306 results in English
Map of New Netherland, Virginia, and New England
Joan Vinckeboons (1617–70) was a Dutch cartographer and engraver born into a family of artists of Flemish origin. He was employed by the Dutch West India Company and for more than 30 years produced maps for use by Dutch mercantile and military shipping. He was a business partner of Joan Blaeu, one of the most important map and atlas publishers of the day. Vinckeboons drew a series of 200 manuscript maps that were used in the production of atlases, including Blaeu’s Atlas Maior. This pen-and-ink and watercolor map ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Declaration of Independence. In Congress, July 4, 1776, a Declaration by the Representatives of the United States of America, in General Congress Assembled.
This document is the first printed version of the American Declaration of Independence. On June 7, 1776, Richard Henry Lee of Virginia introduced a resolution urging Congress, meeting in Philadelphia, to declare independence from Great Britain. Four days later, Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, and Robert R. Livingston were appointed as a committee to draft a declaration of independence. The committee’s draft was read in Congress on June 28. On July 4, Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence, containing a list of grievances against the British ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Titusville, Pennsylvania, 1896
This panoramic map shows Titusville, Pennsylvania, as it appeared in 1896. Located in western Pennsylvania, Titusville is known as the place where the modern oil industry began. In 1859, the recently formed Seneca Oil Company hired retired railroad conductor Edwin L. Drake to investigate suspected oil deposits near Titusville. Drake used an old steam engine to drill a well that began the first large-scale commercial extraction of petroleum. By the early 1860s, western Pennsylvania had been transformed by the oil boom. The numbered index at the bottom of the map ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
New Records on the Travel Round the Globe
To celebrate the 100th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence in Philadelphia, in 1876 the United States held a Centennial Exhibition in the same city. The Foreign Office of the late Qing court authorized the Commercial Tax Office for the Western Countries to arrange the Chinese display at the exposition. Li Gui (1842–1903), a secretary at the Customs Office, was dispatched to the United States with a delegation to assist in the arrangements. On his journey he also visited England, France, and other countries. After his ...
Contributed by National Central Library
Map of the Atlantic Highway
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Atlantic Highway, proposed by the Atlantic Highway Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from Calais, Maine to Miami, Florida, a distance ...
Elisha Kane
Elisha Kent Kane (1820–57) was an American Arctic explorer. He studied medicine in his native Philadelphia and in 1843 entered the U.S. Navy as a surgeon. In 1850 he sailed as the senior medical officer and naturalist on an expedition in search of Sir John Franklin (1786–1847), the British naval officer and explorer who had been missing in the Canadian Arctic since 1845. Funded by New York merchant Henry Grinnell and carried out by the U.S. Navy, the expedition explored Lancaster Sound and Wellington Channel and ...
An Accurate Depiction of New France, 1657
This 1657 map, entitled Novae Franciae Accurata Delineatio (An accurate depiction of New France), is attributed to the Jesuit Francesco Bressani (1612−72), who was sent as a missionary to the Huron Indians in 1642. In 1653 he published in his native Italy an account of his stay in New France in which he announced the impending publication of a map, also based on his time in North America. The map shown here, from the National Library of France, is one of only two known copies of Bressani’s map ...
Senate Ratification of the Treaty on Cession of the Territory of Alaska
Under the provisions of the U.S. Constitution relating to treaties, the U.S. Senate is required to give its advice and consent, by a two-thirds vote, for any treaty to be ratified and become law. On April 9, 1867, the Senate gave its advice and consent to the Alaska Purchase treaty by the necessary number of votes. Shown here is the notification, by John W. Forney, Chief Clerk, of the Senate’s action. Secretary of State William H. Seward relied on a number of supporters within the Senate to ...
United States. Northern Part
This manuscript map, in pen-and-ink and watercolor, dating from 1708 mainly shows the English colonies of Pennsylvania and New York as their geography was understood at that time. It encompasses the region stretching from Lake Michigan (Lake Illinois on this map) to the west, Ontario and Quebec to the north, western New England to the east, and Virginia and the southern Appalachian Mountains to the south. The map identifies the territories inhabited by many different Indian tribes and provides historical information about tribal conflicts and population transfers. It also shows ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
American Campaign, 1782
Amérique, Campagne 1782 (American campaign, 1782) is a compendium of manuscript maps, in pen-and-ink and watercolor, created in 1782, at the end of the Revolutionary War. The maps show the location of the camps of the army of the Comte de Rochambeau, during its march north from Williamsburg, Virginia, to Boston between July and December, 1782. The soldiers marched in four divisions, each a day’s march apart. Camps thus shown were occupied sequentially for four or more nights. Yellow rectangles on the map signify French troops; green rectangles signify ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Secretary of War Simon Cameron
Simon Cameron (1799‒1889) was a Pennsylvania newspaper editor and politician who served as the first secretary of war in the cabinet of President Abraham Lincoln. He was born in Maytown, Pennsylvania and orphaned at age nine. Despite limited education, he gained a position as an apprentice printer and gradually rose to become editor of the Bucks County Messenger. Using his position in the press as a springboard, he became active in Pennsylvania state politics and served in the United States Senate from 1845 to 1849. Originally a Democrat, he ...
Engrossed Declaration of Independence
On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence, in which the American colonies set forth a list of grievances against the British Crown and declared that they were breaking from British rule to form free and independent states. On July 19, 1776, Congress resolved that the Declaration passed on the 4th be "fairly engrossed on parchment with the title and stile [sic]: 'The unanimous declaration of the thirteen United States of America'...and that the same, when engrossed, be signed by every member of Congress ...
Illustrated Family Record (Fraktur) Found in Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty-Land-Warrant Application File W3079, for Philip Frey, Pennsylvania
During the American Revolution, the Continental Congress passed laws promising pensions or grants of government-owned land to officers and soldiers who served in the war, as well as to the survivors of those killed. This illustrated family record in the German Fraktur script, hand-colored with large birds, is a birth and baptismal document submitted as part of the application for a pension by Anna Margaretha Kolb, wife of Revolutionary War veteran Philip Frey. From Pennsylvania, Frey served between April 1776 and January 1778. He fought in the battles at Long ...
Dunlap Broadside [Declaration of Independence]
John Dunlap, official printer to the Continental Congress, produced the first printed versions of the American Declaration of Independence in his Philadelphia shop on the night of July 4, 1776. After the Declaration had been adopted by the Congress earlier that day, a committee took the manuscript document, possibly Thomas Jefferson's "fair copy" of his rough draft, to Dunlap for printing. On the morning of July 5, copies were dispatched by members of Congress to various assemblies, conventions, and committees of safety as well as to the commanders of ...
Articles of Confederation
On June 11, 1776, the Second Continental Congress appointed three committees in response to the Lee Resolution proposing independence for the American colonies. One of these committees, created to determine the form of a confederation of the colonies, was composed of one representative from each colony. John Dickinson, the delegate from Delaware, was the principal writer. Dickinson’s draft of the Articles of Confederation named the new country "the United States of America." It also provided for a Congress with representation based on population, and gave to the national government ...
Marshall House, 207 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia
This lithograph from 1837 is an advertising print showing the front facade of the hotel called the Marshall House, located at 207 Chestnut Street (i.e., 625-631 Chestnut Street) in Philadelphia. In the stark illustration, a couple can be seen walking toward the hotel entrance. Edmund Badger, a former proprietor of The City Hotel, operated the Marshall House at 207 Chestnut Street from 1837 to 1841. The hotel was later renamed the Columbia House; it was razed in 1856. The artist, lithographer, and publisher of the print have not been ...
A View of the Fairmount Water Works with Schuylkill in the Distance. Taken from the Mount
This 1838 print shows a view from the Fairmount neighborhood in Philadelphia, looking west toward the Schuylkill River, and prominently features part of the Fairmount Water Works. Several elegantly-attired visitors traverse the site. In the foreground, individuals, including a couple, descend a walkway that leads to the gazebo on the mount. Within the pavilion, a number of men and women enjoy the vista seen from over the roof of the millhouse. A figure adorns the top of the open air gazebo. Individuals descend the walkway and stairs that lead from ...
A View of the Fairmount Water Works with Schuylkill in the Distance. Taken from the Mount
This hand-colored lithograph from around 1838 shows a view looking northwest from the Fairmount neighborhood in Philadelphia; it prominently features the Fairmount Water Works on the Schuylkill River, including the engine house, millhouse, race bridge, and mound dam. Bushes, trees, and rocks dominate the foreground. Visitors stroll on the grounds near the engine house and on the promenade of the millhouse. On the right, a man stands in a gazebo on the partially-visible mount. The house of the superintendent of the Schuylkill Navigation Company is on the wooded west bank ...
Destruction by Fire of Pennsylvania Hall. On the Night of the 17th May, 1838
This dramatic print shows the destruction of Pennsylvania Hall, a large building that was constructed in 1837–38 at Sixth and Haines Streets in Philadelphia as a meeting place for local abolitionist (antislavery) groups. Dedication ceremonies began on May 14, 1838, and continued over several days in a climate of growing hostility from anti-abolitionist forces in the city. On the night of May 17, 1838, an anti-abolitionist mob stormed the hall and set it on fire. Fire companies refused to fight the blaze, and the building was completely destroyed. A ...
Girard College
This lithograph shows a view of Founder's Hall at Girard College in Philadelphia, which was constructed in 1833–47 from designs by Philadelphia architect Thomas Ustick Walters. The hall occupied a site between what became Girard Avenue and Ridge Avenue at Corinthian Avenue. Girard College was established through a bequest from Stephen Girard, a Philadelphia financier and philanthropist, for the creation of a school for poor white male orphans. The illustration is by John Caspar Wild (circa 1804–46), a Swiss-born artist and lithographer, who arrived in Philadelphia from ...
The Girard College, Philadelphia
This lithograph shows an exterior view of Girard College at Girard Avenue, Philadelphia, including Founder's Hall and the eastern and western outbuildings. The school buildings, designed by Philadelphia architect Thomas Ustick Walter in the Greek Revival style, were constructed in 1833–47. Girard College was established through a bequest from Stephen Girard, a Philadelphia financier and philanthropist, for the creation of a school for poor white male orphans. The illustration is by John Caspar Wild (circa 1804–46), a Swiss-born artist and lithographer, who arrived in Philadelphia from Paris ...
Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church, Philadelphia
This print is an exterior view of the rough-cast second edifice of the Bethel African American Methodist Episcopal Church at 125 South 6th Street in Philadelphia. Pedestrians and parishioners, predominantly women, stroll the sidewalk and enter the building, which is adorned with a simple stone tablet inscribed "Bethel Church." Known as "Mother Bethel," the church was founded in the 1790s by free Blacks who broke away from Saint George’s Methodist Episcopal Church, where they faced racial discrimination. The church’s first building was dedicated in July 1794. The larger ...
A Fourth Day Morning View of Friends Meeting House on Cherry Street, Philadelphia
This print shows the Friends (Quaker) Meeting House on Cherry Street in Philadelphia. Quakers count Sunday as the first day of the week, so the reference in the title to the fourth day is to Wednesday. Members of the Hicksite congregation, including men, women, and children, are shown arriving at and leaving the church. Some of the women carry umbrellas. The caption at the bottom explains: “The Building which is about 42 feet front on Cherry Street by 100 feet deep was commenced on the 19th of the 11th month ...
North-East View of Saint Peter's Church (Episcopal), Philadelphia
This print is a northeast view of Saint Peter’s Episcopal Church, located at Third and Pine Streets in Philadelphia. Well-dressed people, possibly members of the church, are seen walking on the sidewalks along the walls of the churchyard. The illustration is by William L. Breton, a watercolorist and early lithographer of Philadelphia scenes who was active in the city between about 1825 and 1855. Born in England circa 1773, Breton immigrated to Philadelphia about 1824. In the late 1820s, he contributed illustrations to Annals of Philadelphia, compiled by the ...
Philadelphia Baths, Corner of George and Seventh Streets, near Chestnut Street
This lithograph dating from circa 1829 shows the public baths, located at the corner of George and Seventh Streets, near Chestnut Street, in Philadelphia. The illustration is by William L. Breton, a watercolorist and early lithographer of Philadelphia scenes who was active in the city between about 1825 and 1855. Born in England circa 1773, Breton immigrated to Philadelphia around 1824. In the late 1820s, he contributed illustrations to Annals of Philadelphia, compiled by the antiquarian John F. Watson. In 1829 Breton entered the lithographic trade to execute the illustrations ...
The Catholic Church of Saint Mary, Philadelphia
This print shows the Roman Catholic Church of Saint Mary, located on Fourth Street between Locust and Spruce Streets in Philadelphia. Men, women, and a small girl dressed in their Sunday finery are shown walking on the sidewalk in front of the church. George Washington and John Adams were among the important figures of the Continental Congress who sometimes attended services at Saint Mary’s, which was built in 1763 and renovated in 1810. The illustration is by William L. Breton, a watercolorist and early lithographer of Philadelphia scenes who ...
First Congregational Unitarian Church, Philadelphia
This print is a view of the front facade of the First Congregational Unitarian Church, located on the 900 block of Locust Street in Philadelphia. The church was built in 1828 after the designs of Philadelphia architect William Strickland (1788–1854), who was one of the first architects of the Greek Revival style in the United States, as well as a civil engineer and artist. Also shown are pedestrian traffic and a partial view of neighboring buildings obscured by trees. The columns supporting the portico of the church were salvaged ...
Comlyville near Frankford, Philadelphia
This print, published by Louis A. Godey in the first volume of his Lady’s Book (one of the earliest successful women’s magazines in America), is a pastoral view with mill and factory buildings along Frankford Creek in Comlyville, near Philadelphia. It includes the mill, converted to a calico print works by Smith & Brother in 1827, the loom factory of "Mr. S. Steel," and the dye works of "Mr. Horrick," i.e., Jeremiah Horrocks. In the foreground, two horse-drawn wagons and a man travel on Asylum Road. Horses ...
Road to Philadelphy
This circa 1830 print by Edward Williams Clay (1799–1857) caricatures the pretentiousness and prejudice of early 19th-century Philadelphia Quakers toward people they regarded as their social inferiors, but it also mocks those seeking to imitate the Quaker elite. On a Philadelphia road in front of a small house with an open picket fence and a visitor arriving on horseback, a raggedly dressed, dark-skinned traveler with buck teeth, possibly an Irishman or African American, asks a rotund Quaker man and his daughter, "I say, this isn't the road to ...
Manayunk
This landscape print shows a couple walking along the bank of the Schuylkill River near the industrial village of Manayunk. A large tree stands in the foreground and small factories and dwellings are visible in the background. Also shown are groves of trees, rocks, and ground cover. Located along the east bank of the river, northwest of Philadelphia, Manayunk played an important part in the early industrial development of the United States. It was the site of large textile mills, which were built to take advantage of Manayunk’s plentiful ...
The Castle of the State in Schuylkill
This print from 1830 shows an exterior view of the clubhouse, known as “The Castle,” for the Fishing Company of the State in Schuylkill. Men are seen across the grounds, with some sitting at a table outside, and others walking in the woods near the clubhouse and stables. Two men stand with a dog at the edge of the river, looking toward a man in a rowboat in the foreground. The association formed in 1732 for the purpose of hunting and fishing, was originally at "Eaglesfield," the old estate of ...
Bowlby and Weaver's Hardware Store, Number 77, Market Street, Philadelphia
This print shows Bowlby & Weaver's Hardware Store, located at 77 Market Street (above Second Street) in Philadelphia. It was published in James Mease and Thomas Porter's Picture of Philadelphia from 1811 to 1831: Giving an Account of its Origin, Increase and Improvements in Arts, Sciences, Manufactures, Commerce and Revenue (Philadelphia, 1831). The illustration is by William L. Breton, a watercolorist and early lithographer of Philadelphia scenes, who was active in the city between about 1825 and 1855. Born in England circa 1773, Breton immigrated to Philadelphia around 1824. In the late 1820s, he contributed illustrations to Annals of Philadelphia, compiled by the antiquarian John F. Watson. In 1829 Breton entered the lithographic trade to execute the illustrations for the Annals. He worked extensively with the firm of Kennedy & Lucas, operated by David Kennedy and William B. Lucas, which produced Annals of Philadelphia. Breton also contributed to other publications at this time, including Mease and Porter's Picture of Philadelphia, also produced by Kennedy & Lucas, the first commercial lithographers in Philadelphia.
Dawson's Brewery, Northwest Corner of 10th and Filbert Streets, Philadelphia
This 1831 lithograph depicts Dawson's Brewery, located at the northwest corner of 10th and Filbert Streets in Philadelphia. Two men are seen loading barrels of beer onto a horse-drawn cart on the cobblestone street in front of the brewery. The print was published in James Mease and Thomas Porter's Picture of Philadelphia from 1811 to 1831: Giving an Account of its Origin, Increase and Improvements in Arts, Sciences, Manufactures, Commerce and Revenue (Philadelphia, 1831). The illustration is by William L. Breton, a watercolorist and early lithographer of Philadelphia ...
Moss, Upholsterer, Number 127, Walnut Street, Philadelphia
This 1831 lithograph depicts the Moss upholstery shop, located at 127 Walnut Street (above Fourth Street) in Philadelphia. The signs beneath the two front windows of the shop advertise Venetian blinds and bedding. The print was published in James Mease and Thomas Porter's Picture of Philadelphia from 1811 to 1831: Giving an Account of its Origin, Increase and Improvements in Arts, Sciences, Manufactures, Commerce and Revenue (Philadelphia, 1831). The illustration is by William L. Breton, a watercolorist and early lithographer of Philadelphia scenes who was active in the city ...
Loud and Brothers Piano Forte Manufacturers, Number 150, Chestnut Street, Philadelphia
This 1831 lithograph print shows the Loud & Brothers piano factory and shop, located at 150 Chestnut Street (above Sixth Street) in Philadelphia. Pianos can be seen through the window at the front of the shop. The print was published in James Mease and Thomas Porter's Picture of Philadelphia from 1811 to 1831: Giving an account of its Origin, Increase and Improvements in Arts, Sciences, Manufactures, Commerce and Revenue (Philadelphia, 1831). The illustration is by William L. Breton, a watercolorist and early lithographer of Philadelphia scenes who was active in the city between about 1825 and 1855. Born in England circa 1773, Breton immigrated to Philadelphia around 1824. In the late 1820s, he contributed illustrations to Annals of Philadelphia, compiled by the antiquarian John F. Watson. In 1829 Breton entered the lithographic trade to execute the illustrations for the Annals. He worked extensively with the firm of Kennedy & Lucas, operated by David Kennedy and William B. Lucas, which produced Annals of Philadelphia. Breton also contributed to other publications at this time, including Mease and Porter's Picture of Philadelphia, also produced by Kennedy & Lucas, the first commercial lithographers in Philadelphia.
Philadelphia Citizen's Line of Steam Boats to New York and Baltimore
This lithograph of 1831 depicts the terminal of the Citizens Line of steamboats, located at the end of Arch Street on the Delaware River in Philadelphia. The steamboat is lying low in the river, and passengers are seen coming and going on Arch Street. The company office is in the left foreground. The print was published in James Mease and Thomas Porter's Picture of Philadelphia from 1811 to 1831: Giving an Account of its Origin, Increase and Improvements in Arts, Sciences, Manufactures, Commerce and Revenue (Philadelphia, 1831). The illustration ...
Franklin Marble Mantel Manufactory, Race Street between 6th and 7th Street, Philadelphia
This lithograph of 1831 depicts the Franklin Marble Mantel Manufactory, located on Race Street between 6th and 7th Streets in Philadelphia. A sign on the facade of the building advertises “Marble Mantels, Tombs &c. neatly executed by Peter Fritz.” Workmen are seen on the sidewalk alongside the building while a clerk looks out the front door. The print was published in James Mease and Thomas Porter's Picture of Philadelphia from 1811 to 1831: Giving an Account of its Origin, Increase and Improvements in Arts, Sciences, Manufactures, Commerce and Revenue (Philadelphia, 1831). The illustration is by William L. Breton, a watercolorist and early lithographer of Philadelphia scenes, who was active in the city between about 1825 and 1855. Born in England circa 1773, Breton immigrated to Philadelphia around 1824. In the late 1820s, he contributed illustrations to Annals of Philadelphia, compiled by the antiquarian John F. Watson. In 1829 Breton entered the lithographic trade to execute the illustrations for the Annals. He worked extensively with the firm of Kennedy & Lucas, operated by David Kennedy and William B. Lucas, which produced Annals of Philadelphia. Breton also contributed to other publications at this time, including Mease and Porter's Picture of Philadelphia, also produced by Kennedy & Lucas, the first commercial lithographers in Philadelphia.
View of the Glass Works of T.W. Dyott at Kensington on the Delaware, near Philadelphia
This lithograph of 1831 depicts the glass works owned by T.W. Dyott at Kensington on the Delaware River near Philadelphia. Ships are visible on the river, and smoke is rising from the chimneys of these early industrial buildings. The print was published in James Mease and Thomas Porter's Picture of Philadelphia from 1811 to 1831: Giving an Account of its Origin, Increase and Improvements in Arts, Sciences, Manufactures, Commerce and Revenue (Philadelphia, 1831). The illustration is by William L. Breton, a watercolorist and early lithographer of Philadelphia scenes ...
Wetherill and Brothers White Lead Manufactory and Chemical Works, Corner of 12th and Cherry Streets, Philadelphia
This lithograph of 1831 depicts the Wetherill & Brothers White Lead Manufactory & Chemical Works, located at the corner of 12th and Cherry Streets in Philadelphia. Barrels, a horse-drawn cart, and a few workmen are seen in the courtyard of the U-shaped industrial complex, while dark smoke rises from several chimneys. White lead is a chemical compound made up of lead, carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen, historically used to make white paint. It was an important industrial product in 19th-century America, later banned for use in paint in the United States and most other countries as a cause of lead poisoning. The print was published in James Mease and Thomas Porter's Picture of Philadelphia from 1811 to 1831: Giving an account of its origin, increase and improvements in arts, sciences, manufactures, commerce and revenue (Philadelphia, 1831). The illustration is by William L. Breton, a watercolorist and early lithographer of Philadelphia scenes who was active in the city between about 1825 and 1855. Born in England circa 1773, Breton immigrated to Philadelphia around 1824. In the late 1820s, he contributed illustrations to Annals of Philadelphia, compiled by the antiquarian John F. Watson. In 1829 Breton entered the lithographic trade to execute the illustrations for the Annals. He worked extensively with the firm of Kennedy & Lucas, operated by David Kennedy and William B. Lucas, which produced Annals of Philadelphia. Breton also contributed to other publications at this time, including Mease and Porter's Picture of Philadelphia, also produced by Kennedy & Lucas, the first commercial lithographers in Philadelphia.
Roper's Gymnasium. 274 Market Street, Philadelphia
This circa 1831 print is an advertisement for the gymnasium operated by James Roper on the 800 block of Market Street in Philadelphia. The illustration shows the interior of the facility, in which men exercise in front of a crowd of spectators. On the right, three men perform moves on a balance beam next to a wall with a rack from which boxing gloves and squash rackets hang. Beside the beam, two men wearing boxing gloves are talking near the pommel horse. In the front center and left of the ...
American Classical and Military Academy at Mount Airy, Germantown, 8 Miles from Philadelphia
This lithograph shows the American Classical and Military Academy in the Mount Airy section of Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, located some eight miles (13 kilometers) from the center of Philadelphia.  The right wing was built in 1750 as “Mount Airy,” the country seat of Pennsylvania Chief Justice William Allen, and early in the 19th century the area took the building’s name. Founded as Mount Airy Seminary (later Mount Airy College or Collegiate Institute) in 1807, the school served as a military academy in 1826–35 under the superintendence of Augustus ...
Indian Queen Hotel
This advertising print from 1831 depicts the three-and-one-half story Indian Queen Hotel, located at 15 South Fourth Street in Philadelphia. The hotel was operated by Horatio Wade, as indicated by a placard seen here above the door. Wade remained the proprietor from 1831 until 1833. In this view, elegantly-dressed guests enter the building, converse on the sidewalk, and rest and read inside near the windows on the first floor. On the sidewalk, well-dressed pedestrians stroll past and an African American hotel porter pushes a wheelbarrow with luggage. The Indian Queen ...