31 results in English
Declaration of Independence. In Congress, July 4, 1776, a Declaration by the Representatives of the United States of America, in General Congress Assembled.
This document is the first printed version of the American Declaration of Independence. On June 7, 1776, Richard Henry Lee of Virginia introduced a resolution urging Congress, meeting in Philadelphia, to declare independence from Great Britain. Four days later, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, and Robert R. Livingston were appointed as a committee to draft a declaration of independence. The committee’s draft was read in Congress on June 28. On July 4, Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence, containing a list of grievances against the British ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Album of Appreciation of the Fragrance of Spring
Takuhanga is a printing technique in which a cloth-covered cotton ball containing black ink is patted on wet paper placed on an intaglio-engraved woodblock. The technique derives from takuhon, the art of rubbing found in Chinese copybooks printed from the works of old masters of calligraphy. This late-18th-century takuhangaalbum includes poems in the Chinese style celebrating the spring scenery of Kyoto written by learned men from the city who were students of Chinese literature, including Iwagaki Ryūkei (1741−1808). The drawings are by prominent Kyoto artists from the time ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Tobias Conrad Lotter (1717-77) was a publisher of maps in Augsburg, Germany. He inherited the family mapmaking business from his father-in-law, Matthias Seutter. Lotter published atlases and numerous sheet maps, including this 1770 Latin map of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. At the height of its power in the 14th-16th centuries, the Grand Duchy comprised the territories of present-day Lithuania, Belarus, and western Ukraine. In the late 16th century, Lithuania came under the increasing influence of Poland. In 1569 the two countries united to form the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. As shown ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
This Map of the Peninsula between Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, with the Said Bays and Shores Adjacent Drawn from the Most Accurate Surveys
John Churchman (1753–1805), a Quaker surveyor and cartographer from Nottingham, Pennsylvania, produced this hand-colored map for the American Philosophical Society in order to support the proposed construction of a canal between the Delaware and Chesapeake bays. The mapped area covers the Delmarva Peninsula, Chesapeake Bay, and Delaware Bay. It presents in particular detail the anchorages and navigational hazards along the shoals and sandbanks of the Chesapeake and Delaware waters. Churchman shows counties, towns and cities, roads, industries, rivers, swamps, ferries, and the Cape Henlopen lighthouse. This map was one ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Partial Map of Boston Harbor to Show its Defenses
Plan d’une partie de la rade de Boston (Partial map of Boston Harbor) is a manuscript map, in pen-and-ink and watercolor, dating from 1778, the third year of the American Revolution. It depicts Boston Harbor from Castle William Island to Point Alderton. The map shows the position of the French fleet under Admiral Comte d’Estaing in Boston Harbor, where the French ships had gone for repairs after an inconclusive engagement off the coast of Rhode Island with the British fleet under Admiral John Byron. It also highlights French ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of Amboy. Views of the Charleston and Fort Sullivan Harbors
The map presented here shows the city and harbor of Charleston, South Carolina, at the time of the first British siege of Charleston and attack on Fort Sullivan in June 1776. This was the earliest British attempt to capture Charleston during the Revolutionary War, by which General Henry Clinton and Admiral Sir Peter Parker sought to put down the rebellion in the southern colonies. Above the map of Charleston is a view of Fort Sullivan, where William Moultrie, a colonel in the state militia of South Carolina, repulsed a British ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Campaign of 1776
This map from around 1780 shows the fighting in New York and New Jersey in 1776, the first full year of the American Revolutionary War. The inset in the upper left shows the campaign in and around Philadelphia in the following year. The main map shows the site of the British landings on Staten Island in preparation for the New York campaign; troop movements and the sites of battles on Long Island, in Westchester County, and on Manhattan Island; and towns and roads in southeastern New York and eastern New ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Attack on the Continental Army on Long Island on August 27, 1776. Drawing of New York Island and Adjacent Areas
Attaque de l'armée des provinciaux dans Long Island du 27. aoust 1776 (Attack on the Continental Army on Long Island on August 27, 1776) shows the American and British positions in the Battle of Long Island (the Battle of Brooklyn Heights) on August 27, 1776. The map is hand-colored and is watermarked. Relief is shown by hachures. This was the first major battle in the Revolutionary War after the issuing of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776, as well as the largest engagement of the entire war ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Philadelphia, by Easburn, Surveyor General of Pennsylvania
The map presented here shows Philadelphia in around 1776. The city was at that time the meeting place of the Continental Congress, making it the capital of the new American republic. The map was printed in Paris in 1777 by George-Louis Le Rouge (born 1712), royal geographer to King Louis XV, based on a map by Benjamin Easburn, surveyor general of Pennsylvania. It is oriented with north toward the right, and indexed for local points of interest. This map shows wharves, streets, houses, parks, cemeteries, ferries, and forts as well ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Sketch of the Engagement at Trenton, Given on the 26th of December 1776
This hand-colored map was submitted by Lieutenant Andreas Wiederholdt (circa 1752–circa 1805) as a part of his testimony at the Hessian Court of Inquiry on the Battle of Trenton, held in Philadelphia in April and May 1778. The map is an invaluable source of information about the battle, which took place on December 26, 1776. General George Washington and the Continental Army won a significant victory immediately after Washington’s famous crossing of the Delaware River. The Hessians were German auxiliaries of the British in the American Revolutionary War ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Journal of Captain Cook's Last Voyage to the Pacific Ocean, and in Quest of a North-West Passage Between Asia & America, Performed in the Years 1776, 1777, 1778, and 1779
The American explorer and adventurer John Ledyard was born in Groton, Connecticut, in 1751. After studying briefly at Dartmouth College, he went to sea as a common sailor. He was forced to join the British Navy, and from June 1776 to October 1780 was a marine on Captain James Cook’s third voyage to the Pacific. This book recounts his observations of Alaska, Kamchatka, southern China, and the islands of the South Pacific. Ledyard later conceived of a plan to cross Russia, continue across the Bering Strait to Alaska, and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Plan of the Rosalij Compy. Estates, the Property of His Excelly. Charles O'Harra, the Honble. Leiut. Gov. Will. Stuart, James Clarke & Rob. & Phill.
France and Britain vied for control of Dominica for many years. In 1763, the British gained possession of the island. This detailed map shows British-owned estates and a plantation on the Atlantic side of the island. Details on the map include individual buildings and structures, roads, sections of the plantation identified by number, administrative divisions of the estates identified by letters, streams, pictorial representations of vegetation and relief, the coastline and coastal features, and a vignette of ships in the harbor. The map also includes a keyed legend listing the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Engrossed Declaration of Independence
On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence, in which the American colonies set forth a list of grievances against the British Crown and declared that they were breaking from British rule to form free and independent states. On July 19, 1776, Congress resolved that the Declaration passed on the 4th be "fairly engrossed on parchment with the title and stile [sic]: 'The unanimous declaration of the thirteen United States of America'...and that the same, when engrossed, be signed by every member of Congress ...
Dunlap Broadside [Declaration of Independence]
John Dunlap, official printer to the Continental Congress, produced the first printed versions of the American Declaration of Independence in his Philadelphia shop on the night of July 4, 1776. After the Declaration had been adopted by the Congress earlier that day, a committee took the manuscript document, possibly Thomas Jefferson's "fair copy" of his rough draft, to Dunlap for printing. On the morning of July 5, copies were dispatched by members of Congress to various assemblies, conventions, and committees of safety as well as to the commanders of ...
Britain Infantry Uniform Sketch (Rutland Militia?)
This sketch is the 14th of 15 original unsigned pencil and ink drawings attributed to Philip James de Loutherbourg (1740-1812). De Loutherbourg, an English artist of French descent, painted many large scenes of English naval victories, including The Defeat of the Spanish Armada. This sketch includes drawings of a uniformed infantryman with a rifle, a head with a cap, and notes on uniform coloring. The uniform may be that of the Rutland Militia, a British regiment founded in 1759. De Loutherbourg sketched these soldiers during mock battles held at Warley ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Cathedral Bell Tower (1767-78), East View, Kargopol', Russia
This northeast view of the cathedral bell tower in Kargopol' (Arkhangel'sk Oblast) was taken in 1998 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Kargopol' is one of the oldest settlements in the Russian north, founded perhaps in the 12th, or even the 11th, century. Its location near Lake Lacha and the origins of the Onega River (which flows into the White Sea) enabled Kargopol' to benefit from trade in salt, fish, and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the Attack and the Taking of the Island of Grenada on July 3, 1779
The islands of Grenada, Dominica, St. Vincent, the Grenadines, and Tobago were ceded by France to Britain following the close of the Seven Years' War (1756-63). France temporarily recaptured these islands in the late 1770s during the period of the U.S. Revolutionary War, a conflict that had hemispheric implications. This elegant, well-executed French military map of the vicinity of St. George's and the harbor depicts the July 1779 French attack on British-held Grenada. The map includes coastline, coastal features, anchorages, a grid of St. George's, other settlements ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Guide to Geometry, Surveying, the Launching of Missiles, and the Planting of Mines
This work, primarily intended for the training of military men, is a translation from a number of sources originally written in German and French. It was presented to the Bureau of Warfare and Jihād (Dār al-naṣr wa al-jihād) in Muḥarram, AH 1193 (early winter, 1779), or nearly two decades before Napoleon’s invasion of Egypt in 1798. The work’s compiler, ʻUthman ibn ʻAbd al-Mannān, a translator at the Ottoman court in Belgrade, had converted to Islam from Christianity. The title of the work hints at his sincere effort to ...
The Present State of the West-Indies: Containing an Accurate Description of What Parts Are Possessed by the Several Powers in Europe
This book, published in London in 1778, is a succinct compilation of information about the West Indies, containing, as indicated by the lengthy subtitle, “an authentick account of the first discoverers of those islands, and the parts adjacent, their situation, extent, boundaries, soil, product, trade, commerce, inhabitants, strength, government, and religion: also their principal bays and harbours, the materials for which were collected on the spot during the last war by some of the officers of his Majesty's forces, and diligently compared with all authentick narrators.” Even though the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Extract of the Dutch Map Representing the Colony of Surinam
This late-18th century French map based on Dutch sources shows a portion of northern Suriname, extending from the Suriname River and Paramaribo on the west to the Maroni River and French Guiana on the east. It includes coastline, coastal features, rivers and streams, the town of Paramaribo, a Jewish settlement ("Bourg nommé des Juifs"), fortifications, individual land holdings, and a defensive line extending almost 100 kilometers from the Atlantic Coast to the Bourg des Juifs on the Suriname River. The primary purpose of the map is to show the defensive ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Olney Hymns: In Three Books
Olney Hymns was compiled by John Newton, the author of "Amazing Grace" and rector of a parish in Olney, England, and William Cowper, a poet and close friend of Newton. The book contained the first printing of "Amazing Grace," which is numbered "Hymn 41" and begins at the bottom of page 53. The profits from the hymnal went to the benefit of Olney's poor. Olney Hymns later was published in New York in 1790 and in Philadelphia in 1791. In his preface to the book, Newton argued that hymns ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Chart of the NW Coast of America and Part of the NE of Asia with the Track of his Majesty's Sloops 'Resolution' and 'Discovery' from May to October 1778
George Vancouver (1757–98), who became a noted explorer and surveyor of the Pacific Northwest, joined the Royal Navy at the age of 13 and was a midshipman on H.M.S. Discovery during Captain James Cook’s ill-fated third voyage of 1778–80. This may be one of Vancouver’s first charts. The purpose for which the chart was made is not known. Such charts may have been drafted by the midshipmen as an exercise, part of a running survey conducted under the guidance of ships’ masters and captains ...
The Victory of Khorgos
The “Battle Copper Prints” are a series of prints from copper engravings dating from the second half of the 18th century. They were commissioned by the Qianlong emperor of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911), who ruled from 1735 to 1796. They depict his military campaigns in China’s inner provinces and along the country’s frontiers. The master illustrations for the engravings were large paintings done by European missionary artists employed at that time at the court in Beijing. These artists were Italian Jesuit Giuseppe Castiglione (1688–1766), French Jesuit ...
Map of the District of Villa Rica
This map showing the district of Villa Rica in Brazil’s Minas Gerais state is the work of José Joaquim da Rocha (1737?-1807). Rocha was a Brazilian military engineer, painter, and cartographer who contributed works to many important churches and monasteries around Salvador and Minas Gerais. His map shows details of individual comarcas (judicial districts) and parochial districts, and an illustration of an Indian. Rocha was accused of participation in the Minas Conspiracy (Inconfidência Mineira) of 1789, a movement seeking independence from Portugal, and of involvement with its leader ...
A Guide to Geometry, Surveying, the Launching of Missiles, and the Planting of Mines
Hadiyat Al-Muhtadi fil Al-Handassa (A guide to geometry, surveying, the launching of missiles, and the planting of mines) is a technical manual on geometry and surveying, as well as on the motion of projectiles and the construction of missiles. The pages have a number of tables and illustrations set in the text area, and the book has many diagrams and drawings in its wide margins. The work consists of an introduction, two chapters, and a conclusion. The author describes the first chapter as being on the figures of plane geometry ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
A Plan of the City and Environs of Philadelphia, 1777
This map of Philadelphia was published in London in 1777 by William Faden, successor to Thomas Jefferys as royal geographer to King George III. It is based on a 1752 map prepared by Nicholas Scull (circa 1687–1762) and George Heap (flourished 1715–60), updated with new details. An important addition to the 1777 map is the shading to indicate the expansion of the city from the waterfront along the Delaware River. One of the largest and most prosperous cities in mid-18th century British North America, Philadelphia was laid out ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Map of the Country round Philadelphia Including Part of New Jersey and New York, 1776
This map of eastern Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and the area around New York City originally was published in The Gentleman’s Magazine of September 1776. The American colonies had declared their independence two months earlier and were in revolt against the British crown, so the conflict in North America was of keen interest to readers of this popular London monthly. An accompanying article explained: “It [the map] comprehends that part of America which is now the chief object of the British arms. Should New-York be suddenly reduced, it is more ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the Ohio River from Fort Pitt
The Ohio River begins in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, at the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers and flows southwestward toward the Mississippi River. This map shows the course of the Ohio from Fort Pitt, site of present-day Pittsburgh, to what is now New Martinsville, West Virginia. A pencil annotation reads “Montresor, 1776,” indicating that the map was made in that year by the British military engineer John Montrésor (1736–99). Montrésor fought in many of the most important engagements of the French and Indian War and was in Boston in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A New Map of the Western Parts of Virginia, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and North Carolina, 1778
Thomas Hutchins (1730–89) produced this map to accompany and supplement his A Topographical Description of Virginia, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and North Carolina, also published in London in 1778. A native of New Jersey, Hutchins fought with the militia in the French and Indian War. He became an expert frontiersman and was known for his skill as a surveyor, cartographer, and geographer. In 1766 he was given a regular commission as an engineer in the British army and assigned to survey the western regions of Britain’s North American empire. He ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
General Map of Irkutsk Province, Self-Compiled in Irkutsk, Yakutsk, and Udinsk Provinces
This multi-colored, hand-colored map of eastern Siberia shows the state of geographic knowledge at the beginning of the last quarter of the 18th century. The geographic grid and the mapping of the rivers are well-executed. Sakhalin Island is shown, but is poorly mapped. The work is by Johann Treskot (1721-86), a cartographer at the Geographical Department of the Academy of Sciences in Saint Petersburg, who compiled many of the maps published by the academy from the 1740s to the 1780s.
Contributed by Russian State Library
Great Map of Japan
This map of Japan is a replica of a map that was first published in 1779 by Nagakubo Sekisui (1717–1801), the first of its kind to include latitude and longitude lines. The measurements allowed for a more accurate geographic representation than previous ornate pictorial maps. It was a commercial success and was reprinted and imitated numerous times into the Meiji era (1868–1912). This map includes major points of interest on the margins, including temples and shrines, old castles, and scenic landscapes. It also notes major thoroughfares and distances ...
Contributed by Library of Congress