115 results in English
Zeravshan District. City of Samarkand and the Types of People Seen in Its Streets. A Day Laborer
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Products of Mexico and Central America
This black-and-white sketch map showing the products of Mexico and Central America was prepared for publication in the Bulletin of the Pan American Union. It is now preserved in the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States, successor organization to the Pan American Union. Typed or written on the map are the locations of centers of both agricultural and mineral production. The map shows mineral production located mainly in Mexico, with asphalt, coal, gold, lead, petroleum, precious stones (opals), quicksilver (mercury), and silver listed. Mexico is also shown ...
Map of Bolivia, Showing Forest and Agriculture Areas, and Mineral Localities
This 1912 map shows the agricultural, forest, and mineral wealth of Bolivia. Mineral production is shown as located mainly in the western part of the country, in or near the Andes Mountains. The locations of mines producing antimony, bismuth, copper, gold, lead, silver, wolfram, and tin, Bolivia’s most important mineral product, are indicated. Tin was mined in the departments of Cochabamba, La Paz, Oruro, and Potosí. Production boomed in the late-19th century–early 20th century, as the extension of the rail line to Oruro made possible the export of ...
Illustrated Work on the Storage and Drainage Activities at the Lakes and Rivers of the Yellow River and the Grand Canal
This work was originally in the Qing imperial collection. The painting of the work was executed in an exquisite manner. A title at head of the work reads: Huang Yun hu he zong tu (The overall map of the lakes and rivers of the Yellow River and the Grand Canal). The work depicts Dajiang (the Yangtze River) in the south up to the borders of Shandong, Henan, and Jiangnan in the north. It has detailed scenes of the tributaries, harbors, and bridges of the lakes and rivers, followed by two ...
Contributed by National Central Library
Copy of Hoondee in Payment of Moorcroft’s Ransom
This photograph of a hondee, or hundi, is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. A hundi is a Hindi word for a negotiable financial instrument, such as a bill of exchange or promissory note, by which the signer authorized the recipient to pay a specified sum of money to a third party. This document, in English and Persian, was a ransom payment for 11,000 rupees, signed by the English explorer William Moorcroft (1767–1825) on December 20, 1824 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Memorandum on the Organization of a System of Federal European Union
At the annual meeting of the Assembly of the League of Nations in September 1929, Foreign Minister Aristide Briand of France proposed the establishment of a federal European union to coordinate economic and political policies. Briand believed that the proposed union should be created within the framework of the League, and promised to submit a detailed plan for a federal union to the 27 European states that were League members. Shown here is Briand’s plan, which was issued for discussion on May 1, 1930. The proposal was brought before ...
Indemnities of War: Subsidies and Loans
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Indemnities of War: Subsidies and Loans is Number 158 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The part on indemnities includes two sections. The first begins by explaining that in accordance ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Salmon Canneries of the Pacific Northwest
In the late 19th century, salmon canneries became a major industry along the Pacific coastline of the United States and Canada. American fishing interests in the Pacific Northwest pressed for the Alaska Purchase in 1867 and strongly shaped regional politics up until the turn of the 20th century. Imperial Russia had imposed limits on Americans fishing in Alaskan waters. After Russia sold Alaska to the United States in 1867, Americans gained access to new fishing grounds, including some of the world’s best salmon runs. The combination of access to ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
General Record of the Conversion of Silver and Gold of Different Measures of Purity and Weight, in Various Quantities: Their Value in Percentages and Other Rules and Recommendations Indispensable to the Viceroyalty of Peru
Libro general de las redvciones de plata, y oro de diferentes leyes y peʃos, de menor á mayor cantidad, y de ʃus intereʃʃes á tanto por ciento, con otras reglas, y auiʃos muy neceʃsarios para eʃtos reynos del Piru(General record of the conversion of silver and gold of different measures of purity and weight, in various quantities: Their value in percentages and other rules and recommendations indispensable to the viceroyalty of Peru) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1597. The first printing press in South America was established in ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Book on the Conversion of Silver that is Traded from Thirty up to a Hundred and Twenty-nine Marks, of All Qualities, with a Standard Glossary in the Margin and Three Tables in the End
Libro de plata redvzida (Book on the conversion of silver) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1607. This work, by a Spanish-born accountant called Francisco Juan Garreguilla, is a manual for silver merchants, a conversion tool that enabled them to determine the price of a piece of silver by its purity and weight. The first printing press in South America was established in Lima by Antonio Ricardo (circa 1540−1606), an Italian who had worked for a time as a printer with the Jesuits in Mexico City. This book is ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Cart Production. Cart Assembly
This photograph is from the trades (economic) part of Turkestan Album,a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Commerce with Cast-iron and Copper Wares and the Manufacture of Copper Wares. Knife Grinder
This photograph is from the trades (economic) part of Turkestan Album,a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Small Commerce. Jewish Distillery
This photograph is from the trades (economic) part of Turkestan Album,a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Lest Liberty Perish from the Face of the Earth - Buy Bonds
In 1917 the United States entered the Great War, as World War I was known at the time. A national propaganda campaign was started to convince Americans to support the war effort. Some of the images used in this campaign have become a permanent part of American cultural iconography, notably J.M. Flagg’s famed 1917 poster of Uncle Sam declaring, “I want YOU.” In addition to recruiting troops to fight, the U.S. government issued “Liberty Bonds” to help finance the war effort. Artists helped the cause by making ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Book of the Hebrews
Manuals or notarial protocols are books used by Catalan notaries since the 13th century to register in accurate chronological order all notarized acts. Some notaries opened special books in which they collected one type of document. Presented here, for example, is a book maintained by a notary in Cardona, in south-central Catalonia, used exclusively for recording legal acts relating to the Jewish inhabitants of the village. On its pages, written in Latin, are found extracts concerning the acknowledgement of debts, procurements, contracts, donations, and payments. Analysis of the notarial contracts ...
Passbook of Martin Kukučín
Presented here is the bank passbook of Martin Kukučín (1860–1928), the most distinguished representative of modern Slovak realist literature. Kukučín worked as a physician in Prague, on the island of Brač (Croatia), and in Chile and Argentina, all of which are reflected in his literary work. The passbook, containing the record of the royalties Kukučín earned for his literary work, was opened for him on December 31, 1910. At that time Kukučín was living in South America and did not even possess Hungarian citizenship. Kukučín’s real name was ...
Contributed by Slovak National Library
Map for the Clarification of Land Titles in New France, 1678
This large and beautiful map by Jean-Baptiste Franquelin (1651–after 1712), later the royal hydrographer in Quebec, shows the French presence in the Saint Lawrence valley and Atlantic Canada in 1678. For 20 years from the early 1670s, maps by Franquelin accompanied reports to France sent by the highest officials in its American territories. This map was dedicated to Jean-Baptise Colbert (1619−83), minister of finance under King Louis XIV, who was interested in the colonization of New France. The map includes illustrations of the animals, plants, and people of ...
Mr. Law, King's Counsel, Controller General of Finances, Inspector General of the Bank and the Company of the Indies
John Law was a Scottish financier and adventurer who was also an authority on banking and the circulation of money. He convinced the regent of France, Philippe d’Orléans, that he could liquidate the French government’s debt by a system of credit based on paper money. In 1716 he launched the Banque générale, which had the authority to issue notes. The following year he founded the Compagnie d’Occident (Company of the West), the capital for which was raised by the sale of 500-livre shares, payable only in ...
Authentic Portrait of the Very Famous Mister Quinquenpoix
This caricature portrait of “Messire Quinquenpoix” and the accompanying text satirize John Law, the Scottish-born financier responsible for the issuing of France’s first paper money. Law convinced the regent, Philippe d’Orléans, that he could liquidate the French government’s debt by a system of credit based on paper money. In 1716 Law established the Banque générale, which had the authority to issue notes. The following year he founded the Compagnie d’Occident (Company of the West), the capital for which was raised by the sale of 500-livre ...
A Full and Impartial Account of the Company of Mississippi, Otherwise called the French East-India Company. Projected and Settled by Mister Law
John Law was a Scottish financier and adventurer who was also an authority on banking and the circulation of money. He convinced the regent of France, Philippe d’Orléans, that he could liquidate the French government’s debt by a system of credit based on paper money. In 1716 he launched the Banque générale, which had the authority to issue notes. The following year he founded the Compagnie d’Occident (Company of the West), the capital for which was raised by the sale of 500-livre shares, payable only in ...
Draft for Payment for the Purchase of Alaska
In 1866 the Russian government offered to sell the territory of Alaska to the United States. Secretary of State William H. Seward, enthusiastic about the prospect of American expansion, negotiated the deal for the U.S. government. Eduard de Stoeckl, Russian minister to the United States, negotiated for the Russians. On March 30, 1867, the two parties agreed that the United States would pay Russia $7.2 million for the territory. For less than two cents an acre, the United States acquired nearly 600,000 square miles (1.55 million ...
Treasury Warrant in the Amount of $7.2 Million for the Purchase of Alaska
On the night of March 29−30, 1867, U.S. secretary of State William H. Seward conducted the final negotiations and signed the treaty for the purchase of Alaska from the Russian Empire with the Russian minister in Washington, Eduard de Stoeckl. After years of advocating the expansion of the United States through the acquisition of various territories, Seward finally had acquired a major new territory in fulfillment of what he believed was the country’s “Manifest Destiny.” The U.S. Senate soon voted its consent to the treaty, but ...
Regional Guide for Agricultural Employment in the Western States
“Guía de las regiones de trabajos agrícolas en los estados del oeste” (Regional guide for agricultural employment in the Western States) is a guide with accompanying map that was issued in 1962 by the Farm Labor Service of the U.S. Department of Labor and the U.S. Employment Service. It offered information in Spanish to migrant laborers on temporary agricultural employment in seven western states: Washington, Oregon, Idaho, California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona. The map has inset text with translations into Spanish of the names of important fruits and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
People in a Joint Distribution Committee Transmission Bureau to Send Money to Relatives Overseas
During World War I, Americans who had relatives living in the war zones sought ways to send help to their families. The Joint Distribution Committee of American Funds for the Relief of Jewish War Sufferers (later the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, both names abbreviated as JDC) was formed in 1914 to send aid, including food, clothing, medicine, funds, and emergency supplies, to the stricken Jews of Europe. The war left in its wake many additional catastrophes—pogroms, epidemics, famine, revolution, and economic ruin—and after the war the JDC ...
Outdoor Market in Burned-Out Neighborhood, Poland
The caption for this news photograph reads: “Poles distributing vegetables amid the ruins of town destroyed by shell-fire in one of the battles between Germans and Russians. Thousands of towns and villages in Poland are still in ruins and must be rebuilt. This work will be one of the first tasks of the new Poland. And American steel and other materials will be needed in the work of reconstruction, as well as our financial aid. Owing to the rather remote position of Poland as regards France, England and the United ...
Female Shopkeepers Given Aid by the Joint Distribution Committee to Begin Their Businesses
Peddlers’ shops in the war-torn small towns in large swaths of Eastern Europe were ruined by World War I and the Russo-Polish War that followed in 1919‒20. Interest-free small business loans enabled small businesses, such as those of the female merchants in this wire-service photograph, to start over, selling wares along the streets of Brest-Litovsk, Poland (Yiddish, Brisk; present-day Brest, Belarus). The loans were made by the Joint Distribution Committee of American Funds for the Relief of Jewish War Sufferers (later the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, both names ...
7th War Loan. Now--All Together
C.C. Beall (1892-1967) was a commercial illustrator who drew comics and book covers. He based the image on this World War II war loan poster on the famous Joe Rosenthal photograph of the second American flag to be raised on Iwo Jima. The photo made a huge impact after being published as part of news reports on the battle. This poster was part of the campaign for a 7th War Loan subscription, which took place in May 1945, just days after victory in Europe. Officials were concerned that the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Artisan Making Baskets. China, 1874-75
In 1874-75, the Russian government sent a research and trading mission to China to seek out new overland routes to the Chinese market, report on prospects for increased commerce and locations for consulates and factories, and gather information about the Dungan Revolt then raging in parts of western China. Led by Lieutenant Colonel Iulian A. Sosnovskii of the army General Staff, the nine-man mission included a topographer, Captain Matusovskii; a scientific officer, Dr. Pavel Iakovlevich Piasetskii; Chinese and Russian interpreters; three non-commissioned Cossack soldiers; and the mission photographer, Adolf Erazmovich ...
Itinerant Mender of Pots. Hami, Xinjiang, China, 1875
In 1874-75, the Russian government sent a research and trading mission to China to seek out new overland routes to the Chinese market, report on prospects for increased commerce and locations for consulates and factories, and gather information about the Dungan Revolt then raging in parts of western China. Led by Lieutenant Colonel Iulian A. Sosnovskii of the army General Staff, the nine-man mission included a topographer, Captain Matusovskii; a scientific officer, Dr. Pavel Iakovlevich Piasetskii; Chinese and Russian interpreters; three non-commissioned Cossack soldiers; and the mission photographer, Adolf Erazmovich ...
Grading Dried Tea. Yangloudong Village, Hubei Province, China, 1874
In 1874-75, the Russian government sent a research and trading mission to China to seek out new overland routes to the Chinese market, report on prospects for increased commerce and locations for consulates and factories, and gather information about the Dungan Revolt then raging in parts of western China. Led by Lieutenant Colonel Iulian A. Sosnovskii of the army General Staff, the nine-man mission included a topographer, Captain Matusovskii; a scientific officer, Dr. Pavel Iakovlevich Piasetskii; Chinese and Russian interpreters; three non-commissioned Cossack soldiers; and the mission photographer, Adolf Erazmovich ...
Tea Drying and Roasting before Transportation. Yangloudong Village, Hubei Province, China, 1874
In 1874-75, the Russian government sent a research and trading mission to China to seek out new overland routes to the Chinese market, report on prospects for increased commerce and locations for consulates and factories, and gather information about the Dungan Revolt then raging in parts of western China. Led by Lieutenant Colonel Iulian A. Sosnovskii of the army General Staff, the nine-man mission included a topographer, Captain Matusovskii; a scientific officer, Dr. Pavel Iakovlevich Piasetskii; Chinese and Russian interpreters; three non-commissioned Cossack soldiers; and the mission photographer, Adolf Erazmovich ...
Tea Wholesaler Testing and Tasting Teas. Yangloudong Village, Hubei Province, China, 1874
In 1874-75, the Russian government sent a research and trading mission to China to seek out new overland routes to the Chinese market, report on prospects for increased commerce and locations for consulates and factories, and gather information about the Dungan Revolt then raging in parts of western China. Led by Lieutenant Colonel Iulian A. Sosnovskii of the army General Staff, the nine-man mission included a topographer, Captain Matusovskii; a scientific officer, Dr. Pavel Iakovlevich Piasetskii; Chinese and Russian interpreters; three non-commissioned Cossack soldiers; and the mission photographer, Adolf Erazmovich ...
Sunny California
During the Great Depression of the 1930s, agricultural workers fled the Dust Bowl conditions on the Great Plains in search of employment in the American West. Many of these people eventually found their way to the migrant work camps in central California that had been established, under President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal, by the Farm Security Administration (FSA). In this song, Mrs. Mary Sullivan tells how she left Texas, traveled across New Mexico and Arizona in search of work, and after surviving the catastrophic March 1938 Colton, California ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Water-Lifting Wheel on the Huang He (Yellow River), Northern Part of City Wall of Lanzhou, Gansu Province, China, 1875
In 1874-75, the Russian government sent a research and trading mission to China to seek out new overland routes to the Chinese market, report on prospects for increased commerce and locations for consulates and factories, and gather information about the Dungan Revolt then raging in parts of western China. Led by Lieutenant Colonel Iulian A. Sosnovskii of the army General Staff, the nine-man mission included a topographer, Captain Matusovskii; a scientific officer, Dr. Pavel Iakovlevich Piasetskii; Chinese and Russian interpreters; three non-commissioned Cossack soldiers; and the mission photographer, Adolf Erazmovich ...
Between Weedpatch and Lamont, Kern County, California. Children Living in Camp... Rent $2.75 Plus Electricity
"Between Weedpatch and Lamont, Kern County, California. Children living in camp." This photograph and the accompanying description are by Dorothea Lange (1895-1965), one of the most important American photographers of the 20th century. After apprenticing in New York City, Lange moved to San Francisco and in 1919 established her own studio. During the 1920s and early 1930s, she worked as a portrait photographer. In 1932, wanting to see a world different from the society families she had been photographing, she began shooting San Francisco's labor unrest and urban unemployed ...
Edison, Kern County, California, Young Migratory Mother, Originally from Texas
"Young migratory mother, originally from Texas. On the day before the photograph was made she and her husband traveled 35 miles each way to pick peas. They worked 5 hours each and together earned $2.25. They have two young children... Live in auto camp." This photograph and the accompanying description are by Dorothea Lange (1895-1965), one of the most important American photographers of the 20th century. After apprenticing in New York City, Lange moved to San Francisco and in 1919 established her own studio. During the 1920s and early ...
Age 70, She Came from Near Greeley, Nebraska, with Sister Age 65, Nephew Age 30, and Brother Age 68
This photograph and the accompanying caption are by Dorothea Lange (1895-1965), one of the most important American photographers of the 20th century. After apprenticing in New York City, Lange moved to San Francisco and in 1919 established her own studio. During the 1920s and early 1930s, she worked as a portrait photographer. In 1932, wanting to see a world different from the society families she had been photographing, she began shooting San Francisco's labor unrest and urban unemployed. In 1935, she accepted a position as a staff photographer with ...
Near Buckeye, Maricopa County, Arizona, Migrant African-American Cotton Picker and Her Baby
This photograph, taken by Dorothea Lange (1895-1965) in late 1940, depicts a migrant from the South and her baby on an Arizona cotton farm. Lange was one of the most important American photographers of the 20th century. After apprenticing in New York City, she moved to San Francisco and in 1919 established her own studio. During the 1920s and early 1930s, she worked as a portrait photographer. In 1932, wanting to see a world different from the society families she had been photographing, she began shooting San Francisco's labor ...
Two 7-Year Old Newsies, Profane and Smart, Selling Sunday, Nashville, Tennessee
This photograph, taken by an unknown photographer in Nashville, Tennessee, in November 1910, shows two seven-year old newspaper boys. The photograph is from the collection of the Children’s Bureau, a government office established in 1912 to investigate and report "upon all matters pertaining to the welfare of children and child life among all classes of our people." Enactment of the law was the culmination of a campaign begun in 1903 by two early social reformers, Lillian Wald of New York's Henry Street Settlement House, and Florence Kelly of ...
We Can Do It! Rosie the Riveter
This poster, produced by Westinghouse during World War II for the War Production Co-Ordinating Committee, was part of the national campaign in the United States to enlist women in the workforce. In the face of acute wartime labor shortages, women were needed in the defense industries, the civilian service, and even the armed forces. Publicity campaigns were aimed at encouraging those women who had never before held jobs to join the workforce. Poster and film images glorified and glamorized the roles of working women and suggested that a woman’s ...
Chavero Codex of Huexotzingo
The Chavero Codex concerns economics and taxation. It is written in Latin characters and contains 18 plates of glyphs and numerical counts using the Mesoamerican system of numbers and measurement, with variations that originated in the region of Huexotzingo (in present-day Puebla, Mexico). The codex is a part of the documentation of a judicial proceeding in the royal court, initiated by the community of Huexotzingo against indigenous officials accused of levying unjust and excessive taxes. The officials, responding to a questionnaire, describe the different taxes paid by the 21 districts ...
Deed of Settlement
The Deed of Settlement and Royal Charter of Incorporation of the South Australian Company is a key document in South Australia's history: it highlights the difference between the manner in which South Australia was established and populated and the foundation of other Australian colonies as penal settlements. It also records British economic expansionism at its peak and illustrates the interconnections between British business interests, the Colonial Office, and social and evangelical activists. In 1834, the British Parliament passed the South Australia Act, which empowered the government to establish and ...