311 results in English
The Cultural and National Movement in Ukraine in the 16th and 17th Centuries
Mykhailo Hrushevs’kyi (1866–1934) was a professor of history and a leading political figure in Ukraine, who served as chairman of the Ukrainian Central Council at the time of the Russian Revolution of 1917. This work, published in 1912, is devoted to the national and cultural movement of Ukraine in the 16th and 17th centuries and the formation of a Ukrainian national consciousness. Much of the book deals with relations between Ukraine and Poland and their effect on the formation of a Ukrainian state. The author describes a decline ...
Ukrainian Culture: A Short History of the Cultural Life of the Ukrainian People
In the summer of 1918, Ivan Ogienko (1882–1972), a Ukrainian scientist and political, public, and ecclesiastical figure, became a founder and the first president of Kam'ianets'-Podil's'kyi state university (subsequently renamed after him). He later gave a course of lectures on Ukrainian culture at the university, on which this book is based. Part I concerns the history of the culture until the 17th century. It describes the territory of Ukraine, along with song, epic (Cossack) poems and other major literary works, the language, and architecture. Also ...
Yasinya. Wooden Churches
This image is part of an album probably published in about 1920 that contains 20 photographs of scenes in Carpathian Ruthenia, a mountainous region, most of which was part of the Austria-Hungary before World War I, but which became part of the new Czechoslovak state in 1919. Today the largest portion of it forms Zakarpattia Oblast in western Ukraine, with smaller parts in Slovakia and Poland. On the right in this picture is the Church of the Ascension of Our Lord in Yasinya, built in 1824 and typical of the ...
Yasinya. Wooden Church
This image is part of an album probably published in about 1920 that contains 20 photographs of scenes in Carpathian Ruthenia, a mountainous region, most of which was part of the Austria-Hungary before World War I, but which became part of the new Czechoslovak state in 1919. Today the largest portion of it forms Zakarpattia Oblast in western Ukraine, with smaller parts in Slovakia and Poland. Shown here is the Church of Saints Peter and Paul and its bell tower in the Plytovate area of Yasinya, across the Tisza River ...
Ukrainian People in the Past and Present
This book is the first volume of what became a two-volume, Russian-language encyclopedia of the Ukrainian people. The authors of the articles were prominent Ukrainian and Russian scholars. They included S. Rudnitskii, who wrote about geography of Ukraine; O. Rusov, V. Ohrimovich and S. Tomashevskii, who wrote about population statistics; F. Vovk, whose article was on anthropological and ethnographic features specific to the Ukrainians; and O. Shakhmatov, who contributed a history of the Ukrainian language. The book includes numerous illustrations. World War I interrupted the production of the encyclopedia, but ...
Białowieża Forest
Białowieża Forest lies partly in southwest Belarus and partly in eastern Poland and is situated on the watershed of the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea. As early as the late 14th–early 15th centuries, under Jogaila, grand duke of Lithuania and king of Poland, Białowieża, which is still the largest primeval forest in Europe, became a protected natural territory. This book by Georgīĭ Kart︠s︡ov contains information about the location and size of the forest, its topography, vegetation, and the history of royal hunting from the 1500s to ...
Images of the Grand Ducal Radzivill Family from the Originals in the Treasury Collection
Icones Familiae Ducalis Radivilianae ex originalibus in Ganzophylacio ordinationis desumptae (Images of the Grand Ducal Radzivill Family from the originals in the Treasury Collection) is an album containing 165 portraits of the members of the Radzivill family from the period 1346–1780. The Radzivills produced more outstanding political, church, military, and cultural figures than any other family in the history of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. At the height of its power in the 15th century, the duchy ruled over the territory of present-day Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, and Ukraine, and ...
Design of the Monument to Alexander I, by Sculptor Martos, 1828
The monument to Tsar Alexander I (1777−1825) was unveiled on October 23 (October 11, Old Style), 1831, to commemorate Alexander’s visit to and death from illness in Taganrog, a village in southern Russian located on the north shore of the Sea of Azov. The tsar’s widow, Elizaveta Alekseevna, chose the site for the monument. Most of the money for its construction was donated by the imperial house of Romanov; the rest was raised by the residents of Taganrog. The bronze figure of the emperor at full height ...
Design of the Medal and Token Commemorating the Construction of the Monument to Nicholas I in Kiev, Kiev Province, 1895
This ink and watercolor document contains designs for the medal and the token issued to commemorate the construction of the monument to Tsar Nicholas I (1796−1855, reigned 1825−55) in Kiev. The designs are by the academician in architecture Vladimir Nikolaev (1847−1911), who also designed the pedestal for the monument. Nikolaev was the municipal and eparchial (diocesan) architect of Kiev at the time and designed many churches and mansions in the city. The statue of Nicholas was by the sculptor Matvei Afanas’evich Chizhov (1838−1916). The monument ...
Emperor Alexander II with the Children: Sergei and Maria
This photograph, taken in 1860 or 1861, shows Tsar Alexander II (1818−81, ruled 1855−81), with two of his eight children: Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna (born 1853) and Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich (born 1857). Alexander is seated in a chair, three-quarters to his left, wearing a military uniform. The grand duchess is leaning on her father’s right knee, facing forward; the grand duke is sitting on his father’s left leg.  Alexander was most respected for his emancipation of the serfs in 1861, and his domestic reforms included ...
Family of Emperor Alexander III
This photograph of the family of Tsar Alexander III (1845−94) was taken about a year before his death from nephritis. Also shown in the photo are Empress Maria Fedorovna (1866−1928), Grand Duke Nicholas Alexandrovich (1868−1918), Grand Duke George Alexandrovich (1871−99), Grand Duchess Xenia Alexandrovna (1875−1960), Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna (1882−1918), and Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich (1878−1918). Empress Maria Fedorovna, also called Princess Dagmar, fled Russia in 1919 with other members of the Romanov family aboard the British battleship HMS Marlborough. She settled and ...
Russian Royal Family at Borodino, 1912
This photograph shows Tsar Nicholas II (1868−1918) and Tsarina Alexandra Fedorovna (1872−1918) with their daughters and other notables, walking on the train platform after arriving at Borodino Station on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the Battle of Borodino. The second individual from the right is Baron Vladimir Borisovich Frederiks (1838−1927), a minister of the imperial court who was close to Nicholas II. During Napoleon’s invasion of Russia in 1812, Russian and French armies clashed on the Borodino battlefield, situated to the west of Moscow ...
Certified Charter Confirming the Election of Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov as Tsar of Moscow State
This book, published in Moscow in 1906, contains a copy of the certified charter confirming the election of Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov (1596−1645) as ruler of the Tsardom of Muscovy in 1613. The reproduction of the charter appears after page 96, following a lengthy introduction by Sergei A. Belokurov. Copies of the charter were made at Moscow University in 1904 by the Imperial Society of History and Antiquities of Russia to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the society. Belokurov, a historian of the Russian Orthodox Church and an active member ...
Essays on the History of the Civil War of 1917-1920
Essays on the History of the Civil War of 1917-1920 is an early history of the civil war that followed the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917. The book was written by Anatolii Anishev, a researcher at the Tolmachev Military-Political Academy in Leningrad (present-day Saint Petersburg), and published in Leningrad in 1925. In his introduction, Anishev notes that archival sources relating to the war were in poor condition and that almost no monographs existed. This forced him to rely on articles in White Russian magazines and newspapers, which were biased and unreliable ...
Imperial House of Romanov
This publication was produced in 1913 to mark the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty. It contains an introduction, a genealogical sketch on the Romanov boyars, and a short history of the Romanovs in 17 chapters. The volume also includes biographies, portraits, and photographs of the members of the dynasty. In the introduction, “Three Centuries of the House of Romanov,” Elpidifor Barsov (1836−1917) provides a brief historical overview of the context of Romanov rule. He describes first “the time of troubles” preceding the election of Mikhail Fedorovich, the first ...
Album Commemorating the Tercentenary Anniversary of the Imperial House of Romanov
This book is one of many works published in Russia in connection with the celebration, in 1913, of the 300th anniversary of the House of Romanov. The author, Ivan Bazhenov, was a church historian, theologian, and local historian in Kostroma. In his introduction, Bazhenov states that the goal of the publication is “to give the readers an opportunity to understand and evaluate the great significance of this anniversary and at the same time to awaken their gratitude for the founder of the Romanov dynasty.” He begins by describing Russia before ...
Kuklin House (1790s; after 1817), Governor's Mansion, Study of Nicholas II, who Lived Here with his Family from August 1917 until mid April, 1918, Tobol'sk, Russia
This photograph of the study of Nicholas II at the Governor General's Mansion in Tobol'sk was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Tobol'sk was founded in 1587 by the cossack leader Daniel Chulkov near the confluence of the Tobol' and Irtysh rivers. Thereafter, Tobol'sk became the main administrative center of Siberia until the mid-19th century. A factor in its decline was the routing of the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
General Map of Taurida Province: Showing Postal and Major Roads, Stations and the Distance in Versts between Them
This 1822 map of Taurida Province is from a larger work, Geograficheskii atlas Rossiiskoi imperii, tsarstva Pol'skogo i velikogo kniazhestva Finliandskogo (Geographical atlas of the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Poland, and the Grand Duchy of Finland), containing 60 maps of the Russian Empire. Compiled and engraved by Colonel V.P. Piadyshev, it reflects the detailed mapping carried out by Russian military cartographers in the first quarter of the 19th century. The map shows population centers (six gradations by size), postal stations, roads (four types), provincial and district borders ...
General Map of Kursk Province: Showing Postal and Major Roads, Stations and the Distance in Versts between Them
This 1822 map of Kursk Province is from a larger work, Geograficheskii atlas Rossiiskoi imperii, tsarstva Pol'skogo i velikogo kniazhestva Finliandskogo (Geographical atlas of the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Poland, and the Grand Duchy of Finland), containing 60 maps of the Russian Empire. Compiled and engraved by Colonel V.P. Piadyshev, it reflects the detailed mapping carried out by Russian military cartographers in the first quarter of the 19th century. The map shows population centers (seven gradations by size), postal stations, roads (four types), provincial and district borders ...
General Map of Orel Province: Showing Postal and Major Roads, Stations and the Distance in Versts between Them
This 1822 map of Orel Province is from a larger work, Geograficheskii atlas Rossiiskoi imperii, tsarstva Pol'skogo i velikogo kniazhestva Finliandskogo (Geographical atlas of the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Poland, and the Grand Duchy of Finland), containing 60 maps of the Russian Empire. Compiled and engraved by Colonel V.P. Piadyshev, it reflects the detailed mapping carried out by Russian military cartographers in the first quarter of the 19th century. The map shows population centers (six gradations by size), postal stations, roads (four types), provincial and district borders ...
General Map of Kaluga Province: Showing Postal and Major Roads, Stations and the Distance in Versts between Them
This 1822 map of Kaluga Province is from a larger work, Geograficheskii atlas Rossiiskoi imperii, tsarstva Pol'skogo i velikogo kniazhestva Finliandskogo(Geographical atlas of the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Poland, and the Grand Duchy of Finland), containing 60 maps of the Russian Empire. Compiled and engraved by Colonel V.P. Piadyshev, it reflects the detailed mapping carried out by Russian military cartographers in the first quarter of the 19th century. The map shows population centers (six gradations by size), postal stations, roads (four types), provincial and district borders ...
General Map of Ryazan Province: Showing Postal and Major Roads, Stations and the Distance in Versts between Them
This 1822 map of Ryazan Province is from a larger work, Geograficheskii atlas Rossiiskoi imperii, tsarstva Pol'skogo i velikogo kniazhestva Finliandskogo (Geographical atlas of the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Poland, and the Grand Duchy of Finland), containing 60 maps of the Russian Empire. Compiled and engraved by Colonel V.P. Piadyshev, it reflects the detailed mapping carried out by Russian military cartographers in the first quarter of the 19th century. The map shows population centers (six gradations by size), postal stations, roads (four types), provincial and district borders ...
General Map of Tambov Province: Showing Postal and Major Roads, Stations and the Distance in Versts between Them
This 1822 map of Tambov Province is from a larger work, Geograficheskii atlas Rossiiskoi imperii, tsarstva Pol'skogo i velikogo kniazhestva Finliandskogo (Geographical atlas of the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Poland, and the Grand Duchy of Finland), containing 60 maps of the Russian Empire. Compiled and engraved by Colonel V.P. Piadyshev, it reflects the detailed mapping carried out by Russian military cartographers in the first quarter of the 19th century. The map shows population centers (seven gradations by size), postal stations, roads (four types), provincial and district borders ...
General Map of Voronezh Province: Showing Postal and Major Roads, Stations and the Distance in Versts between Them
This 1822 map of Voronezh Province is from a larger work, Geograficheskii atlas Rossiiskoi imperii, tsarstva Pol'skogo i velikogo kniazhestva Finliandskogo (Geographical atlas of the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Poland, and the Grand Duchy of Finland), containing 60 maps of the Russian Empire. Compiled and engraved by Colonel V.P. Piadyshev, it reflects the detailed mapping carried out by Russian military cartographers in the first quarter of the 19th century. The map shows population centers (seven gradations by size), postal stations, roads (four types), provincial and district borders ...
General Map of Penza Province: Showing Postal and Major Roads, Stations and the Distance in Versts between Them
This 1822 map of Penza Province is from a larger work, Geograficheskii atlas Rossiiskoi imperii, tsarstva Pol'skogo i velikogo kniazhestva Finliandskogo (Geographical atlas of the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Poland, and the Grand Duchy of Finland), containing 60 maps of the Russian Empire. Compiled and engraved by Colonel V.P. Piadyshev, it reflects the detailed mapping carried out by Russian military cartographers in the first quarter of the 19th century. The map shows population centers (six gradations by size), postal stations, roads (four types), provincial and district borders ...
General Map of Kazan Province: Showing Postal and Major Roads, Stations and the Distance in Versts between Them
This 1822 map of Kazan Province is from a larger work, Geograficheskii atlas Rossiiskoi imperii, tsarstva Pol'skogo i velikogo kniazhestva Finliandskogo (Geographical atlas of the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Poland, and the Grand Duchy of Finland), containing 60 maps of the Russian Empire. Compiled and engraved by Colonel V.P. Piadyshev, it reflects the detailed mapping carried out by Russian military cartographers in the first quarter of the 19th century. The map shows population centers (six gradations by size), postal stations, roads (four types), provincial and district borders ...
General Map of Perm Province: Showing Postal and Major Roads, Stations and the Distance in Versts between Them
This 1824 map of Perm Province is from a larger work, Geograficheskii atlas Rossiiskoi imperii, tsarstva Pol'skogo i velikogo kniazhestva Finliandskogo (Geographical atlas of the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Poland, and the Grand Duchy of Finland), containing 60 maps of the Russian Empire. Compiled and engraved by Colonel V.P. Piadyshev, it reflects the detailed mapping carried out by Russian military cartographers in the first quarter of the 19th century. The map shows population centers (six gradations by size), postal stations, roads (four types), provincial and district borders ...
General Map of Orenburg Province: Showing Postal and Major Roads, Stations and the Distance in Versts between Them
This 1824 map of Orenburg Province is from a larger work, Geograficheskii atlas Rossiiskoi imperii, tsarstva Pol'skogo i velikogo kniazhestva Finliandskogo (Geographical atlas of the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Poland, and the Grand Duchy of Finland), containing 60 maps of the Russian Empire. Compiled and engraved by Colonel V.P. Piadyshev, it reflects the detailed mapping carried out by Russian military cartographers in the first quarter of the 19th century. The map shows population centers (six gradations by size), postal stations, roads (four types), borders with foreign lands ...
General Map of Tula Province: Showing Postal and Major Roads, Stations and the Distance in Versts between Them
This 1822 map of Tula Province is from a larger work, Geograficheskii atlas Rossiiskoi imperii, tsarstva Pol'skogo i velikogo kniazhestva Finliandskogo (Geographical atlas of the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Poland, and the Grand Duchy of Finland), containing 60 maps of the Russian Empire. Compiled and engraved by Colonel V.P. Piadyshev, it reflects the detailed mapping carried out by Russian military cartographers in the first quarter of the 19th century. The map shows population centers (six gradations by size), postal stations, roads (four types), provincial and district borders ...
General Map of Yaroslavl Province: Showing Postal and Major Roads, Stations and the Distance in Versts between Them
This 1822 map of Yaroslavl Province is from a larger work, Geograficheskii atlas Rossiiskoi imperii, tsarstva Pol'skogo i velikogo kniazhestva Finliandskogo (Geographical atlas of the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Poland, and the Grand Duchy of Finland), containing 60 maps of the Russian Empire. Compiled and engraved by Colonel V.P. Piadyshev, it reflects the detailed mapping carried out by Russian military cartographers in the first quarter of the 19th century. The map shows population centers (six gradations by size), postal stations, roads (four types), provincial and district borders ...
General Map of Kostroma Province: Showing Postal and Major Roads, Stations and the Distance in Versts between Them
This 1822 map of Kostroma Province is from a larger work, Geograficheskii atlas Rossiiskoi imperii, tsarstva Pol'skogo i velikogo kniazhestva Finliandskogo (Geographical atlas of the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Poland, and the Grand Duchy of Finland), containing 60 maps of the Russian Empire. Compiled and engraved by Colonel V.P. Piadyshev, it reflects the detailed mapping carried out by Russian military cartographers in the first quarter of the 19th century. The map shows population centers (six gradations by size), postal stations, roads (four types), provincial and district borders ...
General Map of Vladimir Province: Showing Postal and Major Roads, Stations and the Distance in Versts between Them
This 1822 map of Vladimir Province is from a larger work, Geograficheskii atlas Rossiiskoi imperii, tsarstva Pol'skogo i velikogo kniazhestva Finliandskogo (Geographical atlas of the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Poland, and the Grand Duchy of Finland), containing 60 maps of the Russian Empire. Compiled and engraved by Colonel V.P. Piadyshev, it reflects the detailed mapping carried out by Russian military cartographers in the first quarter of the 19th century. The map shows population centers (seven gradations by size), postal stations, roads (four types), provincial and district borders ...
General Map of Volhynia Province: Showing Postal and Major Roads, Stations and the Distance in Versts between Them
This 1820 map of Volhynia Province is from a larger work, Geograficheskii atlas Rossiiskoi imperii, tsarstva Pol'skogo i velikogo kniazhestva Finliandskogo (Geographical atlas of the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Poland, and the Grand Duchy of Finland), containing 60 maps of the Russian Empire. Compiled and engraved by Colonel V.P. Piadyshev, it reflects the detailed mapping carried out by Russian military cartographers in the first quarter of the 19th century. The map shows population centers (five gradations by size), postal stations, taverns, roads (four types), state, provincial and ...
General Map of Viatka Province: Showing Postal and Major Roads, Stations and the Distance in Versts between Them
This 1822 map of Viatka Province is from a larger work, Geograficheskii atlas Rossiiskoi imperii, tsarstva Pol'skogo i velikogo kniazhestva Finliandskogo (Geographical atlas of the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Poland, and the Grand Duchy of Finland), containing 60 maps of the Russian Empire. Compiled and engraved by Colonel V.P. Piadyshev, it reflects the detailed mapping carried out by Russian military cartographers in the first quarter of the 19th century. The map shows population centers (seven gradations by size), postal stations, roads (four types), provincial and district borders ...
General Map of Podolsk Province: Showing Postal and Major Roads, Stations and the Distance in Versts between Them
This 1820 map of Podolsk Province is from a larger work, Geograficheskii atlas Rossiiskoi imperii, tsarstva Pol'skogo i velikogo kniazhestva Finliandskogo (Geographical atlas of the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Poland, and the Grand Duchy of Finland), containing 60 maps of the Russian Empire. Compiled and engraved by Colonel V.P. Piadyshev, it reflects the detailed mapping carried out by Russian military cartographers in the first quarter of the 19th century. The map shows population centers (six gradations by size), postal stations, roads (four types), provincial and district borders ...
General Map of Mogilev Province: Showing Postal and Major Roads, Stations and the Distance in Versts between Them
This 1821 map of Mogilev Province is from a larger work, Geograficheskii atlas Rossiiskoi imperii, tsarstva Pol'skogo i velikogo kniazhestva Finliandskogo (Geographical atlas of the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Poland, and the Grand Duchy of Finland), containing 60 maps of the Russian Empire. Compiled and engraved by Colonel V.P. Piadyshev, it reflects the detailed mapping carried out by Russian military cartographers in the first quarter of the 19th century. The map shows population centers (six gradations by size), postal stations, roads (four types), provincial and district borders ...
General Map of Tver Province: Showing Postal and Major Roads, Stations and the Distance in Versts between Them
This 1821 map of Tver Province is from a larger work, Geograficheskii atlas Rossiiskoi imperii, tsarstva Pol'skogo i velikogo kniazhestva Finliandskogo (Geographical atlas of the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Poland, and the Grand Duchy of Finland), containing 60 maps of the Russian Empire. Compiled and engraved by Colonel V.P. Piadyshev, it reflects the detailed mapping carried out by Russian military cartographers in the first quarter of the 19th century. The map shows population centers (six gradations by size), postal stations, roads (four types), provincial and district borders ...
General Map of Moscow Province: Showing Postal and Major Roads, Stations and the Distance in Versts between Them
This 1821 map of Moscow Province is from a larger work, Geograficheskii atlas Rossiiskoi imperii, tsarstva Pol'skogo i velikogo kniazhestva Finliandskogo (Geographical atlas of the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Poland, and the Grand Duchy of Finland), containing 60 maps of the Russian Empire. Compiled and engraved by Colonel V.P. Piadyshev, it reflects the detailed mapping carried out by Russian military cartographers in the first quarter of the 19th century. The map shows population centers (six gradations by size), postal stations, roads (four types), provincial and district borders ...
General Map of Saratov Province: Showing Postal and Major Roads, Stations and the Distance in Versts between Them
This 1823 map of Saratov Province is from a larger work, Geograficheskii atlas Rossiiskoi imperii, tsarstva Pol'skogo i velikogo kniazhestva Finliandskogo (Geographical atlas of the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Poland, and the Grand Duchy of Finland), containing 60 maps of the Russian Empire. Compiled and engraved by Colonel V.P. Piadyshev, it reflects the detailed mapping carried out by Russian military cartographers in the first quarter of the 19th century. The map shows population centers (seven gradations by size), postal stations, roads (four types), provincial and district borders ...
General Map of the Land of the Don Cossacks: Showing Postal and Major Roads, Stations and the Distance in Versts between Them
This 1823 map of the Land of the Don Cossacks is from a larger work, Geograficheskii atlas Rossiiskoi imperii, tsarstva Pol'skogo i velikogo kniazhestva Finliandskogo (Geographical atlas of the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Poland, and the Grand Duchy of Finland), containing 60 maps of the Russian Empire. Compiled and engraved by Colonel V.P. Piadyshev, it reflects the detailed mapping carried out by Russian military cartographers in the first quarter of the 19th century. The map shows population centers (seven gradations by size), postal stations, roads (four types ...
General Map of Astrakhan Province: Showing Postal and Major Roads, Stations and the Distance in Versts between Them
This 1823 map of Astrakhan Province is from a larger work, Geograficheskii atlas Rossiiskoi imperii, tsarstva Pol'skogo i velikogo kniazhestva Finliandskogo (Geographical atlas of the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Poland, and the Grand Duchy of Finland), containing 60 maps of the Russian Empire. Compiled and engraved by Colonel V.P. Piadyshev, it reflects the detailed mapping carried out by Russian military cartographers in the first quarter of the 19th century. The map shows population centers (six gradations by size), postal stations, roads (four types), provincial and district borders ...
General Map of the Caucasus Region and the Land of the Mountain Peoples: Showing Postal and Major Roads, Stations and the Distance in Versts between Them
This 1825 map of the Caucasus and Land of the Mountain Peoples is from a larger work, Geograficheskii atlas Rossiiskoi imperii, tsarstva Pol'skogo i velikogo kniazhestva Finliandskogo (Geographical atlas of the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Poland, and the Grand Duchy of Finland), containing 60 maps of the Russian Empire. Compiled and engraved by Colonel V.P. Piadyshev, it reflects the detailed mapping carried out by Russian military cartographers in the first quarter of the 19th century. The map shows population centers (six gradations by size), postal stations, roads ...