273 results in English
Mulberry Street, New York City
This photolithograph from the Detroit Publishing Company documents the busy street life of New York City’s Lower East Side at the start of the 20th century. Between 1870 and 1915, New York’s population more than tripled, from 1.5 million to 5 million. In 1900, when this photo was taken, foreign-born immigrants and their children constituted a staggering 76 percent of the city’s population. Often described as the Main Street of Little Italy, Mulberry Street was dominated from the 1890s by immigrants from Italy. These immigrants jostled ...
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Connecticut, from the Best Authorities
This map of Connecticut first appeared in General Atlas for Carey’s Edition ofGuthrie’s Geography Improved, published in Philadelphia in 1795. The map was created “from the best authorities,” including information from William Blodget’s extraordinarily detailed map of 1791, the first official map of the state. Amos Doolittle (1754–1832), a copperplate engraver in New Haven, produced the map on a scale of 7.5 miles to one inch (12 kilometers to 2.4 centimeters). Largely self-taught, Doolittle was originally a jeweler and silversmith who first attempted ...
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This Map of the Peninsula between Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, with the Said Bays and Shores Adjacent Drawn from the Most Accurate Surveys
John Churchman (1753–1805), a Quaker surveyor and cartographer from Nottingham, Pennsylvania, produced this hand-colored map for the American Philosophical Society in order to support the proposed construction of a canal between the Delaware and Chesapeake bays. The mapped area covers the Delmarva Peninsula, Chesapeake Bay, and Delaware Bay. It presents in particular detail the anchorages and navigational hazards along the shoals and sandbanks of the Chesapeake and Delaware waters. Churchman shows counties, towns and cities, roads, industries, rivers, swamps, ferries, and the Cape Henlopen lighthouse. This map was one ...
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A Map of Kentucky from Actual Survey
Kentucky was admitted to the Union on June 1, 1792, becoming the 15th state of the United States. In 1793, Elihu Barker created the most accurate map of Kentucky up to that date, A Map of Kentucky from Actual Survey. The map includes Kentucky as well as the bordering “North Western Territory,” Virginia, and the “Tennassee Government.” It shows the mountains of eastern Kentucky and those between the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers in western Kentucky and indicates salt licks throughout the state as well as principal trails, towns, and settlements ...
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City, Port and Harbor of Baltimore, Maryland
Ville, port, et rade de Baltimore (City, port and harbor of Baltimore) is a manuscript map, in pen-and-ink and watercolor, that depicts the harbor and environs of Baltimore, Maryland, towards the end of the Revolutionary War. The map was created by Louis-Alexandre Berthier (1753–1815), a young French officer who accompanied the army of the Comte de Rochambeau to North America in 1780 and served on his general staff. Berthier later became a marshal in the French army and chief of staff to Napoleon. The map shows fortifications, troop encampments ...
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The State of New Hampshire. Compiled Chiefly from Actual Surveys
This map of New Hampshire was completed in 1794 by Samuel Lewis (1753 or 1754–1822), a Philadelphia draftsman and engraver, for inclusion in General Atlas for Carey’s Edition ofGuthrie’s Geography Improved, published in Philadelphia in 1795. It shows the five counties of New Hampshire‒Cheshire, Grafton, Hillsborough, Rockingham, and Stratford‒with their boundaries, principal towns and settlements, roads and waterways, mountains, and islands. Much of the map’s northern region is blank, with a note across the top, “Indian carrying place” (canoe portage). Lewis identifies the ...
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The State of New Jersey, Compiled from the Most Authentic Information
This map of New Jersey appeared in General Atlas for Carey’s Edition ofGuthrie’s Geography Improved, published in Philadelphia in 1795. The map extends from the Delaware River to the Atlantic Ocean and indicates the state’s principal towns, roads, and counties, as well as mountains, rivers, and the bordering states of New York, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. The map shows the counties of Bergen, Burlington, Cape May, Cumberland, Essex, Gloucester, Hunterdon, Middlesex, Monmouth, Morris, Salem, Somerset, and Sussex. The map was engraved in 1795 by William Barker (active ...
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Campaign of 1776
This map from around 1780 shows the fighting in New York and New Jersey in 1776, the first full year of the American Revolutionary War. The inset in the upper left shows the campaign in and around Philadelphia in the following year. The main map shows the site of the British landings on Staten Island in preparation for the New York campaign; troop movements and the sites of battles on Long Island, in Westchester County, and on Manhattan Island; and towns and roads in southeastern New York and eastern New ...
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Map of New York and Surrounding Islands
This hand-drawn map in pen-and-ink and watercolor, probably made in 1781, depicts New York City and its surrounding islands. The map covers the area from Blackwell’s Island in the northeast to Red Hook (in present-day Brooklyn) in the south, and includes a street plan of southern Manhattan. The map includes Fort George, towns such as Bedford on western Long Island, roads, ferries, redoubts, some vegetation, and relief. Islands include Bucking Island, Bedloes or Kennedy Island, and “the Governors Island.” Relief is shown by hachures. Soundings indicate water depth. The ...
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Map of New York and its Environs
This manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor, most likely made by a French military cartographer in 1781, shows New York and its environs near the conclusion of the American Revolution. The map extends from Yonkers, New York in the north to Staten Island in the south and from New Rochelle, New York in the east to Totowa, New Jersey in the west. The map identifies roads, fortifications, redoubts, batteries, vegetation, and relief. A legend on the right side of the map is keyed to earthworks, fortifications, and batteries on Manhattan ...
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Northern Part of New York Island
This manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor was probably created in 1781 by a French military cartographer engaged in reconnaissance work during the final stages of the Revolutionary War in the United States. The map is oriented with north to the right. The British captured New York in September 1776. In the summer of 1781, General George Washington, commander of the Continental Army, considered an attack on New York, but he and the Comte de Rochambeau instead feigned preparations for an attack on the city while stealthily moving their troops ...
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Reconnaissance, July 1781
This manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor was probably created in 1781 by a French military cartographer engaged in reconnaissance work during the final stages of the American Revolutionary War. The map is oriented with north to the right. The British captured New York in September 1776. In the summer of 1781, General George Washington, commander of the Continental Army, considered an attack on New York, but he and the Comte de Rochambeau instead feigned preparations for an attack on the city while stealthily moving their troops to Yorktown, Virginia ...
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Reconnaissance, July 1781
This manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor was probably created in 1781 by a French military cartographer engaged in reconnaissance work during the final stages of the American Revolutionary War. The map is oriented with north to the right. The British captured New York in September 1776. In the summer of 1781, General George Washington, commander of the Continental Army, considered an attack on New York, but he and the Comte de Rochambeau instead feigned preparations for an attack on the city while stealthily moving their troops to Yorktown, Virginia ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Environs of New York, Long Island, Etcetera
This manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor was probably created in 1781 by a French military cartographer. The map is oriented with north to the right. The British captured New York in September 1776. In the summer of 1781, General George Washington, commander of the Continental Army, considered an attack on New York, but he and the Comte de Rochambeau instead feigned preparations for an attack on the city while stealthily moving their troops to Yorktown, Virginia. There, the British under General Charles Cornwallis (1738–1805) were forced to surrender ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Reconnaissance of the Fortifications on the Northern Part of New York Island for Which Principal Points Were Geometrically Identified on July 22 and 23
This manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor was created in July 1781 by a French military cartographer engaged in reconnaissance work during the final stages of the American Revolutionary War. The map is oriented with north to the right. The British captured New York in September 1776. In the summer of 1781, General George Washington, commander of the Continental Army, considered an attack on New York, but he and the Comte de Rochambeau instead feigned preparations for an attack on the city while stealthily moving their troops to Yorktown, Virginia ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Position of the American and French Armies in Kings Ferry, Peak's Hill, Crompond and Hunts Tavern from September 17 to October 20, 1782
This pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map of 1782 is attributed to cartographer Louis-Alexandre Berthier (1753‒1815), who served with the Marquis de Lafayette (1757–1834) and the Comte de Rochambeau during the American Revolution and who later was one of Napoleon’s marshals. Berthier stayed in America from September 30, 1780 until December 24, 1782 and accompanied the combined French-American army on its march from New England to Yorktown, Virginia and its return march to Boston. The map depicts the positions of the French and American armies in New York ...
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United States. Northern Part
This manuscript map, in pen-and-ink and watercolor, dating from 1708 mainly shows the English colonies of Pennsylvania and New York as their geography was understood at that time. It encompasses the region stretching from Lake Michigan (Lake Illinois on this map) to the west, Ontario and Quebec to the north, western New England to the east, and Virginia and the southern Appalachian Mountains to the south. The map identifies the territories inhabited by many different Indian tribes and provides historical information about tribal conflicts and population transfers. It also shows ...
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Philadelphia, by Easburn, Surveyor General of Pennsylvania
The map presented here shows Philadelphia in around 1776. The city was at that time the meeting place of the Continental Congress, making it the capital of the new American republic. The map was printed in Paris in 1777 by George-Louis Le Rouge (born 1712), royal geographer to King Louis XV, based on a map by Benjamin Easburn, surveyor general of Pennsylvania. It is oriented with north toward the right, and indexed for local points of interest. This map shows wharves, streets, houses, parks, cemeteries, ferries, and forts as well ...
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Coastline from Yorktown to Boston. Advances by the Army
Côte de York-town à Boston (Coastline from Yorktown to Boston) is a manuscript map, in pen-and-ink and watercolor, created in 1782, during the American Revolutionary War. The map is oriented with north toward the upper right. It shows the route marched by the army of the Comte de Rochambeau from Providence, Rhode Island, to Yorktown, Virginia, as well as the return route and troop encampments on the way to Boston. The initial march south, from June 10 to September 30, 1781, is shown by the yellow line from Providence to ...
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Sketch of the Engagement at Trenton, Given on the 26th of December 1776
This hand-colored map was submitted by Lieutenant Andreas Wiederholdt (circa 1752–circa 1805) as a part of his testimony at the Hessian Court of Inquiry on the Battle of Trenton, held in Philadelphia in April and May 1778. The map is an invaluable source of information about the battle, which took place on December 26, 1776. General George Washington and the Continental Army won a significant victory immediately after Washington’s famous crossing of the Delaware River. The Hessians were German auxiliaries of the British in the American Revolutionary War ...
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Various Encampments of the Army from Yorktown to Boston
Differents camps de l’armée de York-town à Boston (Various encampments of the army from Yorktown to Boston) is a manuscript map, in pen-and-ink and watercolor. It was created in 1787 by French cartographer François Soulés (1748–1809), based on an earlier version from 1782. The map is oriented with north toward the upper right. It shows the route marched during the American Revolutionary War by the army of the Comte de Rochambeau from Providence, Rhode Island, to Yorktown, Virginia, as well as the return route and troop encampments. The ...
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American Campaign, 1782
Amérique, Campagne 1782 (American campaign, 1782) is a compendium of manuscript maps, in pen-and-ink and watercolor, created in 1782, at the end of the Revolutionary War. The maps show the location of the camps of the army of the Comte de Rochambeau, during its march north from Williamsburg, Virginia, to Boston between July and December, 1782. The soldiers marched in four divisions, each a day’s march apart. Camps thus shown were occupied sequentially for four or more nights. Yellow rectangles on the map signify French troops; green rectangles signify ...
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Elkins, West Virginia, 1897
This panoramic map shows Elkins, West Virginia, as it appeared in 1897. The city was developed as a railroad hub in the 1880s by two entrepreneurs and politicians: Henry Gassaway Davis (1823–1916) and Stephen Benton Elkins (1841–1911), with the city named after the latter. Both men served terms representing West Virginia in the U.S. Senate. The map shows the city of Elkins along the Tygart’s Valley River, with two bridges crossing the river—one for rail (adjacent to Railroad Avenue) and one for pedestrians and other ...
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The Province of New Jersey, Divided into East and West, Commonly Called the Jerseys
William Faden, a noted English publisher who specialized in maps and prints, published The Province of New Jersey, Divided into East and West, Commonly Called the Jerseys in 1777. The map is often considered a revolutionary map, both for its detailed depiction of topography in the northern part of the state and its indication of the boundary lines made in 1743 demarcating “West Jersey” and “East Jersey.” The hand-colored map features an extraordinary number of city and town names throughout the colony. County boundaries, rivers, and roads are indicated, and ...
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Bird’s Eye View of Asbury Park, New Jersey, 1881
This panoramic map shows Asbury Park, New Jersey, as it appeared in 1881. The ocean is shown at the bottom of the map, with the town extending away from the shoreline. Asbury Park was established in 1871 as an oceanfront community by manufacturer James A. Bradley (1830–1921), and was named for Methodist bishop Francis Asbury (1745–1816). The town boasted attractions such as a boardwalk with pavilions and a pier. On the map, the town has wide streets, ample trees, and three lakes: “Wesley,” “Sunset,” and “Deal.” A railroad ...
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Bird’s Eye View of Garfield, New Jersey, 1909
This panoramic map shows a view of Garfield, New Jersey, as it appeared in 1909. Garfield was originally known as East Passaic, but later was named in honor of U.S. President James Garfield. The map shows the town along the banks of the Passaic and Saddle rivers, with several bridges crossing the water. Street names in the town are visible, as well as a railway, labeled “Erie Railroad.” In the lower left corner of the map are five inset images, showing greater detail of several buildings: “Borough Hall,” “First ...
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Aero View of Middletown, Connecticut, 1915
This panoramic map shows Middletown, Connecticut, as it appeared in 1915. Located along the Connecticut River, Middletown was originally known as Mattabeseck, the American Indian name for the area. Middletown was a port city and had extensive industry. The map shows ships in the river near Middletown, with densely-packed buildings (including homes, churches, shops, industry, and other city facilities) spreading away from the riverbank. The city sprawls into the surrounding hills. A train travels away from the area on the Air Line Railroad. Smaller images above and below the map ...
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Bird's Eye View of the City of Augusta, Maine, 1878
This panoramic map shows Augusta, Maine, as it appeared in 1878. Augusta has been the capital of Maine since 1827; the city is bisected by the Kennebec River. Steamboats and large sailing vessels are seen traveling on the river. An arrow drawn in the river indicates the flow of the water. On the far shore, a train runs along the Maine Central Railroad line. Further upstream, a railroad bridge and a covered bridge for pedestrians and horse-drawn carriages cross the water, connecting the two sides of the city. The Edwards ...
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Declaration of Intention of Maria von Trapp
Maria von Trapp became a household name in the United States when her story was turned into the 1959 Broadway musical The Sound of Music. She and her family previously had immigrated to the United States from their native Austria following the takeover of the country by Nazi Germany. This Declaration of Intention to become a U.S. citizen, submitted to the U.S. District Court in Burlington, Vermont, on January 21, 1944, sheds light on the real Maria von Trapp.
Journal of New Netherland 1647. Written in the Years 1641, 1642, 1643, 1644, 1645, and 1646
Willem Kieft (1597–1647) was a Dutch merchant who was appointed by the West India Company as director-general of New Netherland in 1638. Kieft instituted a harsh policy toward the Indians of the colony, whom he attempted to tax and drive from their land. In 1643, a contingent of soldiers under Kieft attacked a Raritan village on Staten Island in a dispute over pigs allegedly stolen from a Dutch farm. This led to the bloody, two-year conflict known as Kieft’s war, which raged in parts of what is now ...
Complaint by Some Members of the Dutch Reformed Church, Living at Raritan, etc in [...] New Jersey [...] about the Behavior [...] of Dominie Theodorus Jacobus Frilinghuisen and his Church Council
In 1664, the Dutch colony of New Netherland ceased to exist when Governor Peter Stuyvesant was forced to surrender New Amsterdam--soon to be renamed New York--to an English fleet. Many residents of what became the British colonies of New York and New Jersey continued to speak Dutch and to worship in churches where services were conducted in Dutch. This pamphlet, published in New York in 1725, concerns a dispute within a Dutch Reformed congregation in Raritan, "in the Province of New Jersey, in North America, under the Crown of Great ...
Articles about the Transfer of New Netherland on the 27th of August, Old Style, Anno 1664
On August 27, 1664, a fleet of four British warships under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into the harbor of New Amsterdam (present-day New York City) and demanded that Peter Stuyvesant, the director-general of the Dutch colony of New Netherland, surrender the colony to the British. The out-gunned Stuyvesant had no choice but to comply, and under English rule Nicolls became the first governor of the renamed Province of New York. This document lists the articles of capitulation by which the colony was surrendered and that established the ...
Remonstration of the Administrators of the Dutch West India Company to their Lords the State General about Several Examples of Tyranny and Violence by the English in New Netherland
In the 1660s, colonists from the English colonies of Connecticut and Massachusetts to the east and northeast and Maryland and Virginia to the south and southwest increasingly infringed on the Dutch colony of New Netherland, which was located in parts of present-day New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Connecticut. This remonstrance, or complaint, published in Schiedam in 1663, was an appeal by the directors of the West India Company to the States-General, the ruling body of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, for increased protection against the incursions of the ...
Brief and Concise Plan Intended to be a Mutual Agreement for Some Colonists Willing to go to the South River in New Netherland
Pieter Cornelis Plockhoy was a Dutch Mennonite and social reformer, born in the city of Zierikzee circa 1625. He moved to Amsterdam in 1648, where he became well known in the city’s intellectual circles. In 1658 he went to London where he tried unsuccessfully to gain the support of Oliver Cromwell, the antiroyalist Lord Protector of the Commonwealth, for the establishment of utopian settlements in England. Plockhoy returned to Netherlands in 1661 and in 1662 concluded a contract with the Amsterdam magistrates for the establishment of a settlement on ...
Short Story about New Netherland [...] and Special Possibilities to Populate
This pamphlet, published anonymously in Amsterdam in October 1662, concerns the establishment of a settlement on the South River (as the Dutch called the Delaware River) in New Netherland by the Dutch Mennonite and social reformer Pieter Cornelis Plockhoy. The pamphlet consisted of proposals sent to the magistrates of the city of Amsterdam to gain their support for the settlement, which Plockhoy intended to be for poor and needy families and based on reformist principles. The pamphlet was partly intended to reassure investors that the settlement would also be a ...
Conditions as Created by their Lords Burgomasters of Amsterdam
This pamphlet, published in Amsterdam in 1656, contains information about the patroonships offered by the West India Company to settlers in the Dutch colony of New Netherland, and in particular about the policies of the city of Amsterdam toward overseas colonization under the terms of the agreement between the city and the West India Company. Intended to help populate the colony, the patroonships were large grants of land made to Dutch investors who agreed to establish a colony of “fifty souls, upwards of fifteen years old.” The pamphlet was, in ...
Freedoms, as Given by the Council of the Nineteen of the Chartered West India Company to All those who Want to Establish a Colony in New Netherland
The Lords Nineteen, the governing body of the Dutch West India Company, established the patroon system as a way to encourage the settlement of New Netherland, the Dutch colony in North America that covered parts of present-day New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, and Delaware. Patroons were wealthy Dutchmen who were given extensive tracts of land, powers of local government, and some participation in the fur trade in exchange for settling colonists in New Netherland. In June 1629, the West India Company issued the Charter of Liberties and Exemptions, which declared ...
Description of New Netherland (as it is Today)
This book, published in Amsterdam in 1655, is one of the most important sources for the study of the Dutch colony of New Netherland. Adriaen van der Donck was trained as a lawyer at Leiden University. In 1641–43, he worked at the vast patroonship (estate) of Rensselaerswijck, surrounding present-day Albany, New York. He then applied for and received from the West India Company his own grant of land, a large tract located just north of Manhattan in present-day Westchester County, New York. (The city of Yonkers takes its name ...
Marshall House, 207 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia
This lithograph from 1837 is an advertising print showing the front facade of the hotel called the Marshall House, located at 207 Chestnut Street (i.e., 625-631 Chestnut Street) in Philadelphia. In the stark illustration, a couple can be seen walking toward the hotel entrance. Edmund Badger, a former proprietor of The City Hotel, operated the Marshall House at 207 Chestnut Street from 1837 to 1841. The hotel was later renamed the Columbia House; it was razed in 1856. The artist, lithographer, and publisher of the print have not been ...
A View of the Fairmount Water Works with Schuylkill in the Distance. Taken from the Mount
This 1838 print shows a view from the Fairmount neighborhood in Philadelphia, looking west toward the Schuylkill River, and prominently features part of the Fairmount Water Works. Several elegantly-attired visitors traverse the site. In the foreground, individuals, including a couple, descend a walkway that leads to the gazebo on the mount. Within the pavilion, a number of men and women enjoy the vista seen from over the roof of the millhouse. A figure adorns the top of the open air gazebo. Individuals descend the walkway and stairs that lead from ...
A View of the Fairmount Water Works with Schuylkill in the Distance. Taken from the Mount
This hand-colored lithograph from around 1838 shows a view looking northwest from the Fairmount neighborhood in Philadelphia; it prominently features the Fairmount Water Works on the Schuylkill River, including the engine house, millhouse, race bridge, and mound dam. Bushes, trees, and rocks dominate the foreground. Visitors stroll on the grounds near the engine house and on the promenade of the millhouse. On the right, a man stands in a gazebo on the partially-visible mount. The house of the superintendent of the Schuylkill Navigation Company is on the wooded west bank ...
Destruction by Fire of Pennsylvania Hall. On the Night of the 17th May, 1838
This dramatic print shows the destruction of Pennsylvania Hall, a large building that was constructed in 1837–38 at Sixth and Haines Streets in Philadelphia as a meeting place for local abolitionist (antislavery) groups. Dedication ceremonies began on May 14, 1838, and continued over several days in a climate of growing hostility from anti-abolitionist forces in the city. On the night of May 17, 1838, an anti-abolitionist mob stormed the hall and set it on fire. Fire companies refused to fight the blaze, and the building was completely destroyed. A ...