92 results in English
Upper View of the Castillo del Morro Situated at the Mouth of the Bay of Havana
This 18th-century manuscript map shows the plan of Morro Castle, located at the entrance of Havana Bay, Cuba. The fortress was built by the Spaniards, starting in 1585. The Italian military engineer Battista Antonelli (1547–1616) was commissioned to design the fortifications. The structure originally was conceived as a small fort surrounded by a dry moat, but it was expanded and rebuilt on several occasions and became a major fortress of great strategic importance for the island. The map is oriented with north to the left and tilted up at ...
Contributed by National Library of Spain
Map in Which the Rivers on Argentina, Parana and Paraguay are Described Most Exactly for the First Time, When a Beginning was Made by the New Colony as Far as the Mouth of the Jauru River
This atlas of colonial South America is by Miguel Antonio Ciera. A noted mathematician and professor of astronomy at the University of Coimbra in Portugal, Ciera was part of an expedition sent to demarcate the border between Spanish and Portuguese holdings in South America following signature of the 1750 Treaty of Madrid and the 1756 Guarani War. The atlas focuses on the southern part of the continent, in the watershed of the Paraná River, where the borders were most disputed. The territory in the atlas includes present-day Argentina and Paraguay ...
Letters, Pedagogical Teachings, and Sayings of Saint Anthony of Egypt
This manuscript opens with the 20 letters “to the sons who follow his [Anthony’s] gentle path…and prayers to keep us from Satan’s example.” The letters are for the most part short, many not exceeding five folios. According to an introductory note, they are addressed to both men and women. The work is in a bold but relaxed hand. Each letter or other significant section is set off in red. There are no contemporary marginal glosses, but comments and corrections (some in English) in pencil were made by ...
Different Views of the Major Cities in Persia
This map by the Nuremberg engraver and publisher Johann Baptist Homann (1663-1724) features 15 aerial views of cities in Persia (present-day Iran), Afghanistan, southern Russia, eastern Turkey, and the Caucasus region. Beneath each city portrait is a number or letter key indicating the most important points in each city, including city gates and walls, bodies of water, royal palaces, and markets. The cities depicted are (1) Astrakhan, Russia; (2) Derbent, Dagestan, Russia; (3) Tiflis, Georgia; (4) Kars, Turkey; (5) Erzurum, Turkey; (6) Baku, Azerbaijan; (7) Sultanieh (Zanjān Province), Iran; (8 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
European Turkey and Part of Asian Turkey, Divided into Large Provinces and Governorships
This mid-18th century French map shows the Balkan Peninsula, most of Anatolia (present-day Turkey), and the Mediterranean islands of Cyprus and Crete. The map bears the inscription “Sr. Janvier” (“Le Sieur Janvier”), a designation that refers to a cartographer active in Paris between 1746 and 1776 whose name was either Jean or Robert Janvier. The map offers a striking view of the European territories of the Ottoman Empire. Although past the peak of its power, the empire still controlled Albania, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Romania, and Serbia. The borders of ...
Geographical Map of Modern Northern Greece
The long subtitle of this Latin map of northern Greece explains that it depicts “the provinces of Macedonia, Thessaly, and Albania, in the last one of which the dwellings of the Montenegrin people located in the county of Zenta are indicated, together with the neighboring regions and islands, drawn by very recent and new auxiliary troops according to the rule of correct projections in use in the current war.” In 1770, when the map was published, these lands were all part of the Ottoman Empire. Zenta, or Zeta, refers to ...
Beauties of Yoshiwara
Seirō Bijin Awase (Beauties of Yoshiwara) is one of the finest multicolored woodblock printed books in Japan. It was published in 1770. The book depicts 166 courtesans of the Yoshiwara, the pleasure quarter in Edo (present-day Tokyo), with the names of the courtesans and the brothels where they worked, with a haiku (a short poem) in the background of each illustration. The work consists of five sections in five chapters. The original title slip on which the book title and the volume title were printed is attached to the center ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
History of Nadir Shah Afshar
Waqiat-i Nadiri (literally “Events of Nadir”) is a historical manuscript that chronicles the political and military career of Nādir Shāh, who was born in 1688 and rose to power in Iran during the 1720s; he became shah in 1736. He is known as a military warrior famous for his campaigns in Iran, Afghanistan, northern India, and Central Asia. He was assassinated by his officers in June 1747. The name of the author of this work, Mohammad Mahdi Munshi ibn Mohammad Nasir (also seen as Mahdī Khān Astarābādī), appears on page ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of French Guyana and of the Island of Cayenne
This map of French Guyana and the island of Cayenne is by Jacques Bellin (1703-72), a prolific cartographer attached to the French Marine Office. It reflects the careful mapping of bays, seas, and harbors that characterized 18th-century French naval cartography. In addition to the detailed information about the coast, Bellin’s map includes notes about the interior of this part of South America, much of which was still largely uncharted by the Europeans.
Shepherd's Harmony
As a young man, the composer, organist, and copyist Georgius (also seen as Jozef) Juraj Zrunek (1736–89) became a member of the Franciscan order, where he excelled as a music teacher. He worked especially in present-day Slovakia, in Hlohovec as an organist alongside Paulin Bajan (1721‒92) and in Žilina with Edmund Pascha (1714–72), also known as Claudianus Ostern, a brother Franciscan who was a composer, poet, and organist. Zrunek’s activities as a composer have been the subject of research, as some of his works previously were ...
Contributed by Slovak National Library
Map of the Persian Gulf
This map of the Persian Gulf is by the French cartographer Jacques-Nicolas Bellin (1703−72). Qatar is shown as Catura. Cities on both the Arabian and Persian sides of the gulf are indicated, and the map shows a river emptying into the gulf at the port of Julfar (present-day Ra's al-Khaymah, United Arab Emirates). The scale is in common leagues, and there are no latitudinal or longitudinal lines. Trained as a hydrographer, Bellin was attached to the French Marine Office and specialized in producing maritime maps showing coastlines. His ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Part I of the Map of Asia: Including Turkey, Arabia, Persia, India below the Ganges River, and Tartary, which Borders Persia and India
Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d’Anville (1697−1782) was an important French cartographer known for his scrupulous attention to detail and his commitment to accuracy. His method was to collect and compare as many sources of geographic information as possible and to correct and reissue maps as new information became available. His own personal collection of maps eventually totaled nearly 9,000 items. This map of 1751 by d’Anville shows the part of Asia from its border with Africa and Europe in the west to most of the Indian subcontinent ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Iron Brush of Ju Kungao, Two Juan
Ju Lühou (1723−86), style name Kungao, a native of Fengxian, Shanghai, was a seal artist. Seal carving was one of the four essential skills required of a scholar. Ju was also the author of a number of works, among which are Kungao tie bi (Iron brush by Kungao), in two juan, Kungao tie bi yu ji (Remaining works of Kungao), in five juan, and Yin wen kao lue (A brief study on inscriptions on seals), in one juan. This work is a manual about seals collected by Ju. On ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Haydn’s Symphony in C, Number 48 (Maria Theresia Symphony)
Presented here is a manuscript transcription of the Symphony Number 48, commonly known as the Maria Theresia Symphony, by Joseph Haydn (1732−1809). The original of the composition was not preserved in Haydn’s own hand, but this manuscript was created by the composer’s most important copyist, Joseph Elssler (died 1782). It dates from 1769 and is the oldest known manuscript of this composition. The date of the document proves that Haydn did not compose this work on the occasion of the visit of Empress Maria Theresia to the ...
Contributed by Slovak National Library
Map of the Old World, 1752
Didier Robert de Vaugondy (1723−86) was from a line of famous geographers and cartographers. He was the great-grandson of Nicolas Sanson (1600−1667) and the son of Gilles Robert de Vaugondy (1688−1766), with whom he created a universal atlas of 108 maps. This atlas, which was first published in 1757, included the world map of 1752 presented here. The efforts by the great explorers notwithstanding, the world as drawn by the cartographers of this period remained very incomplete, especially with regards to the American and Australian continents. In ...
Vesperae Bachanales
Pantaleon Roškovský (1734‒89) was a Slovak composer, organist, and teacher. Originally from Stará Ľubovňa, he entered the Franciscan order in 1755 and was ordained as a priest in Trnava in 1759. He worked mainly in the major monasteries of the Congregation of Marian Fathers (also known as Marians of the Immaculate Conception) in Bratislava and Trnava. His church music (masses, litanies, Marian antiphons, and motets) as well as his pieces for harpsichord and organ belong partly to the late Baroque period, but many already contain signs of early classicism ...
Contributed by Slovak National Library
Almanac of Saint-Domingue for the Year 1765, with the Names of the Public Officials in the Colony
This almanac of the French colony of Saint-Domingue (present-day Haiti) for the year 1765 was published by the firm of Antoine Marie, official printers for the colony, in Cap-Français (present-day Cap-Haïtien). The book begins with a listing of the major Catholic religious holidays, predicted eclipses, and other general information, followed by entries for the twelve months of the year. The listing for each month shows the days of the month, the saint or religious feast associated with each day, and the four phases of the moon (full, last quarter, new ...
Account of a Conspiracy Organized by the Negroes in the Island of Saint-Domingue
This short work consists of two letters relating to a planned slave uprising in the French colony of Saint-Domingue (present-day Haiti) in 1758. The context and importance of the letter are explained in an introductory paragraph by an anonymous editor: “Two letters were delivered to us. One is from Cap-Français, Island of Saint-Domingue, and one from the person to whom this letter was addressed. As this person knows perfectly well per se the current state of this island, we will give his letter first, to serve as an introduction to ...
Synopsis of the Art of Rhetoric
Synopsis technēsrhētorikēs (Synopsis of the art of rhetoric) by Alexandros Mavrokordatos (1636−1709) is a rhetorical “catechism" consisting of three books. The first book, Ti esti rhētorikē (What is rhetoric), is devoted to general questions relating to rhetoric. The second book, Peri diatheseōs (About arrangement), considers questions concerning the arrangement of texts. The third book, Peri euphradias (About grace in speech), is devoted to tropes and figures and is composed mostly as a glossary. Several pages in the manuscript have no relation to the main work. They include passages ...
Map of the Great Tartary. Established upon the Accounts of Several Travelers from Various Nations and Several Observations Made in that Country
The French cartographer Guillaume de l'Isle (1675−1726) was admitted into the French Académie Royale des Sciences when he was 27 years old and subsequently became the first person to receive the title Premier Géographe du Roi (principal geographer to the king). At the time de l’Isle was engaged in cartographic research, the prestige of a cartographer and the authority of his maps were gauged by the veracity of the cartographer’s sources, i.e., the explorers and travelers who reported details of their travels to geographers and ...
Botanical Notebook of Linnaeus
The Swedish natural scientist Carl von Linné (1707–78) prepared his notes and pen drawings on botanical systems in Stockholm from 1750 to 1751. Also known by his Latinized name of Carolus Linnaeus, Linné was the creator and founder of botanical and zoological taxonomy. He devised a two-part system of Latin names (the so-called binominal nomenclature) for classifying all organisms based on their characteristics, using the name of the genus followed by the species name. This system, which is still in use today, was developed in his work Systema naturae ...
Contributed by Slovak National Library
Commentary on the Little Canon
The Qānūnjah (also commonly known by its Persian name, the Qānūncha), a medical book by Mahmud ibn Muhammad al-Jaghmini, was written in the late-12th or early 13th century and, as the name indicates, was inspired by Avicenna's encyclopedic work, al-Qānūn fī al-ibb (The canon of medicine). Al-Jaghmini's work was itself the subject of great interest and in turn inspired numerous commentaries. The present commentary on the Qānūnjah was composed by ʻAli ibn Kamal al-Din al-Astarabadi during the reign of the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid II (ruled ...
Contributed by Wellcome Library
The Book of Instant Recovery
Kitāb burʼ al-sāʻa (The book of instant recovery) is a short medical tract by the famous Islamic scientist and physician Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariya Razi (died circa 925). The work consists of 24 short sections, which list the remedies for common afflictions. The work includes sections on al-udāʻ (headaches), wajʻ al-asnān (toothache), and al-iʻyā wa al-taʻab (exhaustion). The colophon lists the scribe’s name as Ghulam Muhammad Pursururi and the completion date for the manuscript as Dhu Qa’da 17, 1173 AH (July 1, 1760). Based on ...
Contributed by Wellcome Library
Rapid Healing
Sadr al-Din Ali al-Gilani al-Hindi (died April 10, 1609) was a renowned physician of the 16th century. His uncle was a physician and may have served as Sadr al-Din’s first teacher. Sadr al-Din completed his studies in Persia (likely in his region of birth, Gilan), and subsequently emigrated to India and the court of Akbar I (reigned 1556–1605). Presented here is an 18th century manuscript of Sadr al-Din’s al-Shifā’ al-ʻājil (Rapid healing). In the introduction, the author states that he composed this work in response to Razi ...
Contributed by Wellcome Library
The Little Canon (on Medicine)
The title of Mahmud ibn ʻUmar al-Jaghmini’s medical text, the Qānūncha, (or Qānūnja in Arabic), is a reference to Avicenna's seminal work on medicine, al-Qānūn (The canon). The suffix -cha is a diminutive in Persian, so the title of al-Jaghmini’s work can be translated as “The little canon.” The Qānūncha is written in ten chapters: 1, al-Umūr al-ṭabiʻiya (On natural philosophy); 2, al-Tashriḥ (On anatomy); 3, Aḥwāl badan al-insān (On the states of the human body); 4, al-Nabḍ (On the pulse); 5, Tadbir al-aṣḥḥā’ wa ‘alāj al-maraḍ ...
Contributed by Wellcome Library
Map of New Discoveries North of the South Sea, in Eastern Siberia and Kamchatka, and in Western New France
Carte des nouvelles découvertes au nord de la mer du sud tant à l'est de la Sibérie et du Kamtchatka qu'à l'ouest de la Nouvelle France (Map of new discoveries north of the South Sea, in Eastern Siberia and Kamchatka, and in western New France) was created in 1750 by the Philippe Buache (1700−73), son-in-law of the great French cartographer Guillaume de L’Isle (1675−1726), and Joseph-Nicolas de L’Isle (1688−1768), brother of Guillaume de L’Isle. The map is centered on the North ...
Port of Louisbourg on Île Royale
The fortress of Louisbourg, founded in 1713 by French settlers from Placentia, Newfoundland, and named after King Louis XIV, was a major French stronghold in North America. Located on the eastern shore of Île Royale (present-day Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia), it commanded the entrance to the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and ultimately access to the Saint Lawrence River. In 1745, during King George's War (1744–48), as the North American part of the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–48) is known, the British captured the fortress. It ...
New Travels to the West Indies. Including an Account on the Peoples who Live by the Great Saint Louis River, also Known as the Mississippi River, 1768
Jean-Bernard Bossu (1720–92) was a French soldier and adventurer who in the late 18th century explored large parts of the French colony of Louisiana. He made three extended trips to the New World, in 1751, 1757, and 1760. In 1751 he traveled up the Mississippi River to the lands of the Arkansas Indians, also known as the Quapaw. Bossu wrote extensive letters to the Marquis de l’Estrade about his adventures among the native peoples of the Mississippi Valley, who included not only the Quapaw but also the Illinois ...
The Story of the Chevalier des Grieux and of Manon Lescaut
Histoire du chevalier des Grieux et de Manon Lescaut (Story of the Chevalier des Grieux and of Manon Lescaut), more commonly known as Manon Lescaut, is a novel by the Abbé Prévost (1697‒1763), first published in Paris in 1731. Considered scandalous at the time, it was immediately banned. The novel tells the story of Chevalier des Grieux and his lover, the amoral courtesan Manon Lescaut. Des Grieux is from a noble family, but he forfeits his inheritance when he displeases his father and runs away with Manon. The two ...
Historical Memoirs on Louisiana, Including the Most Interesting Events from 1687 to the Present
Mémoires historiques sur la Louisiane: contenant ce qui y est arrivé de plus mémorable depuis l'année 1687 jusqu'à présent (Historical memoirs on Louisiana, including the most interesting events from 1687 to the present) is based on a manuscript text by soldier Jean-François-Benjamin Dumont de Montigny (born 1696) that was completed in France in 1747. The work was compiled and edited by the Abbé Jean-Baptiste Le Mascrier and published in Paris in 1753. Dumont’s original manuscript is preserved in the Newberry Library in Chicago. It narrates the events ...
Catechism of the Diocese of Sens
Catéchisme du diocese de Sens (Catechism of the diocese of Sens) was printed in 1765 by order of Jean Joseph Languet, Archbishop of Sens (1677–1753), and used in the Diocese of Quebec until 1777, when the first edition of the Catéchisme à l'usage du diocèse de Québec (Catechism for use in the Diocese of Quebec) was published. In the absence of a printing press in New France, the availability of catechisms and other books was subject to the same hazards that affected the import of other goods from ...
Arabian Gulf or Red Sea
This map, "Golfe Arabique ou Mer Rouge" (Arabian Gulf or Red Sea), by Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d'Anville was published in Paris in 1765. It is a very large copperplate engraved map of the Red Sea showing shorelines, islands, cities and settlements, roads, ports and anchorages, and shoals and sandbanks from Suez to the southern tip of Yemen. Four insets show the port of Giddah (present-day Jiddah, Saudi Arabia), Suakem (present-day Suakin Island, Sudan), Matzua and Arkiko (present-day Hirgigo and Massawa, both in Eritrea), and al-Babo (literally, the mouth), where ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Small Map of the Northern Ocean Between Asia and America, After the Discoveries that Have Been Made by the Russians
This map of Alaska and the North Pacific region by the French cartographer Jacques-Nicolas Bellin (1703–72) is from a collection of hydrographic charts made for the French Navy in the period from 1737–65. Trained as a hydrographer, Bellin was attached to the French Marine Office and specialized in producing maritime maps showing coastlines. In 1764, he published Le Petit Atlas Maritime (Small maritime atlas), a work in five volumes containing 581 maps. This map is strikingly similar to other French and European maps of the 18th century, all ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Eastern Part of Canada, Translated from English from the Map by Jefferys Published in London in May 1755
Partie orientale du Canada (Eastern part of Canada) is a hand-colored manuscript map by cartographer, author, and illustrator Georges-Louis Le Rouge (born 1712), royal geographer to King Louis XV. It was based upon an English map made by Thomas Jefferys (circa 1719–71), who was geographer to King George III and engraved and published many maps and atlases in the mid-18th century, particularly of North America. It covers the northeastern region from Montreal to Île du Petit Mecatina and southwest to Boston Harbor. The map prominently displays the eastern part ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of Quebec City
Plan de la ville de Québec (Map of Quebec City) is by cartographer, author, and illustrator Georges-Louis Le Rouge (born 1712), royal geographer to King Louis XV. The map shows the Upper and Lower Towns of Quebec City near the confluence of the Saint Lawrence and Saint Charles Rivers. It has an index that indicates the location of churches, hospitals, redoubts, gardens, and batteries in and around the city. Located on the Saint Lawrence River, Quebec was an administrative, military, and commercial hub, as well as a religious center that ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of Bays, Harbors, and the Port of Placentia by the Island of Newfoundland
This map, Carte des bayes, rades et port de Plaisance dans l'Isle de Terre-Neuve (Map of bays, harbors, and the port of Placentia by the island of Newfoundland), was created by the French cartographer Jacques Nicolas Bellin (1703‒72) in 1755, based in part upon earlier geographic notations compiled by Pierre-François-Xavier de Charlevoix (1682−1761), a French Jesuit priest, historian, and explorer. The map shows the Avalon Peninsula in Newfoundland with the harbors of Placentia and Argentia. It also highlights a battery on Signal Hill above Placentia Road, as ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Niagara Falls, from 135 Feet
This engraving of Niagara Falls was made by Georges-Louis le Rouge (born 1712), royal geographer to King Louis XV, and published in Recueil des plans de l’Amérique septentrionale (Collection of the maps of North America) in 1755. The engraving depicts a view of the falls from an elevation of 135 feet (41.15 meters). In the foreground are four men: three Europeans, one of whom is in clerical garb holding a cross, and an Indian, who is possibly their guide. People can be seen walking up a path pictured ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Map of the British and French Dominions in North America with the Roads, Distances, Limits, and Extent of the Settlements
This landmark map of North America published in 1755 shows British sovereignty over large parts of the continent at the outset of the French and Indian War (1754–63). It is perhaps the most well-known 18th-century map of North America. Created by John Mitchell, a native Virginian who moved to London in his mid-thirties, the map was compiled using information provided by governors of the British colonies. Although territories of other European powers are shown, the map is biased toward British interests. French claims in the Mississippi and Ohio valleys ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Western part of New France, or Canada, Done by Mr. Bellin, Royal Marine Engineer, in Order to Further Understanding of Present-Day Political Matters in America
This detailed map of the Great Lakes region of western “New France” by Jacques Nicolas Bellin was published by the Heirs of Homan in 1755, shortly before the outbreak of the Seven Years’ War, the conflict that resulted in the transfer of New France to British hands. Bellin was just one representative of a greater movement by French royal and military cartographers in the 18th century to map New France using the knowledge possessed by Native Americans. This map shows details not only of the Canadian waterways, but also of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the Bay of Rio de Janeiro
Jacques Bellin (1703-72) was a prolific cartographer attached to the French Marine Office. His sea atlases reflected the careful mapping of bays, seas, and harbors that characterized 18th-century French naval cartography. In 1764, he published Le Petit Atlas Maritime, a work in five volumes, containing 581 maps. This map, from the second volume of the atlas, shows the Bay of Rio de Janeiro and its important natural harbor.
The Attack of Manilla, October 1762
The Seven Years' War (1756-63) was a world-wide conflict between Britain and France that also involved Spain as an ally of France. In 1762, the British sent Admiral William Draper, with an expeditionary force of some 2,000 European and Indian (Sepoy) soldiers, to attack Manila in the Spanish colony of the Philippines. The Spanish offered little opposition, and on October 2, 1762, the acting governor-general, Archbishop Manuel Antonio Rojo, surrendered the city. The British occupation lasted until 1764, when the Philippines reverted to Spanish control as part of the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Bloody Massacre Perpetrated in King Street, Boston, on March 5th 1770 by a Party of the 29th Regiment
In Boston in the late 1760s, the stirrings of what became the American Revolution began as residents grew angry about the heavy taxation to which they were subjected. With the Townshend Acts of 1767, the British placed taxes on imported goods, including glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea. To enforce the acts, they imposed a heavy military presence on the Massachusetts colonists that exacerbated tensions between the local populace and representatives of the crown. On March 5, 1770, British sentries guarding the Boston Customs House were surrounded by jeering Bostonians ...
Contributed by Library of Congress