152 results in English
Saint-Pierre and Miquelon
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Saint-Pierre and Miquelon is Number 131 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Saint-Pierre and Miquelon are two small islands, located approximately 16 kilometers west and southwest of Newfoundland, which, as ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Front View of the Church of Saint-Eustache, Occupied by the Insurgents
This engraving depicts a scene from the rebellions of 1837−38 in Canada, which were sparked by dissatisfaction with the political status quo. Discontent raged in particular over British dominance of the affairs of what were then still two separate colonies, Lower Canada (the southern portion of the present-day province of Quebec) and Upper Canada (the southern portion of the present-day province of Ontario). In the rebellion, the reform leaders of Lower Canada, the most prominent being Louis Joseph Papineau (1786−1871), drew on long-simmering political tensions to recruit a ...
Back View of the Church of Saint-Eustache and Dispersion of the Insurgents
This engraving depicts a scene from the rebellions of 1837−38 in Canada, which were sparked by dissatisfaction with the political status quo. Discontent raged in particular over British dominance of the affairs of what were then still two separate colonies, Lower Canada (the southern portion of the present-day province of Quebec) and Upper Canada (the southern portion of the present-day province of Ontario). In the rebellion, the reform leaders of Lower Canada, the most prominent being Louis Joseph Papineau (1786−1871), drew on long-simmering political tensions to recruit a ...
A Fortified Pass. Colonel Wetherall Advancing to the Capture of Saint-Charles
This engraving depicts a scene from the rebellions of 1837−38 in Canada, which were sparked by dissatisfaction with the political status quo. Discontent raged in particular over British dominance of the affairs of what were then still two separate colonies, Lower Canada (the southern portion of the present-day province of Quebec) and Upper Canada (the southern portion of the present-day province of Ontario). In the rebellion, the reform leaders of Lower Canada, the most prominent being Louis Joseph Papineau (1786−1871), drew on long-simmering political tensions to recruit a ...
Passage of the Richelieu River by Night
This engraving depicts a scene from the rebellions of 1837−38 in Canada, which were sparked by dissatisfaction with the political status quo. Discontent raged in particular over British dominance of the affairs of what were then still two separate colonies, Lower Canada (the southern portion of the present-day province of Quebec) and Upper Canada (the southern portion of the present-day province of Ontario). In the rebellion, the reform leaders of Lower Canada, the most prominent being Louis Joseph Papineau (1786−1871), drew on long-simmering political tensions to recruit a ...
Colonel Wetherall's Bivouac Shelter at Saint-Hilaire de Rouville
This engraving depicts a scene from the rebellions of 1837−38 in Canada, which were sparked by dissatisfaction with the political status quo. Discontent raged in particular over British dominance of the affairs of what were then still two separate colonies, Lower Canada (the southern portion of the present-day province of Quebec) and Upper Canada (the southern portion of the present-day province of Ontario). In the rebellion, the reform leaders of Lower Canada, the most prominent being Louis Joseph Papineau (1786−1871), drew on long-simmering political tensions to recruit a ...
Holographic Will and Codicil of Jeanne Mance, Co-Founder of Montreal
Jeanne Mance (1606−73) was the first lay nurse to practice in Montreal, founder and first bursar of the Hôtel-Dieu de Montréal, and an iconic figure in the history of Montreal. She first arrived in Canada in 1641, inspired by her religious conviction to serve the settlers and the indigenous people by establishing a hospital. She oversaw construction of the Hôtel-Dieu, and made several journeys back to France to secure resources for the project. She deserves to be recognized as the founder of the city, along with the French military ...
Montreal Winter Carnival, February, 1884
In the late 19th century, the Montreal Winter Carnival changed the way winter was perceived in Quebec. It sought to attract visitors to the city in the heart of the winter, a season they had otherwise avoided. From 1883 to 1889, five such carnivals were organized. A smallpox epidemic caused a break in 1886 and the withdrawal of financing by the train companies caused a cancellation in 1888. Highly publicized, the carnival was attended by a large number of American tourists. Special trains were even chartered for the event. Discount ...
French Opera Theater, 1895−96 Season
Founded in Montreal in 1893, the professional troupe of the Théâtre de l'Opéra Français (French Opera Theater) moved to the Théâtre Français (French Theater), a renovated and electrified auditorium, one year later. The new venue was located at the corner of Sainte-Catherine Street and Saint-Dominique Street. In a context in which Quebec still had very few local professional artists and where theatrical and musical repertoire was primarily Anglophone, comedies, dramas, and operettas of the Théâtre de l'Opéra Français delighted the French-speaking Montrealers. Consisting of singers and actors from ...
Dominion Agricultural and Industrial Exhibition under the Patronage of His Excellency, the Governor General of Canada Will Take Place in the City of Montreal
This impressive poster of the Grande Exposition agricole et industrielle de la Puissance (Dominion Agricultural and Industrial Exhibition), held in Montreal in 1884, is more than two meters high. Dominated by the picture of the Montreal Crystal Palace, this monumental wood engraving was typical of the "mammoth posters" that were used in both Canada and the United States. The poster evokes the exceptional scale of the 1884 exhibition, which attracted a large number of visitors. These exhibitions took place during one week in August or September of each year. The ...
Women of the Empire in War Time: In Honour of their Great Devotion and Self-Sacrifice
This book was published in London in 1916 by the Dominion of Canada News Company to celebrate the contributions and sacrifice of the women of the British Empire in support of the Allies during World War I. Among the individuals extolled is Edith Cavell, a British nurse working in Brussels, who saved both German and Belgian lives and who was executed in 1915 by German authorities for helping Allied soldiers escape to the Netherlands, a neutral country. Different articles express admiration for the women of the Canadian Red Cross Society ...
Contributed by The British Library
Samuel de Champlain. Governor-General of Canada (New France)
There are no surviving portraits of Samuel de Champlain made during his lifetime. This lithograph is a counterfeit produced in circa 1854. It is based on the portrait of a contemporary of Champlain’s, Michel Particelli d’Emery (superintendent of finances under King Louis XIII), which was engraved by Balthasar Montcornet in Paris in 1654. At the bottom of the portrait, the forger signed the name “Ducornet,” an altered version of Montcornet. Soon after, the work was attributed to Louis-César-Joseph Ducornet, a handicapped artist who painted using his mouth and ...
Nipissing Indian in Canada, 1717
This hand-colored print dating from 1717 shows a Nipissing warrior, armed with bow and arrows, wearing moccasins, clothed in a tunic and cape obtained from the Europeans, and covered in tattoos. The French in Canada, priests in particular, found native tattoos repellent for religious reasons having to do with the sanctity of the human body. The Nipissing are an Algonquin people, first encountered by the French in 1613. Beginning in the early 1600s, the French formed alliances and developed friendships with a number of Indian tribes, including the Montagnais, Algonquin ...
Tattooed Fox Warrior
This drawing, executed at Quebec around 1730, shows a Fox warrior, tattooed and armed with a bow and arrow. An Algonquin people from the region of the Great Lakes, the Fox were decimated by wars with the French-backed Hurons and in the Fox Wars with the French that began at Detroit in 1712 and continued intermittently until 1738. The Fox Wars pitted the French and their Indian allies against the Fox, who had the support of the Sauk, Winnebago, and Kickapoo. The wars showed the inability of the French to ...
Canadian Indian
This hand-colored drawing portrays a Canadian Indian, most likely a Nipissing, who was part of a settled community on the Île aux Tourtesnear Montreal. An explanatory manuscript on a separate folio states: “these natives, who are good warriors, used to live by a Canadian lake named after them, and were attracted to the colony in 1704 in order to make it their home. They currently live on the Île aux Tourtes, which is southwest of the Island of Montreal on the Saint Lawrence River. The idea was to have ...
New Voyages to North America by the Baron de Lahontan
Louis-Armand de Lom d’Arce, baron de Lahontan (1666‒1716), was a French soldier who was sent to North America in 1683. He participated in the French campaign against the Iroquois on Lake Ontario in 1684 and was put in command of Fort Saint-Joseph (present-day Niles, Michigan) in 1687. In 1688‒89 he explored along the Fox and Wisconsin Rivers and the region around present-day Green Bay, Wisconsin. He returned to France in 1692, but fled to Portugal the following year in a dispute with Jacques-François de Monbeton de Brouillan ...
Second Voyage by the Commander on Behalf of the Very Pious King Francis, by Jacques Cartier, in the Year Fifteen Hundred and Thirty-six
During his first voyage to the New World, in 1534, Jacques Cartier explored the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and made contact with the Iroquois. Thanks to their accounts of a fabulously rich Kingdom of Saguenay, a second voyage was rapidly decided upon. Cartier’s second voyage to New France (present-day Canada), in 1535‒36, resulted in the discovery of the Saint Lawrence River, the most important route into the interior of the continent. This discovery for a long time would raise hopes of a passage to China. Cartier ascended the ...
Algonquin Grammar or on the Natives of North America, with the Description of the Country, Journals of Voyages, Memoirs, Remarks on Natural History, Et Cetera, Et Cetera
Louis Nicolas (active 1667‒75) was a French Jesuit who in 1664 was sent to Canada as a missionary, where he remained until 1675. He traveled widely and developed a keen interest in the people, languages, flora, and fauna of New France. He wrote three major works, none of which was published in his lifetime but which survived in manuscript form: Histoire naturelle des Indes occidentales (Natural history of the West Indies); the pictorial manuscript known as the Codex Canadensis; and the work presented here, Grammaire algonquine ou des sauvages ...
Relation of what Occurred in New France in the Year 1634
Relation de ce qui s’est passé en la Nouvelle France en l'année 1634 (Relation of what occurred in New France in the year 1634) is without doubt the finest of the Jesuit Relations published in Paris between 1632 and 1673. Written by the French missionary Paul Le Jeune (1592−1664), the work is known for its literary quality as well as its observations on the Montagnais Indians. Born near the city of Châlons-sur-Marne, in the region of Champagne, Le Jeune spent two years, between 1613 and 1615, as ...
The Long Journey to the Land of the Hurons, Located in America, near the Mer douce to the Far Borders of New France, Called Canada
Gabriel Sagard (circa 1590‒circa 1640) was a Recollet brother who in 1623‒24 lived among the Hurons, France’s main Indian allies at the time. Accompanied by Father Nicolas Viel, Sagard left his monastery in Paris in March 1623 and arrived in Quebec some three months later. In August Sagard, Viel, and one other Recollet missionary, Father Joseph Le Caron, set out for the Huron country with a party of Hurons returning from their annual exchange of furs with the French. Sagard lived among the Hurons until May 1624 ...
Journal of an Expedition against the Iroquois in 1687
Louis-Henri de Baugy (died 1720), known as Chevalier de Baugy, was from a noble family in the French province of Berry. He arrived in Canada in October 1682. He served as aide-de-camp to the Marquis de Denonville in his 1687 campaign against the Senecas, one of the Iroquois nations hostile to the French. Baugy left a detailed account of this expedition, during which the French and their Indian allies ransacked four enemy villages, including their cornfields. Presented here is an 1883 edition of Baugy’s Journal d'une expédition contre ...
Original Account of the Voyage of Jacques Cartier to Canada in 1534
In the 16th century, exploration and settlement of the New World was not a high priority of the French monarchy, which was primarily concerned about rivalry on the European continent with the powerful Habsburg Empire. Moreover, France was weakened by the Wars of Religion (1562‒98). The first official voyage of exploration sponsored by France was undertaken in 1524 by an experienced Italian navigator, Giovanni da Verrazano (1485‒1528), whom King Francis I (reigned 1515‒47) commissioned to discover a new route to Cathay (China). Financed by Italian bankers established ...
Relation of the Voyage to Port Royal in Acadia, or New France
Diéreville was a French surgeon and poet who in 1699‒1700 made a voyage to New France, which he recounted in his Relation du voyage du Port-Royal de l'Acadie, ou de la Nouvelle France (Relation of the voyage to Port Royal in Acadia or New France), published in 1708 in Rouen. His full name is unknown, as is information about his life beyond the few autobiographical details offered in his account. He appears to have studied surgery in Paris and published a number of poems in a French literary ...
Relation of what Occurred that was Most Remarkable in the Missions of the Fathers of the Society of Jesus in New France in the Years 1671 and 1672
The Jesuit priest Claude Dablon (circa 1619‒97) came to Canada in the late summer of 1655, where he remained until his death. In addition to his work as a missionary, Dablon developed a keen interest in the geography of the interior of North America, still largely unknown to Europeans at that time. In 1669 he and Father Claude Allouez (1622‒89) undertook a journey around Lake Superior, which contributed to the earliest European mapping of the lake. Dablon was appointed superior of the Jesuit missions in New France 1671 ...
Authorization Granted to Jacques Hertel de Cournoyer, to Travel to the Pays-d’En-Haut for the Purpose of Trading Furs
With this document dated April 30, 1721, and signed in Montreal, Philippe de Rigaud Vaudreuil (1643–1725), governor of New France, permitted Jacques Hertel de Cournoyer (1667–1748) to go to the Pays d'en Haut (a vast territory to the west of Montreal) with two canoes and eight men. Cournoyer was to serve Father Pierre-François-Xavier de Charlevoix (1682–1761), a priest who was traveling to the region ostensibly to visit missions, but who had been ordered by Philippe, duc d’Orléans, to find the western sea, thought to provide ...
Attack on Saint-Charles
This engraving depicts a scene from the rebellions of 1837−38 in Canada, which were sparked by dissatisfaction with the political status quo. Discontent raged in particular over British dominance of the affairs of what were then still two separate colonies, Lower Canada (the southern portion of the present-day province of Quebec) and Upper Canada (the southern portion of the present-day province of Ontario). In the rebellion, the reform leaders of Lower Canada, the most prominent being Louis Joseph Papineau (1786−1871), drew on long-simmering political tensions to recruit a ...
Views of the Quebec-Lake Saint-John Railway
This album contains 91 photographs taken between 1887 and 1890 by the Livernois Photography Studio of Quebec City. The photographs depict the development and economic expansion of the Saguenay Fjord and Lake Saint-John region of the province of Quebec at the end of the 19th century. Much of this growth was associated with the building of the new railroad system. The photographs show railroad construction, fishing, tourism activities, as well as various locations in Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean, including the village of Roberval. Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean is a vast area to the north of Quebec ...
Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day
This silent film records the festivities of the Fête de la Saint-Jean-Baptiste (Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day or Saint John the Baptist Day) on June 24, 1945. The celebration, which also marks the revival of an older summer solstice rite, has been observed by the Quebecois since 1834, when Ludger Duvernay, editor of the newspaper La Minerve, decided to revive this tradition, previously interrupted by the Conquest of 1760.  He organized a banquet in the garden of lawyer John McDonnell. The celebration spread in subsequent years, until 1837, when Duvernay was exiled during ...
Maple Sugar and Cooperation
Produced by the Producteurs de sucre d'érable du Québec (Maple Sugar Producers of Quebec) and directed by Father Maurice Proulx (1902–88), this 1955 film features the history of the organization and its new techniques for maple syrup production, from scientific standardization in laboratories to advanced wrapping and packaging. Proulx, trained in agronomy before becoming a filmmaker, made 36 films for industry and the provincial government between 1934 and 1961. The film begins with the tapping and collecting of the maple sap in the springtime. It explains how Quebec ...
Catechism of the Diocese of Sens
Catéchisme du diocese de Sens (Catechism of the diocese of Sens) was printed in 1765 by order of Jean Joseph Languet, Archbishop of Sens (1677–1753), and used in the Diocese of Quebec until 1777, when the first edition of the Catéchisme à l'usage du diocèse de Québec (Catechism for use in the Diocese of Quebec) was published. In the absence of a printing press in New France, the availability of catechisms and other books was subject to the same hazards that affected the import of other goods from ...
A Proclamation. Whereas by Information upon Oath it Appears that, Louis Joseph Papineau, of the City of Montreal, Esquire, is Charged with the Crime of High Treason
A passionate advocate of the rights of French Canadians and a critic of British imperial rule, Louis Joseph Papineau (1786−1871) was a member of the House of Assembly representing Lower Canada (present-day Quebec Province) from 1808 to 1838. He was elected speaker of the Assembly and served from 1815 to 1837. As leader of the Canadian Party he went to London in 1823 to campaign against the union of Upper and Lower Canada. Papineau is known as the leader of the Patriote movement, which led to the rebellions of ...
Monsieur Blondin! The Most Famous Tightrope Dancer in the World
Most likely used as a poster, this 1860 broadside mounted on wall paper advertises the show of the famous French tightrope walker Monsieur Blondin. Jean-Francois Gravelet (1824–97), also known as Charles Blondin or the Great Blondin, was born in France. By the age of five he was able to walk on a rope stretched between two kitchen chairs. He repeated his tight roping feats for the next 70 years, taking more and more risks, until his death in London in 1897. Blondin became a household name in Canada when ...
Geographical Map of New France Made by Mr. de Champlain of Saintonge, Ordinary Captain for the King’s Navy
New France was born more than four centuries ago as a result of the determination and talents of Samuel de Champlain (1574–1635), a native of Saintonge, France. Champlain embarked for Canada from Honfleur on March 15, 1603, and reached Tadoussac after a 40-day Atlantic crossing. He first explored some 50–60 kilometers up the Saguenay River. He then traveled up the Saint Lawrence River to a location near present-day Montreal, collecting information from the Indians about the geography of the land he sought to explore. In the summer of ...
History of the Métis Nation in Western Canada
Histoire de la nation métisse dans l'Ouest canadien (History of the Métis nation in western Canada) presents the history of a people, born out of a unique cultural mix and a fierce fight for survival. Canada’s Métis people developed as the mixed-race descendants of Native American women and European colonists who traveled to Canada from France, and later from Britain, to explore and to trade. The Europeans were eager to tap into the wealth of the great Canadian West, and much of the work focuses on the tensions ...
Labrador and Anticosti. Travel Journal, History, Topography, Canadian and Acadian Fishermen, Montagnais Indians
Labrador et Anticosti. Journal de voyage, histoire, topographie, pêcheurs canadiens et acadiens, indiens montagnais (Labrador and Anticosti. Travel journal, history, topography, Canadian and Acadian Fishermen, Montagnais Indians) is the account, illustrated by many photographs, of a two-month journey in the region known today as Côte-Nord, undertaken by churchman and naturalist Victor-Alphonse Huard (1853–1929) in 1895. This vast area is located in Quebec, a few hundred kilometers northeast of Quebec City. During his travels, Huard developed relationships with elders, lighthouse keepers, missionaries, and other people he met that allowed him ...
Montreal Winter Carnival, February, 1887
Presented here is the official program of the Montreal Winter Carnival of 1887. Adorned with the first coat of arms of the city of Montreal, the program is a fine example of Victorian visual culture with its somewhat crowded yet elegant design, gold embellishments and floral motifs, and a shadow image of people wearing snowshoes, with the Ice Palace in the background. The program is a testament to the expansion of winter sports in Montreal, from curling to the toboggan to the still relatively new game of ice hockey. The ...
Montreal 5th Annual Winter Carnival and Ice Palace Fete, 1889
This chromolithograph advertises the Montreal Winter Carnival of 1889. It features a man on snowshoes holding a banner. The carnival is billed as “a frosty frolic.” In the background can be seen the Ice Palace, a prominent feature of the carnivals, with fireworks in the sky overhead and people tobogganing, skiing, and skating in the foreground. Purchased in 2007 by the National Library and Archives of Quebec at an auction in New York City, this remarkable poster is a graphic testimony to the large publicity effort that took place prior ...
Freshwater Fish of Canada
André-Napoléon Montpetit (1840–98) was an author, a journalist, and the father of economist and professor Édouard Montpetit. An avid angling enthusiast, Montpetit showed exceptional talent for observing fish, their behaviors, and their habitats. This work, which is specific to Quebec, illustrates the author’s rich empirical knowledge as well as his familiarity with the works about fish of European and North American naturalists. Elegantly written, the book was praised both by fishermen and naturalists alike. It includes fine prints, several of which are in color, and an index. The ...
A Wandering Canadian
Engraved on a wax cylinder around 1905, this rendition by Joseph Saucier (1869‒1941) and an accompanying orchestra is one of the oldest known recordings of Un Canadien errant (A wandering Canadian), a folk song written in 1842 by Antoine Gérin-Lajoie and sung to the tune of J’ai fait une maîtresse (I have found a mistress). With the Lower Canada Rebellion of 1837‒38 as its theme, the song became one of the most popular songs of the late 1800s in French Canada. It has been recorded on many ...
Montreal, Old and New: Entertaining, Convincing, Fascinating. A Unique Guide for the Managing Editor
Montreal, Old and New: Entertaining, Convincing, Fascinating. A Unique Guide for the Managing Editor is a tribute to the city of Montreal, which in 1915, when the book was published, was the sixth largest city on the North American continent. A large series of construction projects had just been completed that year in the part of the city now known as Vieux-Montréal (Old Montreal). The impressive new office buildings gave the city a very modern look. The book offers more than 1,000 print and photographic images of Montreal buildings ...
Map of Quebec City
Plan de la ville de Québec (Map of Quebec City) is a hand-drawn map created in 1727, which shows the Upper Town of Quebec City within and outside the city walls, and the Lower Town, near the confluence of the Saint Lawrence River and the Saint Charles River with its tidal flats. A compass wind rose is situated in the Saint Lawrence, on the left side of the map, and the map is oriented with north to the right. It was drawn by Gaspard-Joseph Chaussegros de Léry (1682–1756), who ...
Falls at the Mouth of Salmon Stream, Lowe Inlet, British Columbia. June 3, 1899
This image is from the album of photographs compiled by Albert K. Fisher (1856−1948) to document the Harriman Expedition that explored the coast of Alaska in June and July of 1899. Fisher was an ornithologist and vertebrate zoologist who participated in many important scientific expeditions to the American West, including the Death Valley expedition of 1891 and biological surveys in California, Nevada, the Arizona Territory (including New Mexico), Utah, and portions of other western states in 1892. Fisher was also a member of the Harriman Expedition. The photograph is ...
Contributed by Library of Congress