59 results in English
Selma Lagerlöf
This photograph by Henry B. Goodwin depicts the Swedish author Selma Ottilia Lovisa Lagerlöf (1858–1940), the first woman to win the Nobel Prize in Literature. Goodwin was born the son of a Bavarian landscape painter and originally named Heinrich Buergel. He was a scholar of Old Icelandic and one of the pioneers of portrait photography in Scandinavia. He adopted a new homeland and a new name and contributed to the visual image of contemporary Swedes by becoming the most-renowned society photographer in Sweden in his era. An advocate of ...
The Revolt in Arabia
This historical booklet about the origins of the Arab revolt against the Ottoman Empire during World War I was written by Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje (1857–1936), a Dutch professor who specialized in oriental languages and cultures and served as a colonial official in the Dutch East Indies (present-day Indonesia). The booklet is a collection of newspaper articles by Hurgronje that appeared in the newspaper Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant in 1916, after Hurgronje had spent a year conducting research in Mecca and Jiddah. The articles were translated into English and published in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Al-Arab, Volume 1, Number 1, July 4, 1917
The newspaper Al-Arab (The Arabs) was first published in Baghdad on July 4, 1917, some four months after British troops captured the city from the Turks, thereby ending three centuries of Ottoman rule. The paper appeared at a critical period in the history of Iraq. Issued by the British authorities, it served as a mouthpiece for the British administration at a time of rising Iraqi and Arab nationalism. It depicted the Ottomans as foreigners and the British as liberators and sought to advance broader British military and political strategy against ...
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Map Showing Wet Areas on Passchendaele Front
Overprinted in color in the field, this World War I map shows the Allied front line at the Ypres Salient on December 2, 1917. The notorious Battle of Passchendaele (also seen as Passendale) began in July 1917 and culminated in the capture by British and Canadian forces of the village of Passchendaele (West Flanders, Belgium) on November 6. Even though the battle had ended some weeks earlier, an action took place on the night of December 1−2 in the areas to the north and east of Passchendaele village shown ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Bad Child's Book of A.D.C's
The Bad Child’s Book of A.D.C’s is a short manuscript book of ink drawings and verse, probably produced by a British officer working at the General Head Quarters of the British Army in Montreuil Sur Mer, France, in 1917, during World War I. The subjects of the poems and drawings are the aides de camp working at the Allied General Staff. An aide de camp is a military officer who works as personal assistant or secretary to senior army or naval personnel. Among those caricatured was ...
Contributed by The British Library
Chronicles of Cliveden, Volume 1, Issue 1
Chronicles of Cliveden was a journal produced during World War I by the patients at the Duchess of Connaught Canadian Military Hospital in the United Kingdom. The hospital was located at Cliveden, a grand country estate that was the home of Waldorf Astor, the second Viscount Astor, and his wife Nancy. When the war broke out, the Astors offered part of the estate to the Canadian Red Cross, which established the hospital to treat injured Allied soldiers. In the foreword to the first issue of the journal, Colonel W. Langmuir ...
Contributed by The British Library
For the Fallen, and Other Poems
Robert Laurence Binyon (1869–1943) was a poet and art historian who spent his entire career at the British Museum, where he wrote studies of Dutch, British, and Asian art. He published his first poem at the age of 16 and continued to write poetry throughout his life. On September 21, 1914, shortly after the outbreak of World War I, Binyon published, in The Times of London, what would become his most famous poem, the elegy “For the Fallen.” Prophetic of the enormous losses that Great Britain would sustain over ...
Contributed by The British Library
Map of Arabia and the Persian Gulf
This map of the Arabian Peninsula and the Persian Gulf emphasizes the physical terrain and transportation routes as surveyed in 1916 by the Survey of India, the cartographic branch of the British government of India. It was prepared at the beginning of the British campaign against the Ottoman Empire during the First World War. The map provided a general view of the Middle East Theater and was not intended for any particular army operation. It shows the Hejaz Railway, undersea telegraph cables, pilgrimage routes, and the location of oil installations ...
Southwest Arabia: Ebha, Sheet 4
This 1917 map is part of a series of nine large-scale depictions of the southwestern portion of the Arabian Peninsula. It was published by the British Ordnance Survey in cooperation with the Geographical Section of the General Staff at the War Office, which published the series of maps of the peninsula covering Ta’izz, Mecca, Taʼif, Kunfuda (or al-Qunfudhah), Wadi Bishah, Abha, Wadi Shehran, Saada, and Sanaʻa. The map covers the area around the city of Ebha (present-day Abha, Saudi Arabia). It shows the Red Sea coast and the thinly ...
Southwest Arabia: Mecca, Sheet 8
This map is part of a series of nine large-scale depictions of the southwestern portion of the Arabian Peninsula. The map covers the region from Mecca and its port of Jeddah (now Jiddah) in the north to the southern town of al-Līth on the Red Sea and the arid areas towards the southwest. The entire region is known as Hijaz, or Hejaz. Much of the Arabian Peninsula was part of the Ottoman Empire, and Mecca played a crucial role in the British campaign to wrest the entire Middle East from ...
History of the Sinn Fein Movement and the Irish Rebellion of 1916
Sinn Fein (Gaelic for “We Ourselves”) was founded to promote the cultural revival and political independence of Ireland. History of the Sinn Fein Movement and the Irish Rebellion of 1916 is a detailed history of the movement, written by Francis P. Jones, a former member of the movement who had immigrated to the United States from Ireland. The book covers the period from the founding of Sinn Fein in Dublin in 1905 to the Easter Rising of April 1916. It deals with the economic, cultural, religious, and political aspects of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Subject Nationalities of the German Alliance. From the Allies’ Peace Terms as Stated in their Reply to President Wilson's Note of 19th December 1916
In December 1916, President Woodrow Wilson of the United States, as the leader of the world’s most important neutral power, put forward a plan to end World War I with a “peace without victory.” Wilson asked the Allied and Central powers to state their terms for peace. In their reply to Wilson’s note, the Allied powers declared: “The civilized world knows that the aims of the Allies include the reorganization of Europe, guaranteed by a stable settlement, based alike upon the principle of nationalities on the right which ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Doing My Bit for Ireland
Margaret Skinnider (circa 1893‒1971) was born in Scotland to Irish parents. She trained as a teacher and taught mathematics in Glasgow, Scotland, before resigning her position to go to Dublin to take part in the Easter Rising of April 1916. Skinnider’s Doing My Bit for Ireland, published in the United States in 1917, is her account of her revolutionary activities in 1915 and 1916. She begins by telling the story of her first trip to Dublin, in 1915, when she smuggled detonators for bombs into Ireland for use ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The King of Hedjaz and Arab Independence, with a Facsimile of the Proclamation of June 27, 1916
The King of Hedjaz and Arab Independence is a booklet with 14 pages of main text, published during World War I, which concerns contemporary political developments in Arabia and Iraq. After a short introduction giving the context of events, the first text is a facsimile of the original Arabic and an English translation of the proclamation of June 1916 by Sharif Husayn ibn ‘Ali, in which he rejects Turkish rule and asserts his own rule over the Hejaz (present-day western Saudi Arabia; also seen as Hijaz). The proclamation was one ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Some Plants of the Zor Hills, Koweit, Arabia. Records of the Botanical Survey of India, Volume VI, Number 6
Some Plants of the Zor Hills, Koweit, Arabia is a botanical catalog of the plants found on the northern shore of the Bay of Kuwait around what is today Jal Az-Zor National Park in Kuwait. Plants are listed by their botanical and local names in Arabic and Persian. The book includes notes on the distribution of plants in the area discussed and elsewhere in the Persian Gulf region and beyond; the economic uses of plants are also noted. Plant specimens from this region were collected around 1907 by Sir Percy ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Justice Calls Your Attention to the Tragedy of the Jew
In a nationwide publicity campaign initiated while World War I was raging, American Jewish leaders brought home to the American public the extent of the suffering abroad and the need for relief efforts of unprecedented scope. The message resonated, resulting in the raising of large sums of money and in garnering support from American Jews and others for wartime relief. The Joint Distribution Committee of American Funds for the Relief of Jewish War Sufferers (later the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, both names abbreviated as JDC) was formed in 1914 ...
People in a Joint Distribution Committee Transmission Bureau to Send Money to Relatives Overseas
During World War I, Americans who had relatives living in the war zones sought ways to send help to their families. The Joint Distribution Committee of American Funds for the Relief of Jewish War Sufferers (later the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, both names abbreviated as JDC) was formed in 1914 to send aid, including food, clothing, medicine, funds, and emergency supplies, to the stricken Jews of Europe. The war left in its wake many additional catastrophes—pogroms, epidemics, famine, revolution, and economic ruin—and after the war the JDC ...
Refugees in a Food Line in Bucharest, Romania
Elderly refugees, such as this 75-year-old woman newly arrived in Bucharest, had the hardest time surviving the rigorous journey to safety during World War I. Romania joined the Allied war effort in late August 1916. Sections of the country became enemy-occupied territory. As in large swaths of Europe, Jewish homes in Romania and the civic institutions supporting community life were destroyed. Civilian populations, treated as enemies, were forced or frightened into flight to places not yet caught up in the turmoil. Initial relief efforts for Romanian Jews impoverished by the ...
Women of America Proudly Carry Their Holy Cross, and Join Their Italian Sisters in Strengthening the Common Pious Action on the Battlefield
This print shows a parade of American Red Cross nurses marching down an avenue flanked by jubilant crowds. Flags of the Red Cross, the United States, the Kingdom of Italy, the United Kingdom, and the French Republic hang from buildings and lampposts and are waved by the spectators. During World War I, the American Red Cross organized a commission that created a storage facility in Rome provided with large amounts of hospital supplies and fully equipped ambulances, along with blankets and sanitary supplies. The commission also gave funds to purchase ...
Contributed by Alessandrina Library
It is Nice in the Surf but What about the Men in the Trenches? Go and Help
This 1917 Australian poster is representative of many used to recruit volunteers to serve with the British forces in World War I. Australian recruitment drives were highly successful and resulted in more than 400,000 men enlisting from a population of fewer than five million. Posters such as this one appealed to the Australian value of “mateship” or comradeship, while others appealed to patriotism. In addition to the young man swimming in the surf, the poster features the emblem of the Win the War League, an organization founded in 1917 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
National War Relief Exhibition
In World War I, all sides used posters as tools to mobilize their populations for the war effort. This poster, published in Pozsony (present-day Bratislava, Slovakia) in 1917, shows a disabled veteran with a prosthetic arm using a scythe to harvest wheat. The text announces the National War Relief Exhibition in Pozsony. The poster was created by Pal Sujan, a popular artist whose portraits and other paintings were widely shown in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Sujan was born in Budapest in 1880, studied art, and worked as an art teacher in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Subscribe to the War Loan! The Army and Navy Expect it from You!
In World War I, all sides used posters as tools to mobilize their populations for the war effort. This 1917 poster, created by the influential German designer and graphic artist Lucian Bernhard, appeals to German citizens to help finance the war with their savings. Bernhard was born in 1883, and his original name was Emil Kahn. After studying at the Munich Art Academy, he moved to Berlin where he worked as a commercial artist. He was best known for his innovative advertising posters for German companies. Bernhard emphasized simplicity as ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Lake Nahuel Huapí, Argentina
This 1917 photograph of Nahuel Huapí Lake in the Patagonia region of Argentina is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855–1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography, whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890–1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
"The Child at Your Door." 400,000 Orphans Starving, No State Aid Available. Campaign for $30,000,000
The American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief was established in 1915 with the cooperation of the United States Department of State, for the purpose of providing humanitarian relief to Armenians forcibly deported from Anatolia to other parts of the Ottoman Empire during World War I. The Ottoman parliament passed a law by which privately collected funds from the United States could be distributed to displaced Armenians via the U.S. Embassy in Constantinople. The committee, which raised millions of dollars at public rallies and churches, issued this poster as ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Kościuszko, Pułaski—They Fought for Liberty in America
This Polish-language poster, produced in Brooklyn, New York, in 1917, shortly after the United States entered World War I, was aimed at the many Polish-speaking immigrants living in the United States at that time. The message— “Kościuszko, Pułaski fought for liberty in America. Can you help America fight for freedom in Poland? Eat less sugar, wheat, meat, fats so that we can support our brothers fighting in the allied armies”—invokes the names of two Poles. Tadeusz Kosciusko and Kazimierz Pulaski fought on the American side in the Revolutionary War ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
4 Reasons for Buying Victory Bonds
This World War I poster, produced in Canada in 1917, depicts “4 reasons for buying Victory Bonds.” The “reasons” are the four most important German civilian and military leaders, whose faces would have been familiar to many Canadians from news reports: Kaiser Wilhelm II, the German emperor; Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg, the chief of the German General Staff; Crown Prince Wilhelm, the son of the emperor and heir to the throne; and Grand Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz, commander of the German Navy. Canada, a dominion within the British Empire ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
America's Tribute to Britain
This poster, showing a bald eagle placing a victory wreath on a lion's head, is from 1917, the year that the United States entered World War I on the side of Great Britain. The lion is a traditional symbol of England, the largest of the countries that make up the United Kingdom (the others being Scotland, Wales, and, at this time, Ireland). The symbol goes back to the 12th century, when King Richard I (1157–99), known as Richard the Lionheart, chose three lions as his symbol in battle ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Britishers, Enlist To-day
This World War I poster showing the British flag was published in New York in 1917 and was aimed at encouraging British citizens living in the United States to enlist in the armed forces. The poster lists 280 Broadway in lower Manhattan as the location of a recruitment office. In January 1916, the British Parliament passed the Military Service Act, which went into effect on March 2, 1916. The act specified that men between the ages of 18 and 41 could be called up for service in the army. Men ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Can You Drive a Car? Will You Drive One in France? Immediate Service at the Front!
This World War I poster shows the proud figure of Liberty strongly fending off Death as she protects a wounded soldier, who rests on the back of a vehicle. It was used to recruit American ambulance drivers for service at the front in France. The American Field Service (AFS) originated in 1914, shortly after the outbreak of war, when young Americans living in Paris began volunteering to drive ambulances at the American Hospital of Paris. Members of the AFS were present at every major battle in France and carried more ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Don't
This World War I poster, published in London in 1917, consists entirely of text, with a list of activities that British citizens were asked by the government to avoid in order to conserve scarce resources for the war effort. The text reads: “1. Don't use a motor car or motor cycle for pleasure purposes. 2. Don't buy new clothes needlessly. Don't be ashamed of wearing old clothes in war time. 3. Don't keep more servants than you really need. In this way you will save money ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Dr. Uncle Sam is Now in Charge of Our Industrial Troubles
This World War I poster touts the role of the federal government in promoting industrial cooperation by portraying Uncle Sam as a doctor, who administers the medicine of "Co-operation" to patients identified as "Wage Earner" and "Wage Payer," as the quack doctor of "Agitation" leaves and a nurse, "The Public," sweeps up “Agitator’s Acid,” “Legislative Ether,” and “Spirits of Discontent.” A tiny bird comments, "A real doctor on the job now!" The text further explains that the prescription, “a Victory Tonic, called Co-operation,” will cure strife and win the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Exhibition of Moroccan Art
This World War I poster advertises an exhibition of Moroccan art for the benefit of wounded Moroccan soldiers. It shows a wounded soldier standing over a seated Moroccan artisan, who is painting a ceramic bowl. Moroccan units fought as part of the French Army from the early days of the war, beginning with the participation of the Moroccan Brigade in the September 1914 Battle of the Marne. In all, 37,300 Moroccan soldiers, all of them volunteers, fought with the French forces in Europe. The number of Moroccan soldiers wounded ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Following the Paths of Our Fathers in the Ranks of the Polish Army for Motherland and Freedom
This World War I poster shows a winged knight on a horse, heading into battle. The text, in English and Polish, encourages men of Polish origin living in the United States to enlist in the Polish army. Poland had been partitioned by Russia, Prussia, and the Austrian Empire in 1795, and its sovereignty was not restored until 1918. Thus, there was no independent Poland during World War I. But many Poles believed that the cause of national independence could be furthered by supporting Britain, France, and Russia against the Central ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Day for the African Army and the Colonial Troops
This World War I poster showing French soldiers fighting alongside black soldiers from Africa celebrates the participation of troops from the French colonies and overseas territories during the war. More than 480,000 such troops were deployed by France in Europe over the course of the war, including 134,300 soldiers from West Africa, 172,800 from Algeria, 60,000 from Tunisia, 37,300 from Morocco, 34,400 from Madagascar, 2,100 from the Somali coast, and 44,000 from Indochina. Initially, most colonial troops were volunteers, but as the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Lest They Perish. Campaign for $30,000,000. American Committee for Relief in the Near East: Armenia-Greece-Syria-Persia
The American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief was established in 1915 with the cooperation of the United States Department of State, for the purpose of providing humanitarian relief to Armenians forcibly deported from Anatolia to other parts of the Ottoman Empire during World War I. The Ottoman parliament passed a law by which privately collected funds from the United States could be distributed to displaced Armenians via the U.S. embassy in Constantinople. This poster, showing a woman carrying a baby on her back surrounded by the rubble of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Italy Has Need of Meat, Wheat, Fat, and Sugar
This Italian-language poster, produced in Brooklyn, New York, in 1917, shortly after the United States entered World War I, was aimed at the many Italian-speaking immigrants living in the United States at that time. Illustrated with a portrait of an Italian army officer, the poster declares that “Italy has need of meat, wheat, fat, and sugar” and urges people to conserve these foods so that supplies can go to “our people and to the Italian troops.” The poster was sponsored by the U.S. Food Administration, a government agency established ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Many Peoples - One Nation
During World War I, President Woodrow Wilson and other U.S. political leaders were concerned about disunity among the American people. They were particularly anxious that so-called hyphenated Americans, Americans born abroad or of foreign heritage, might prove disloyal. For example, Irish-Americans might be bitter at British rule in Ireland or German-Americans could be sympathetic to Germany. In response, U.S. leaders launched a widespread “Americanization” campaign involving both government agencies and private organizations. This poster, with the slogan “Many peoples - one nation. Let us unite to Americanize America,” was ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Poles! Kościuszko and Pułaski Fought for the Liberty of Poland and Other Nations. Follow Their Example. Enlist in the Polish Army!
This World War I poster invokes the memory of two illustrious Poles who fought in the American Revolution, Tadeusz Kościuszko (1746–1817) and Kazimierz Pułaski (1747–79), to encourage men of Polish origin living in the United States to enlist in the Polish army. Poland had been partitioned by Russia, Prussia, and the Austrian Empire in 1795, and its sovereignty was not restored until 1918. There thus was no independent Poland during World War I. But many Poles believed that the cause of national independence could be furthered by supporting ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
For the Freedom of the World. Subscribe to the National Loan at the Banque Nationale de Crédit
This World War I poster issued by the French Banque Nationale de Crédit urges French citizens to purchase war bonds, “for the freedom of the world.” An image of the Statue of Liberty appears on the horizon, an allusion to the entry into the war of the United States on April 6, 1917. The participation of the United States gave a lift to the people of France, who by this time had suffered huge casualties in battles with Germany and had expended much of the nation’s wealth to fight ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Send the Eagle's Answer: More Ships
This poster, issued by the publication section of the Emergency Fleet Corporation in Washington, D.C., shows a large, colorful eagle flying above ships setting sail for a distant shore in flames. The Emergency Fleet Corporation was established under congressional mandate by the United States Shipping Board in April 1917, ten days after the United States declared war on Germany. Its purpose was to acquire, maintain, and operate the merchant ships that were needed to transport American troops and their supplies to France. The bald eagle as a symbol of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Share
Sponsored by the Jewish Relief Campaign, this World War I poster features a monumental female figure wearing a hat reminiscent of the U.S. flag. She is offering the bounty of America—a tray laden with food—to the destitute women and children of Europe. The skyline of New York City and the Statue of Liberty are in the background, and the word “share” appears in large type at the top of the poster. The American Jewish Relief Committee was established on October 14, 1914, by three prominent members of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Subscribe to the National Loan
This World War I poster, published in northern Italy in 1917, urges Italians to subscribe to the national loan to help finance the war. The poster shows a classical female figure, representing Italy, wearing a crown and armor and draped in the Italian flag, holding a sword toward a Nordic warrior coming over the mountains. After entering the war on the side of the Allies in May 1915, Italy mainly engaged in fighting the forces of the Central Powers, Austria-Hungary and Germany, along its mountainous northeastern frontier with Austria. The ...
Contributed by Library of Congress