between Asia and America, discovered the Diomede Islands, and approached Alaska in the vicinity of Cape Prince of Wales. The expedition landed on the shore of the North American mainland, marked on the map as the ...
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Tobias Conrad Lotter (1717-77) was a publisher of maps in Augsburg, Germany. He inherited the family mapmaking business from his father-in-law, Matthias Seutter. Lotter published atlases and numerous sheet maps, including this 1770 Latin map of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. At the height of its power in the 14th-16th centuries, the Grand Duchy comprised the territories of present-day Lithuania, Belarus, and western Ukraine. In the late 16th century, Lithuania came under the increasing influence of Poland. In 1569 the two countries united to form the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. As shown ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of Arabia, the Persian Gulf, and the Red Sea; Including Egypt, Nubia, and Abyssinia
This map of the Arabian Peninsula and surrounding areas was most likely created by the French cartographer and hydrologist Rigobert Bonne (1727−94). It is probably a proof copy of the map of the same title published in his Atlas des toutes les parties connues du globe terrestre (Atlas of all known land surfaces of the globe). The Arabian Peninsula is the main focus of the map, but it also covers much of the Nile Valley on the western shore of the Red Sea. The atlaswas created to serve ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Robinson the Younger. For the Pleasurable and Useful Entertainment of Children
In 1720, just a year after its original publication in London, the first German translation of Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe was published. The work soon became widely popular. Only a few years later, German “robinsonades,” imitation versions of Defoe’s novel of shipwreck and survival, appeared on the market. The theologian, educator, and writer Joachim Heinrich Campe produced a two-volume adaptation of Defoe’s original book entitled Robinson der Jüngere (Robinson the younger). The book, published in 1779 (volume one) and 1780 (volume two), was aimed at children between ...
Map of the Terrain on the Left Bank of the James River Across from Jamestown, Virginia, Where a Battle Took Place on July 6, 1781, between the American Army led by the Marquis de La Fayette and the English Army under the Leadership of Lord Cornwallis
This pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map was drawn by Jean Nicolas Desandrouins (1729–92), an engineer with the French army of General Rochambeau during the American Revolution. It shows the layout of the Battle of Green Spring, in southeastern Virginia, on July 6, 1781. This battle came near the end of the war, and involved Continental Army troops under the Marquis de Lafayette and General Anthony Wayne and British troops under General Lord Cornwallis. The battle was a minor victory for the British and the last land battle in Virginia ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of Portsmouth, Virginia
This pen-and-ink manuscript map shows Portsmouth, Virginia, at the time of the American Revolution. Portsmouth served as a primary British post and naval base. On July 4, 1781, British general Charles Cornwallis (1738–1805) left Williamsburg, Virginia in order to cross the James River at Jamestown and reach Portsmouth. Once at Portsmouth, the British army loaded onto transports. Cornwallis and his men then sailed to Yorktown, where their defeat at the Siege of Yorktown would conclude the American Revolution. The map shows forts, bridges, country homes, marshes, a windmill, and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the Fortifications of Portsmouth, Virginia
This 1781 pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map shows the fortifications and houses of Portsmouth, Virginia, at the time of the American Revolution. Portsmouth served as a primary British post and naval base. On July 4, 1781, British general Charles Cornwallis (1738–1805) left Williamsburg, Virginia, in order to cross the James River and reach Portsmouth. Once at Portsmouth, the British army loaded onto transports. Cornwallis and his men then sailed to Yorktown, where the British defeat at the Siege of Yorktown would conclude the American Revolution. The map shows the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Detailed Map of West Point on the York River, at the Confluence of the Pamunkey and Matapony Rivers
This 1781 pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map shows the region around West Point, Virginia, situated at the point where the Pamunkey and Matapony (present-day Mattaponi) Rivers join to form the York River. The map shows soundings and channels in the rivers, as well as ferries, roads, and vegetation. The villages of Bingham, Delaware, and Brackson are shown, along with Brackson’s Plantation, and the Meredy, Smith, Dodleys, and other plantations. The road to Williamsburg is visible in the lower left, running inland from the right bank of the York River ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the Environs of Williamsburg, York, Hampton, and Portsmouth
This pen-and-ink manuscript map of 1781 shows the towns of Williamsburg, York, Hampton, and Portsmouth, Virginia, as well as the surrounding regions of southeastern Virginia. The area shown on the map extends from Cape Henry on the Atlantic Ocean to Williamsburg and south to the Effroyables Marais, the French term for the area known as the Dismal Swamp. The map shows part of the Chesapeake Bay as well as the James and Elizabeth Rivers and the Hampton Roads waterway. It notes towns, roads, rivers, creeks, bridges, mills, and a salt ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Rochambeau’s Army, 1782. Map of the Williamsburg, Virginia Area, Where the French and American Armies Camped out in September 1781
This topographic pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map of the Williamsburg, Virginia, area was made in 1782 by Jean Nicolas Desandrouins, a French army engineer and cartographer, shortly after the October 1781 Battle of Yorktown. It shows the encampments and positions of the French and American forces in September 1781, on the eve of the battle. The map provides a detailed plan of Williamsburg and its environs, and shows the location of estates, towns, and other significant sites. It shows houses and public buildings in Williamsburg, plantations in the countryside, roads ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
This Map of the Peninsula between Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, with the Said Bays and Shores Adjacent Drawn from the Most Accurate Surveys
John Churchman (1753–1805), a Quaker surveyor and cartographer from Nottingham, Pennsylvania, produced this hand-colored map for the American Philosophical Society in order to support the proposed construction of a canal between the Delaware and Chesapeake bays. The mapped area covers the Delmarva Peninsula, Chesapeake Bay, and Delaware Bay. It presents in particular detail the anchorages and navigational hazards along the shoals and sandbanks of the Chesapeake and Delaware waters. Churchman shows counties, towns and cities, roads, industries, rivers, swamps, ferries, and the Cape Henlopen lighthouse. This map was one ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
City, Port and Harbor of Baltimore, Maryland
Ville, port, et rade de Baltimore (City, port and harbor of Baltimore) is a manuscript map, in pen-and-ink and watercolor, that depicts the harbor and environs of Baltimore, Maryland, towards the end of the Revolutionary War. The map was created by Louis-Alexandre Berthier (1753–1815), a young French officer who accompanied the army of the Comte de Rochambeau to North America in 1780 and served on his general staff. Berthier later became a marshal in the French army and chief of staff to Napoleon. The map shows fortifications, troop encampments ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Partial Map of Boston Harbor to Show its Defenses
Plan d’une partie de la rade de Boston (Partial map of Boston Harbor) is a manuscript map, in pen-and-ink and watercolor, dating from 1778, the third year of the American Revolution. It depicts Boston Harbor from Castle William Island to Point Alderton. The map shows the position of the French fleet under Admiral Comte d’Estaing in Boston Harbor, where the French ships had gone for repairs after an inconclusive engagement off the coast of Rhode Island with the British fleet under Admiral John Byron. It also highlights French ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Position of the Combined Army at Philipsburg from July 6 to August 19
This pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map is attributed to cartographer Louis-Alexandre Berthier (1753‒1815), who served with the Marquis de Lafayette (1757–1834) and the Comte de Rochambeau during the American Revolution and who later was one of Napoleon’s marshals. Berthier stayed in America from September 30, 1780 until December 24, 1782 and accompanied the combined French-American army on its march from New England to Yorktown, Virginia and its return march to Boston. This map depicts the Philipsburg, New York camp that the two armies occupied from July 6 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of New York and Surrounding Islands
This hand-drawn map in pen-and-ink and watercolor, probably made in 1781, depicts New York City and its surrounding islands. The map covers the area from Blackwell’s Island in the northeast to Red Hook (in present-day Brooklyn) in the south, and includes a street plan of southern Manhattan. The map includes Fort George, towns such as Bedford on western Long Island, roads, ferries, redoubts, some vegetation, and relief. Islands include Bucking Island, Bedloes or Kennedy Island, and “the Governors Island.” Relief is shown by hachures. Soundings indicate water depth. The ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of New York and its Environs
This manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor, most likely made by a French military cartographer in 1781, shows New York and its environs near the conclusion of the American Revolution. The map extends from Yonkers, New York in the north to Staten Island in the south and from New Rochelle, New York in the east to Totowa, New Jersey in the west. The map identifies roads, fortifications, redoubts, batteries, vegetation, and relief. A legend on the right side of the map is keyed to earthworks, fortifications, and batteries on Manhattan ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Northern Part of New York Island
This manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor was probably created in 1781 by a French military cartographer engaged in reconnaissance work during the final stages of the Revolutionary War in the United States. The map is oriented with north to the right. The British captured New York in September 1776. In the summer of 1781, General George Washington, commander of the Continental Army, considered an attack on New York, but he and the Comte de Rochambeau instead feigned preparations for an attack on the city while stealthily moving their troops ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Reconnaissance, July 1781
This manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor was probably created in 1781 by a French military cartographer engaged in reconnaissance work during the final stages of the American Revolutionary War. The map is oriented with north to the right. The British captured New York in September 1776. In the summer of 1781, General George Washington, commander of the Continental Army, considered an attack on New York, but he and the Comte de Rochambeau instead feigned preparations for an attack on the city while stealthily moving their troops to Yorktown, Virginia ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Reconnaissance, July 1781
This manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor was probably created in 1781 by a French military cartographer engaged in reconnaissance work during the final stages of the American Revolutionary War. The map is oriented with north to the right. The British captured New York in September 1776. In the summer of 1781, General George Washington, commander of the Continental Army, considered an attack on New York, but he and the Comte de Rochambeau instead feigned preparations for an attack on the city while stealthily moving their troops to Yorktown, Virginia ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Environs of New York, Long Island, Etcetera
This manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor was probably created in 1781 by a French military cartographer. The map is oriented with north to the right. The British captured New York in September 1776. In the summer of 1781, General George Washington, commander of the Continental Army, considered an attack on New York, but he and the Comte de Rochambeau instead feigned preparations for an attack on the city while stealthily moving their troops to Yorktown, Virginia. There, the British under General Charles Cornwallis (1738–1805) were forced to surrender ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Reconnaissance of the Fortifications on the Northern Part of New York Island for Which Principal Points Were Geometrically Identified on July 22 and 23
This manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor was created in July 1781 by a French military cartographer engaged in reconnaissance work during the final stages of the American Revolutionary War. The map is oriented with north to the right. The British captured New York in September 1776. In the summer of 1781, General George Washington, commander of the Continental Army, considered an attack on New York, but he and the Comte de Rochambeau instead feigned preparations for an attack on the city while stealthily moving their troops to Yorktown, Virginia ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of Rhode Island and the Position of the French Army in Newport
Plan de Rhodes-Island, et position de l'armée françoise a Newport (Map of Rhode Island and the position of the French Army in Newport) is a manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor dating from 1780. The map is oriented with north to the right. It shows the plan of defense for Newport, Rhode Island, and its environs during the Revolutionary War. It highlights General Rochambeau’s main troop encampments around Newport as well as the position of the fleet of Admiral Charles Louis de Ternay at the entrance to Newport ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the City, Port, and Harbor of Newport, with Part of Rhode Island, Occupied by the French Army under the Command of Monsieur Count de Rochambeau and the French Squadron Commanded by Monsieur le Chevalier Destouches
Plan de la ville, port, et rade de Newport, avec une partie de Rhode-Island occupée par l'armée française aux ordres de Mr. Le comte de Rochambeau, et de l'escadre française commandée par Mr. le Chevalier Destouches (Map of the city, port, and harbor of Newport, with part of Rhode Island, occupied by the French army under the command of Monsieur le comte de Rochambeau and the French squadron commanded by Monsieur le Chevalier Destouches) is a pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map dating from around 1780. The map is ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the City, Port, and Harbor of Newport and Rhode Island. Landing in 1780
Plan de la ville, du port, et de la rade de New-port et Rhode Island. Debarquement en 1780 (Map of the city, port, and harbor of Newport and Rhode Island. Landing in 1780) is a manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor. The map is oriented with north to the right. This was a preliminary draft for other French maps of Newport, Rhode Island. The map shows the defense plan for Newport and its environs during the Revolutionary War. It highlights General Rochambeau’s main troop encampments around the city as ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the Position of the French Army around Newport and the Squadron Moored in the Harbor of this City
Plan de la position de l'armée françoise autour de Newport et du mouillage de l'escadre dans la rade de cette ville (Map of the position of the French Army around Newport and the squadron moored in the harbor of this city) is a manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor of Newport, Rhode Island, during the Revolutionary War. The map is oriented with north to the upper left. It includes very detailed information on streets and buildings in Newport. It shows the defense plan for the city and its ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Four Positions of the French Fleet and the Positions of the English Fleet
This pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map dates from 1780. It shows the positions and movements of French and English ships-of-war during an unnamed naval battle off the coast of Rhode Island during the Revolutionary War. The French vessels are listed by name and associated number on the map; the English vessels are only noted by a generic x. The French ships were part of the fleet commanded by Admiral Charles Louis de Ternay that conveyed the French expeditionary army led by General Rochambeau to North America. Ternay’s fleet departed ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
March of the French Army from Providence to the North (Hudson) River
Marche de l'armée française de Providence à la Rivière du Nord (March of the French Army from Providence to the North [Hudson] River) is a manuscript map in black and red pen-and-ink and watercolor, dating from 1781. The map is accompanied by a manuscript text on the itinerary of the march (not shown here). The two documents contain the plan for the movement of French Army troops from Providence, Rhode Island, to the Hudson River. Roads, towns, villages, rivers, creeks, ferry crossings, and troop symbols are listed prominently. Relief ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of York, Virginia Showing the Attacks by the French and American Armies in October 1781
This pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map shows the movements of the French and American armies in the vicinity of York, Virginia, in October 1781, during the Battle of Yorktown. The map is by Querenet de la Combe, a cartographer and lieutenant colonel of engineers with the army of the French commander, General Rochambeau. York (more commonly known as Yorktown after the Revolutionary War) was founded in 1691 and became a major port for the export of tobacco. The map shows British defenses at Yorktown, as well as the parallel formations ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the Fortifications of Yorktown, Virginia
This pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map shows an unfinished plan for the Siege of Yorktown in September‒October 1781. York (more commonly known as Yorktown after the Revolutionary War) was founded in 1691 and became a major port for the export of tobacco. The map shows the British defenses, advance redoubts, and roads leading into the town. It is oriented with north to the upper left. Relief is shown by hachures, and scale is approximately 1:5,000. The map has imperfections, including trimming on the upper and right edges ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Notes on the Environs of York
This pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map of 1781 shows the area from Williamsburg to Yorktown, between the James and York Rivers, at the time of the Battle of Yorktown, which took place in September‒October of that year. Williamsburg was founded in 1632, and it was the capital of colonial Virginia from 1699 until 1780. York (more commonly known as Yorktown after the Revolutionary War) was founded in 1691 and became a major port for the export of tobacco. The map shows roads, houses, hospitals, and a church, and it ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Notes on the Environs of York. Map Provided by Local Land Surveyors
This pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map is a draft containing information provided by local land surveyors that was used by a French military cartographer to create a finished map. It shows the area from Williamsburg to Yorktown, Virginia, between the James and York Rivers, where the Battle of Yorktown was fought in September‒October 1781. Williamsburg was founded in 1632, and was the capital of colonial Virginia from 1699 until 1780. York (more commonly known as Yorktown after the Revolutionary War) was founded in 1691 and became a major port ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Coastline from Yorktown to Boston. Advances by the Army
Côte de York-town à Boston (Coastline from Yorktown to Boston) is a manuscript map, in pen-and-ink and watercolor, created in 1782, during the American Revolutionary War. The map is oriented with north toward the upper right. It shows the route marched by the army of the Comte de Rochambeau from Providence, Rhode Island, to Yorktown, Virginia, as well as the return route and troop encampments on the way to Boston. The initial march south, from June 10 to September 30, 1781, is shown by the yellow line from Providence to ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Various Encampments of the Army from Yorktown to Boston
Differents camps de l’armée de York-town à Boston (Various encampments of the army from Yorktown to Boston) is a manuscript map, in pen-and-ink and watercolor. It was created in 1787 by French cartographer François Soulés (1748–1809), based on an earlier version from 1782. The map is oriented with north toward the upper right. It shows the route marched during the American Revolutionary War by the army of the Comte de Rochambeau from Providence, Rhode Island, to Yorktown, Virginia, as well as the return route and troop encampments. The ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Articles of Confederation
On June 11, 1776, the Second Continental Congress appointed three committees in response to the Lee Resolution proposing independence for the American colonies. One of these committees, created to determine the form of a confederation of the colonies, was composed of one representative from each colony. John Dickinson, the delegate from Delaware, was the principal writer. Dickinson’s draft of the Articles of Confederation named the new country "the United States of America." It also provided for a Congress with representation based on population, and gave to the national government ...
Britain Infantry Uniform Sketch (Rutland Militia?)
This sketch is the 14th of 15 original unsigned pencil and ink drawings attributed to Philip James de Loutherbourg (1740-1812). De Loutherbourg, an English artist of French descent, painted many large scenes of English naval victories, including The Defeat of the Spanish Armada. This sketch includes drawings of a uniformed infantryman with a rifle, a head with a cap, and notes on uniform coloring. The uniform may be that of the Rutland Militia, a British regiment founded in 1759. De Loutherbourg sketched these soldiers during mock battles held at Warley ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Cathedral Bell Tower (1767-78), East View, Kargopol', Russia
This northeast view of the cathedral bell tower in Kargopol' (Arkhangel'sk Oblast) was taken in 1998 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Kargopol' is one of the oldest settlements in the Russian north, founded perhaps in the 12th, or even the 11th, century. Its location near Lake Lacha and the origins of the Onega River (which flows into the White Sea) enabled Kargopol' to benefit from trade in salt, fish, and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Church of St. Varlaam Khutinsky (1780), West View, Vologda, Russia
This west view of the Church of Saint Varlaam Khutinskii in Vologda was taken in 1998 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Before the founding of Saint Petersburg in 1703, Russia depended on a northern route through the White Sea for trade with western Europe. One of the most important centers on this route was Vologda, founded in the 12th century. A rich center of medieval Russian culture, Vologda has numerous churches ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Panorama, with Left Bank of Mologa River and Church of the Intercession (1780), Ustiuzhna, Russia
This northeast view toward the left (north) bank of the Mologa River at Ustiuzhna (Vologda Oblast) was taken in 2001 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. At 456 kilometers in length, the Mologa originates in Tver’ Oblast and flows through eastern Novgorod Oblast before entering Vologda Oblast, where it eventually empties into the Rybinsk Reservoir--a component of the Volga River. The Ustiuzhna settlement was known already in the mid-13th century for its ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Church of the Intercession (1780), Southwest View, Ustiuzhna, Russia
This southwest view of the Church of the Nativity of Christ in Ustiuzhna (Vologda Oblast) was taken in 2001 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Located on the Mologa River (a tributary of the Volga River), Ustiuzhna was known already in the mid-13th century for its rich deposits of iron ore. It rapidly became one of the earliest Russian centers of metalworking and achieved special prominence in the 16th century. The town ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the Attack and the Taking of the Island of Grenada on July 3, 1779
The islands of Grenada, Dominica, St. Vincent, the Grenadines, and Tobago were ceded by France to Britain following the close of the Seven Years' War (1756-63). France temporarily recaptured these islands in the late 1770s during the period of the U.S. Revolutionary War, a conflict that had hemispheric implications. This elegant, well-executed French military map of the vicinity of St. George's and the harbor depicts the July 1779 French attack on British-held Grenada. The map includes coastline, coastal features, anchorages, a grid of St. George's, other settlements ...
Contributed by Library of Congress