45 results in English
Al-Iraq, Number 179, January 1, 1921
Al-Iraq was a daily newspaper focusing on politics, literature, and the economy, first published in Baghdad on June 1, 1920. Owned by Razzuq Dawood Ghannam, the paper showed an independent editorial streak from its first few issues. Throughout its existence, it recorded the political, social, and economic history of Iraq and was considered the first and last source for news on national issues and causes. The paper did not represent the rising nationalistic, anticolonial elite, but it was pan-Iraqist in orientation and counted among its staff a number of young ...
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Free Street Parade of the Sells-Floto Circus
This colorful lithograph advertises the upcoming street parade of the Sells-Floto Circus, promoting ticket sales to the local residents for the twice-a-day shows. The artwork captures the grandeur of the American circus parade in the 1920s. The parade is led by a rider wearing an 18th-century costume and carrying a circus banner. Behind the rider is a group of mounted horsemen, elephants in costumes worn in big production number during the show (“spec costuming”), a band, and a number of circus wagons. Several of the elephants and wagons promote the ...
Contributed by Circus World Museum
The Anguish of Nations
This work is a history of Bukhara (in present-day Uzbekistan), written by Said Mir Mohammed Alim Khan (1880–1944), the last emir of Bukhara. Between 1785 and 1920 Bukhara was ruled by eight emirs of the Manghit dynasty. After the Russian conquest of Samarkand in 1868, the emirate of Bukhara became a Russian protectorate. Alim Khan assumed power in 1910, following the death of his father, Abdulahad Khan. Alim Khan was overthrown by the Red Army in September 1920, went into exile, and eventually settled in Kabul, Afghanistan. The title ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
An Introduction to the Study of the Eloquent Speech of the Arabs
Muqaddama li dirāsat balāghat al-ʻArab (An introduction to the study of the eloquent speech of the Arabs) is a work on Arabic literature or belles lettres. The author, Aḥmad Ḍayf, was an instructor at the Egyptian University (later renamed the University of Cairo). The book was intended for students at the university and was to serve as a study guide for their understanding of literary eloquence. It includes a brief description of the modern Arabic literary movement. Other topics covered are belles lettres and society, and the different categories of ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Smoking Room: Stories of the English People of the Canaries
Rafael Romero Quesada, better known by his pseudonym, Alonso Quesada (1886−1925), was an important modernist poet living on Gran Canaria, in the Canary Islands archipelago of Spain. He was also literary critic and translator, who explored many forms of creative writing, among them fiction, theater, and journalism. Shown here is Smoking room: Cuentos de los ingleses de la colonia en Canarias (Smoking room: Stories of the English people of the Canaries; the cover is actually marked “Smocking-room”), some parts of which are in manuscript and others in typescript. The ...
The Clear Guide on the Marriage of the Young
ʻAbd Allāh ibn Ḥumayyid al-Sālimī (circa 1869–circa 1914) was a leading Omani Ibadite (also seen as Ibadhite and Ibadi) scholar and poet, who was born in the town of Al-Ḥoqain in the Rustāq region of the interior of Oman. Ibadism (also seen as Ibadhism) is an Islamic denomination that traces its roots to the seventh century, at the time of the Sunni−Shiite schism. It is named after Abdullāh ibn Ibāḍ, one of the founding scholars of the doctrine. Today’s adherents of Ibadism are found primarily in Oman ...
Military Uniform Regulation Book
Niẓāmnāmah-i albisah-i ʼaskarīyah (Military uniform regulation book) contains the uniform and dress regulations for the Afghan military under the rule of Amanullah Khan (reigned from 1919 to 1929). The book was published in January 1921, soon after the conclusion of the Third Anglo-Afghan War (May−August 1919), in which Amanullah Khan was the leader of the Afghan forces and through which Afghanistan gained its complete independence from Great Britain. The book outlines the form and color of the kurtī (coat) and birjis (breeches) of military personnel, and it also illustrates ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Flora Arabica, Part II. Records of the Botanical Survey of India, Volume VIII, Number 2
Flora Arabica is a botanical catalog of the plants of the Arabia. The work is in six volumes covering the whole of the Arabian Peninsula: the extra-tropical west, the tropical west, the tropical east, and the extra-tropical east including the Persian Gulf region. The catalog is by Father Ethelbert Blatter, and is largely based on the herbaria of the British Museum, which itself contained the records of other collections. The author asserts that Flora Arabica contains “all the plant material ever collected in Arabia.” The work is noteworthy for the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Flora Arabica, Part III. Records of the Botanical Survey of India, Volume VIII, Number 3
Flora Arabica is a botanical catalog of the plants of the Arabia. The work is in six volumes covering the whole of the Arabian Peninsula: the extra-tropical west, the tropical west, the tropical east, and the extra-tropical east including the Persian Gulf region. The catalog is by Father Ethelbert Blatter, and is largely based on the herbaria of the British Museum, which itself contained the records of other collections. The author asserts that Flora Arabica contains “all the plant material ever collected in Arabia.” The work is noteworthy for the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Children outside a Public Soup Kitchen in Rowne, Poland
This photograph shows a group of poor Jewish children, barefoot and holding their pots, waiting to receive food at a soup kitchen in Rowne, Poland (present-day Rovno or Rivne, Ukraine). Even after the destruction and dislocation of World War I came to an end, the situation for Jews in Eastern Europe remained bleak. Civil war in Russia and the Russo-Polish War of 1919‒20 caused further hardship; for Jews, there was additional danger from numerous pogroms. Famine and disease were widespread and the economy was in ruins. Children were especially ...
Orphanage Kindergarten in Brest-Litovsk, Poland
This photograph shows kindergarten teachers and pupils in a yard of the orphanage on Pushkinskaya Street in Brest-Litovsk, Poland (Yiddish, Brisk; present-day Brest, Belarus). After World War I and the Russo-Polish War that followed (1919‒20), there were tens of thousands of Jewish orphans in Poland. The Joint Distribution Committee of American Funds for the Relief of Jewish War Sufferers (later the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, both names abbreviated as JDC) was formed in 1914 to send aid, including food, clothing, medicine, funds, and emergency supplies, to the stricken ...
Jewish War Orphans Arrive in the United States
This photograph from 1921 shows a group of children orphaned as a result of World War I, newly arrived in New York harbor and about to begin a new life, posing with American flags. The war brought devastation to communities across Europe, leaving behind needy populations, including hundreds of thousands of orphans. In Central and Eastern Europe, the collapse of empires and onset of revolution prolonged the disorder, famine, and disease that began during the war. For Jews, there was the added danger of pogroms. The Joint Distribution Committee of ...
People Await the Opening of a Soup Kitchen in Aleksandrovsk, Ukraine
This photograph shows hungry people, mostly women and children, waiting with their containers for the soup kitchen to open in Aleksandrovsk (present-day Zaporozhye), Ukraine, in 1921. Famine struck the Soviet Union in 1921, one of the consequences of seven years of war. Under the auspices of the American Relief Administration (ARA) established by the United States government, the Joint Distribution Committee of American Funds for the Relief of Jewish War Sufferers (later the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, both names abbreviated as the JDC), provided food on a nonsectarian basis ...
Favus Patients and Their Caregivers in a Treatment Center Isolation Ward in Vilna, Lithuania
In the aftermath of World War I, poverty caused by wartime destruction and dislocation bred disease in Europe. The children in this photograph, taken in Vilna, Poland (present-day Vilnius, Lithuania) in 1921, have their heads wrapped; they are being treated for favus, a fungal skin disease that affects the scalp. The physician (standing, rear right) treating the children has been identified as Mahmud Kajabi. The American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC), a humanitarian organization created at the start of World War I by American Jewish groups to provide wartime relief ...
Jewish Family Outside Their Temporary Home, Poland
In this photograph, members of a Jewish family that had been forced to flee their town pose outside their temporary home, a crude structure located on the road between Kowel and Rowne, Poland (present-day Kovel and Rovne or Rivne, Ukraine). In the years immediately following World War I, the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC) sent field representatives to Poland. They not only worked to provide relief and rehabilitation to destitute Jews but also investigated local conditions and needs in order to plan future aid efforts, which included support for ...
Refugees Returning to Poland from Russia
In the early years of World War I, many Jews living in the disputed territories of Poland were resettled by Russian military authorities in the provinces of Central Russia. In areas where aid was possible, the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC), a humanitarian organization created at the start of World War I by American Jewish groups, carried on relief activities on behalf of refugees, and later—as citizens of prewar Poland went back home—for the returnees. The displaced received baths, nourishing meals, shoes, clothing, medical treatment, and shelter ...
Refugees Passing through Rowne, Poland
This photograph, taken in 1921, shows a group of Jewish refugees in horse-drawn carts traveling through the town of Rowne, Poland (present-day Rovno or  Rivne, Ukraine) as they make their way home. World War I had created a massive population of displaced persons, which then increased with the Russian Revolution and ensuing civil war. Along with the dangers associated with war and revolution, Jews faced the added peril of pogroms. Rowne, a commercial hub with a large Jewish population, had experienced a series of pogroms in 1919, while the town ...
Hungry People Greet an American Relief Worker in Dachowa, Poland
This photograph, taken by an American aid worker on an inspection tour of Poland in 1921, shows adults and children in Dachowa awaiting relief. In 1918‒19, Jews in Poland lived through a reign of terror. While the country was at war with its neighbors to the east and the south, there were anti-Jewish pogroms and other attacks. The American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC), a humanitarian organization formed at the beginning of World War I, conducted relief activities for the endangered Jewish population. After the war, the JDC provided ...
Jewish War Orphans in Dubno, Poland
The two children in this photograph, dressed in rags, are orphans in Dubno, Poland (present-day Ukraine). The devastation of World War I and the subsequent Russo-Polish War of 1919‒20 resulted in tens of thousands of orphaned Jewish children in Poland. These orphans could find shelter in numerous child care facilities operated by the Centralne Towarzystwo Opieki nad Sierotami (CENTOS—Federation of Associations for Orphans and Abandoned Children), an umbrella organization embracing more than 200 Jewish orphanages, boarding schools, and other educational facilities. CENTOS was funded primarily by local Jewish ...
Jewish Refugees in Rowne, Poland
This photograph of 1921 shows three starving Jewish refugees in Rowne, Poland (present-day Rovno or Rivne, Ukraine), staring at the camera. In addition to the widespread displacement, famine, disease, and economic hardship that existed in the aftermath of World War I, the Jewish populations of Eastern Europe underwent new suffering as a result of the Russian Revolution and subsequent civil war. Rowne, a commercial hub with a large Jewish population, was among the towns visited by the first team of field representatives sent to Poland by the American Jewish Joint ...
The American Public Bathhouse in Krakow, Poland
This photograph depicts a mikvah (bathhouse) in Krakow, rebuilt in 1921‒22. The old Jewish ritual bath building, facing Szeroka Broad Street, left in ruins by war, was utilized in the reconstruction. The sign in Polish reads: “American Public Bath House.” World War I tore a calamitous path through the Jewish communities of Eastern Europe, leaving in its wake widespread famine, disease, and economic hardship. In the immediate postwar years beleaguered Jewish communities faced continued challenges that threatened their existence. New socio-economic realities stripped European Jews of their former livelihoods ...
A Health Team during an Anti-Typhus Campaign, Poland
During World War I and in the wars and upheavals that followed, the destruction of homes and public bathing facilities in Poland and the displacement of large populations led to widespread epidemics of typhus and other diseases. The American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC), a humanitarian organization created to aid Jews affected by the war and its aftermath, supported medical and sanitary work by existing regional organizations. In April 1920 the JDC sent American Doctor Harry Plotz, the discoverer of a typhus vaccine, to investigate the crisis conditions in Poland ...
Milk Distribution at a Children’s Health Clinic in Piotrków Trybunalski, Poland
The mothers shown in this photograph are receiving milk from the staff of a children’s health clinic at a town in Poland. The conflicts and pogroms that took place during and after World War I brought disease, famine, and dislocation to hundreds of thousands of Jews in Central and Eastern Europe, especially in Poland. In response, the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC), a humanitarian organization created at the start of World War I by American Jewish groups, established soup kitchens, reconstructed and equipped hospitals, supported orphanages, and sent ...
Students and Faculty Outside the Jewish Community School in Warsaw, Poland
This photograph shows a group of students and faculty standing outside the Jewish Community School of the Workmen’s Home in Warsaw, Poland, in 1921. World War I and its disruptive aftermath threatened the survival of the many religious, educational, and cultural institutions that prior to the war had made Poland one of the most important centers of Jewish scholarship, learning, and culture. In the interwar period, the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC), a humanitarian organization created at the start of World War I, played a vital role in ...
Carpentry Class at a Jewish School in Krakow, Poland
This photograph depicts a carpentry class at a Jewish school in Krakow, Poland, circa 1921‒22. World War I tore a calamitous path through the Jewish communities of Eastern Europe, leaving in its wake widespread famine, disease, and economic hardship. In the immediate postwar years beleaguered Jewish communities faced continued challenges that threatened their existence. New socio-economic realities stripped European Jews of their former livelihoods, leaving them without the means to help themselves. Their communal infrastructure also lay in ruins. To address these conditions, the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee ...
School Band of the Natanson Professional School in Warsaw, Poland
This photograph shows the school band of the Natanson Professional School of the Jewish Community in Warsaw, Poland, in 1921. Students pose with their instruments at the entrance to the school. World War I tore a calamitous path through the Jewish communities of Eastern Europe, leaving in its wake widespread famine, disease, and economic hardship. In the immediate postwar years beleaguered Jewish communities faced continued challenges that threatened their existence. New socio-economic realities stripped European Jews of their former livelihoods, leaving them without the means to help themselves. Their communal ...
New Mothers Learn Infant Care at a Hadassah Child Welfare Center, Jerusalem
This photograph shows five new mothers with babies during a child care course provided by a Hadassah nurse in Jerusalem. In 1918‒21, the Women’s Zionist Organization of America (better known as Hadassah), established hospitals, a nursing school, and community health and preventive care programs in British Mandate Palestine. During those years, the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC), a humanitarian organization, provided $200,000 annually for the work of Hadassah in British Mandate Palestine. The JDC was formed in 1914 to send aid, including food, clothing, medicine, funds ...
Patients Wait in an Infirmary, Jerusalem
This photograph shows a line of patients waiting for treatment in an emergency room run by the Women’s Zionist Organization of America (better known as Hadassah). In 1918‒21, Hadassah established hospitals, a nursing school, and community health and preventive care programs in British Mandate Palestine. During those years, the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC), a humanitarian organization, provided $200,000 annually for the work of Hadassah in British Mandate Palestine. The JDC was formed in 1914 to send aid, including food, clothing, medicine, funds, and emergency supplies ...
Waiting for Food outside the Dreyfus Soup Kitchen, Jerusalem
This photograph shows hungry people, many of them children, as they wait for food at the Dreyfus Soup Kitchen in Jerusalem, which served about 900 meals a day in 1921. During and immediately after World War I, needy Jews living in British Mandate Palestine were cut off from their regular sources of support in Europe. Many depended on food relief and other kinds of financial support from American Jews. The American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC), a humanitarian organization organized at the start of World War I to address such ...
Zenith: International Review of Arts and Culture, Number 1, February 1921
Zenit (Zenith) was the most important avant-garde magazine published in the former Yugoslavia and one of the most significant publications of the broader European avant-garde movement of the early 20th century. It was launched in February 1921 by the artist Ljubomir Micić (1895-1971) and published monthly in Zagreb and Belgrade until December 1926, when it was banned by the authorities. A total of 43 issues were published, as well as one poster, “Zenitismus,” and one issue of a daily Zenit newspaper dated September 23, 1922. “Zenitism” was an avant-garde movement ...
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Seminole Josie Billie with Family and Dog
This photograph, taken in the Big Cypress Swamp in Florida near Deep Lake in April 1921, depicts Josie Billie and his family. Born on December 12, 1887, Billie was the son of the first Indian to receive a formal education in Florida. A Seminole medicine man and long-time public spokesman for the Florida Seminoles, Billie was also a Baptist minister. He was a frequent participant in the Florida Folk Festival and lived on the Big Cypress Seminole Indian Reservation in Hendry County until his death in 1980. The image is ...
On the Aerodrome at Amman. Colonel Laurence (T.E. Lawrence). Sir Herbert Samuel. Amir Abdullah. April, 1921
At the conclusion of World War I, the victorious allies named Britain the mandatory power for Palestine, Transjordan, and Iraq, all former territories of the Ottoman Empire which, with Germany, had been defeated in the war. In April 1921, the British convened meetings of Arab and British officials at Amir Abdullah ibn Hussein's camp at Amman, during the course of which British High Commissioner Herbert Samuel proclaimed Amir Abdullah the ruler of the new Emirate of Transjordan. This photograph, taken at these meetings, shows Colonel T.E. Lawrence, Samuel ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Line of Bedouin Men with Rifles on Horseback
At the conclusion of World War I, the victorious allies named Britain the mandatory power for for Palestine, Transjordan, and Iraq, all former territories of the Ottoman Empire which, with Germany, had been defeated in the war. In April 1921, the British convened meetings of Arab and British officials at Amir Abdullah ibn Hussein's camp at Amman, during the course of which British High Commissioner Herbert Samuel proclaimed Amir Abdullah the ruler of the new Emirate of Transjordan. This photograph, taken at these meetings, shows a line of Bedouin ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Arab Men Racing Horses While Crowd Looks on, Tents in Background
At the conclusion of World War I, the victorious allies named Britain the mandatory power for Palestine, Transjordan, and Iraq, all former territories of the Ottoman Empire which, with Germany, had been defeated in the war. In April 1921, the British convened meetings of Arab and British officials at Amir Abdullah ibn Hussein's camp at Amman, during the course of which British High Commissioner Herbert Samuel proclaimed Amir Abdullah the ruler of the new Emirate of Transjordan. This photograph, taken at these meetings, shows a group of Arab men ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Amir Abdullah's Bodyguard on Camels with Red, Green and White Standard at Far Left
At the conclusion of World War I, the victorious allies named Britain the mandatory power for Palestine, Transjordan, and Iraq, all former territories of the Ottoman Empire which, with Germany, had been defeated in the war. In April 1921, the British convened meetings of Arab and British officials at Amir Abdullah ibn Hussein's camp at Amman, during the course of which British High Commissioner Herbert Samuel proclaimed Amir Abdullah the ruler of the new Emirate of Transjordan. This photograph, taken at these meetings, shows Amir Abdullah's bodyguard, mounted ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Mandate for Nauru
Nauru is an island country located in the central Pacific that has been inhabited for thousands of years by people of Micronesian and Polynesian origin. In 1888, Imperial Germany took over the island. At the end of World War I, the Treaty of Versailles stripped Germany of its colonies. The League of Nations, established by the treaty, conferred a mandate on Great Britain to administer the territory under a trusteeship. Australia, whose troops had occupied the island in 1914, took control of the island, with Britain and New Zealand acting ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Adventures in Swaziland: the Story of a South African Boer
The author of this work, Owen Rowe O’Neil, was a South African Boer (farmer) of Irish descent who grew up near the border between Swaziland and the Transvaal. As a child and an adult he made frequent trips to Swaziland. O’Neil’s book describes warfare, customs, political organization, and medicine in late-19th and early-20th century Swaziland, as well as recounts O’Neil’s numerous personal encounters with King Buno, his mother, Queen Labotsibeni, Crown Prince Sebuza, and other members of the royal family. Swaziland came under the control ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A History of Persia
Percy Molesworth Sykes (1867–1945) was a British soldier, diplomat, and author who wrote several important books about Persia (present-day Iran) and neighboring countries, including Ten Thousand Miles in Persia (1902), The Glory of the Shia World (1910), and this two-volume A History of Persia (1915). Sykes was educated at the Royal Military Academy at Sandhurst and, upon his commission as an officer in the British Army, joined a cavalry regiment in India in 1888. In November 1892, he undertook a secret mission to Samarkand (present-day Uzbekistan) to survey, on ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Union of Worker and Peasant
This propaganda poster from the Russian Civil War of 1919–21 is by Vladimir Lebedev, a prolific Russian painter, book illustrator, and poster and set designer. Lebedev’s compositions are distinguished by simple blocks of color and figures broken down into geometric shapes. The image herepromotes the brotherhood of peasants and workers and may have addressed a topical issue at a time when workers lost jobs and fled to the country leading to tensions between these two groups. In this composition, the worker stands slightly behind and in friendly ...
Articles in Pink Urdu
This publication consists of articles written by Siddiq Irshad Mullā Rumūzī (also seen as Ramozi, 1896–1952), a celebrated Urdu humorist and satirist. His subjects here are politicians and their actions, events involving politicians, and the state of the economy. His essays in this booklet also poke fun at so-called religious people, whom he deems imperceptive of the true essence of Islam and who blindly follow old traditions without any logic. While disapproving of people and situations and suggesting reforms, Mullā Rumūzī was careful not to criticize his country. Critics ...
Letter from Gabriela Mistral, 1921, Santiago, Chile, to Manuel Magallanes Moure, Concepción, Chile
Gabriela Mistral (1889–1957), the pseudonym of Lucila Godoy Alcayaga, was an educator, diplomat, and poet, who in 1945 became the first Latin American author to win the Nobel Prize in Literature. Born in the northern city of Vicuña, Chile, Mistral developed an early interest in poetry, literature, the Bible, and the natural environment, particularly that of her childhood town of Monte Grande. Largely self-educated, she began working at age 15 as a teacher’s aide to support herself and her mother, and in 1910 she obtained a teaching certificate ...
Letter from Gabriela Mistral, January 28–February 8, 1921, Santiago, Chile, to Manuel Magallanes Moure, Concepción, Chile
Gabriela Mistral (1889–1957), the pseudonym of Lucila Godoy Alcayaga, was an educator, diplomat, and poet, who in 1945 became the first Latin American author to win the Nobel Prize in Literature. Born in the northern city of Vicuña, Chile, Mistral developed an early interest in poetry, literature, the Bible, and the natural environment, particularly that of her childhood town of Monte Grande. Largely self-educated, she began working at age 15 as a teacher’s aide to support herself and her mother, and in 1910 she obtained a teaching certificate ...