245 results in English
The Baptistery of Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kiev
This book is about the baptistery of Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kiev. The name of the cathedral comes from the sixth-century Hagia Sophia in Constantinople (present-day Istanbul) and means “Holy Wisdom,” rather than dedication to a particular saint. Designed as “the new Constantinople” to represent Eastern Christianity, Saint Sophia in Kiev was first constructed in the 11th century. The baptistery was built into the cloister a few years later and its walls still bear frescoes from the 11th–12th centuries. By the early 20th century, the baptistery was in a ...
West India Islands and the Approaches to the Panama Canal
This large folding map, issued by the London Geographical Institute during World War I, shows the islands of the Caribbean Sea and the approaches to the Panama Canal. The canal had opened to traffic in early 1914, shortly before the outbreak of the war. Protection of the canal against possible sabotage by Germany was a concern of U.S. military planners in World War I and, especially, during World War II. The map shows telegraph lines, undersea cables, and the distances in nautical miles of steamer routes from the key ...
Map of the Meridian Road
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the proposed Meridian Route, running from the U.S.–Canada border in North Dakota to Galveston, Texas, and the U.S.–Mexico border at Laredo. The ...
Map of the Pacific Highway
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Pacific Highway, proposed by the Pacific Highway Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from Blaine, Washington, to San Diego, California, a ...
Map of the Rocky Mountain Highway
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Rocky Mountain Highway, proposed by the Rocky Mountain Highway Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from Glacier National Park in Montana ...
Map of the Dixie Highway
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Dixie Highway, proposed by the Dixie Highway Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from Mackinaw City, Michigan, to Miami, Florida. In ...
Map of the Sunshine Highway
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Sunshine Highway, proposed by the Sunshine Highway Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from the U.S.–Canada border in Washington ...
Map of the Mississippi Highway
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Mississippi Highway, proposed by the Mississippi Highway Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from Duluth, Minnesota, to New Orleans, a distance ...
Map of the Great Lakes-Atlantic Highway
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Great Lakes–Atlantic Highway, proposed by the Great Lakes-Atlantic Highway Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from Cleveland, Ohio, to Miami ...
Map of the Great Plains Road
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Great Plains Road, proposed by the Great Plains Road Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from the U.S.–Canada border ...
Map of United States Proposed National Highways, 1915
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA proposed a 150,000-mile (241,402-kilometer) network of roads, based on a four-fold system of national, state, county, and town or township highways and roads. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the tentative routes of the most important highways in this network, totaling 100,000 miles (160,934 kilometers) in length. The table at the ...
Map of United States Proposed National Highways System, 1915
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA proposed a 150,000-mile (241,402-kilometer) network of roads, based on a four-fold system of national, state, county, and town or township highways and roads. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows (in red) the tentative routes of the 13 principal transcontinental highways in this network, and the connecting system of other major highways, totaling 100 ...
Map of the Atlantic Highway
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Atlantic Highway, proposed by the Atlantic Highway Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from Calais, Maine to Miami, Florida, a distance ...
Map of the Canada–Kansas City–Gulf Road
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Canada–Kansas City–Gulf Road, proposed by the Canada–Kansas City–Gulf Road Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from Duluth, Minnesota, to Cameron, Louisiana ...
Map of Proposed National Highways of the United States, 1915
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA proposed a 150,000-mile (241,402-kilometer) network of roads, based on a four-fold system of national, state, county, and town or township highways and roads. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the tentative routes of the most important highways in this network, totaling 100,000 miles (160,934 kilometers) in length. The table at the ...
Korea
This photograph of a Korean woman and her daughter in traditional costume is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855-1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890-1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7,000 glass ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Western Motor Car Route Guide
This automobile guide shows the main highway route between Vancouver, Canada, and San Diego, California, circa 1915. The map lists the distance in miles from Vancouver to cities along the way, and highlights in red lettering the major intermediate stops, such as Seattle, Portland, San Francisco (Oakland), Bakersfield, and Los Angeles. Major civic expositions occurring in San Francisco and San Diego in 1915, which stimulated significant motor travel that year, are noted in red as well. Parts of the route include the Pacific Highway as well as follow segments of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Dome Hospital
This is a photograph of the interior of the Dome Hospital in Brighton, on the south coast of Britain. Several buildings in Brighton were converted into hospitals during the First World War to treat the thousands of Indian soldiers who were wounded while fighting in France. The most spectacular of these was the converted Royal Pavilion in Brighton, originally built in the “oriental” style for King George IV in the early 1800s. There were over 680 beds for wounded Indian soldiers in this hospital, and it was “fitted with every ...
Contributed by The British Library
Garvin Papers. Bound Notebook
In April 1915 Second Lieutenant Roland Gerard Garvin of the British Army enrolled in a course of instruction at Staff College in Camberley, Surrey, England. There he attended lectures on tactical instruction, topography, field engineering, administration, organization, military law, and hygiene. One of his lecturers was Major Hubert Conway Rees, who had commanded a battalion during the retreat from Mons in 1914. These notes and drawings by Garvin are from a tour of field works that he made as part of the course and that was led by Major Rees ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Russian-Turkish War. The Defeat of the Turks at Sarikamish
This print showing the defeat of the Turks by the Russians at a battle at Sarikamish on the Russian-Turkish border is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “During the Battle of Sarikamish, despite the severe cold and a blizzard, our gallant troops chased the Turks out from their strong positions with amazing tenacity. When the Turkish troops were defeated and began to retreat, leaving their weapons and the wounded behind, our brave soldiers vigorously pursued them. Оne Turkish corps ...
Contributed by The British Library
A Battle with the Turks
This print showing a battle between Cossacks and Turks is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Taking advantage of the night darkness, the Turks, dressed in white cloaks, stole up to the location of the Cossack outpost and attacked the Cossacks with bayonets. At the same time a Kurdish cavalry unit attacked them from the flank. A terrible massacre began. The Cossacks then broke through the lines of the Turks, took the hill, and entrenched themselves. In the morning ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Battle of Ardahan
This print showing the Battle of Ardahan (in present-day Turkey) is from the collection of World War I Russian lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “On the night of December 20, our troops, while fighting, force-marched to Ardahan from two sides—from the west and the north. There was a heavy fog. The Turks, firmly settled in the trenches, met our troops with an outpouring of bullets and shrapnel. Late at night the commanding officer of the western detachment led his troops on an assault of ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Defeat of the Turks near Sarikamish
This print showing a 1914 battle scene near Sarikamish, showing fighting between the Russians and the Turkish army, is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “After fierce battles, the main forces of the Turkish army, having been surrounded by our troops behind Sarikamish, laid down their weapons. This glorious victory of our Caucasian Army, like thunder, struck the German leaders. We defeated two Turkish corps. One of these corps was captured entirely with the corps commanders, three chiefs of ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Defeat of the Germans on the River Bzura
This print showing the defeat of Germans at the river Bzura is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “In three previous battles, the defeated German army was unable to conduct a full and broad offensive against our invincible army along the front line at ​​the river Bzura. The Germans were limited to separate attacks, and as a result, their hordes remained on the left bank of the Bzura. The sacrifices made by the Germans on the Bzura are enormous ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Russian-Turkish War. The Defeat of the Turkish Army at Sarikamish
This print showing an explosion amidst the Turkish army at Sarikamish is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Our glorious Caucasian troops defeated two Turkish corps at Sarikamish. The Ninth Turkish corps is destroyed. The commander of the corps, Iskhan Pasha, chiefs of the 17th, 28th, and 29th divisions, their staff, and more than 100 officers were taken prisoner. The Turks' losses in dead and wounded are enormous.” Lubok is a Russian word for popular prints created from woodcuts ...
Contributed by The British Library
A Battle at Gorodok
This print showing a battle with cavalry at Gorodok (present-day Horodok, Ukraine) is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains, in the words of an August 6 report from the General Staff at Saint Petersburg: “At noon on August 4, an Austrian division approached the line at Gorodok-Kuzmin. Our cavalrymen initiated a fight with the enemy at Gorodok, which lasted for five hours. Our fire and cavalry attacks inflicted losses on the enemy. The whole field is covered with the ...
Contributed by The British Library
A Battle at the Austrian Border
This print showing a battle near the village Gopka at the Austrian border is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains, in the words of a report from Odessa: “Our troops reached Gopka on August 13 at night; an intense firing of weapons began. A fierce battle began before dawn and lasted for 18 hours. The battle ended with the defeat of the Austrians, who abandoned many guns. The number of dead and wounded Austrians is 2,000, with 4 ...
Contributed by The British Library
War in the Air: Pegoud's Feat
This print showing an airplane attacking a train and troops on the ground is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Pegoud, a famous French aviator, made two brilliant flights over German territory, reaching nearly 300 versts into the country. His plane had an open cockpit, and his gunner was named Monteignet. While conducting reconnaissance on the location of the German army, Pegoud and Monteignet dropped several grenades and incendiary bombs and fired two projectiles from a 45 millimeter gun ...
Contributed by The British Library
Heroic Feats of General G.'s Division on the Caucasian Front
This print showing a battle on a mountain in thick fog is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “During the famous battles at Sarikamish and Karaurg the division of General G. made very difficult crossings amazingly quickly. General G., following the internal lines of operation, rushed from Kars and decisively defeated the Turks in a battle on the night of December 16. In just one area of the battle alone, the Turks lost about 1,000 men. Having defeated ...
Contributed by The British Library
A Battle with the Germans on the Bzura River
This print showing a battle taking place on the Bzura River is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “The second onslaught of the German troops on Warsaw and the Vistula River was stopped along the line of the Bzura River and its tributary, the Rawka River. Further to the south, the line of defense continued along the rivers Pilica and Neda, to the confluence of the latter with the Vistula. The Russian army stood there like an impenetrable wall ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Great European War. Heroic Guards
This print showing two men firing on approaching soldiers is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “The newspaper Kievlianin published an article based on a story told by Kozin, a member of the Volynskyi zemstvo [local government]. Kozin said that his estate, located near the Austrian border, was guarded by two men: Zontiev, an Ossetian, and Goi-Murza-Biev, a Circassian. When Kozin left his estate, he gave each of these men a Browning firearm. On July 27, the guards spotted ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Great European War. Air Combat. A Heroic Feat of French Pilot Garros
This print showing the collision of a French airplane and a German airship is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “War creates heroes. A German Dreadnought-Zeppelin airship floated over a French fortress. The predatory enemy was carefully looking for the secret of its defenses. A small airplane took off and quickly surged into the air, controlled by the firm hand of French pilot Garros. Soon the famous pilot soared over the enormous airship. Garros dropped a bomb, but missed ...
Contributed by The British Library
Destruction of the Austrian Squad by Shrapnel Fire During the Capture of the Kyrle Baba Pass in the Carpathian Mountains
This print showing a battle scene with explosions is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “As soon as it was detected by us, the Austrian battery using heavy artillery against Tarnow was silenced by our artillery with shrapnel fire. In Bukovina our advanced units captured the Kyrle Baba Pass, in a battle located on the border with Transylvania and on the highway leading from Cîmpulung to Sighetu Marmaţiei and Dej [present-day Romania].” This picture, like many others in the ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Defeat of the Turks on the Erzurum Front
This print showing a battle scene with cavalry and infantry is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Our infantry units and the glorious Caucasian Cossacks defeated the Turkish army with a lightning-like attack in the direction of Erzurum. All of the Turkish regiments from the 28th and 29th Divisions lost almost half of their men. Two battalions were completely destroyed. The 102nd Regiment and the 23rd and 24th Cavalry Regiments also had heavy losses. The regiments of the 34th ...
Contributed by The British Library
Montreal, Old and New: Entertaining, Convincing, Fascinating. A Unique Guide for the Managing Editor
Montreal, Old and New: Entertaining, Convincing, Fascinating. A Unique Guide for the Managing Editor is a tribute to the city of Montreal, which in 1915, when the book was published, was the sixth largest city on the North American continent. A large series of construction projects had just been completed that year in the part of the city now known as Vieux-Montréal (Old Montreal). The impressive new office buildings gave the city a very modern look. The book offers more than 1,000 print and photographic images of Montreal buildings ...
A German Illustration of "Freedom of the Seas" in War Time
Freedom of the seas was a highly contentious issue during World War I. Great Britain, which enjoyed maritime superiority over Germany, used its navy to block the shipment of military and industrial goods to Germany, including by way of ports in Denmark, Sweden, the Netherlands, and other neutral countries through which cargoes could be transshipped to Germany. Germany protested the British blockade and sought to position itself as a champion of freedom of the seas, in part to curry favor with the United States and other neutrals, who strongly objected ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Aero View of Middletown, Connecticut, 1915
This panoramic map shows Middletown, Connecticut, as it appeared in 1915. Located along the Connecticut River, Middletown was originally known as Mattabeseck, the American Indian name for the area. Middletown was a port city and had extensive industry. The map shows ships in the river near Middletown, with densely-packed buildings (including homes, churches, shops, industry, and other city facilities) spreading away from the riverbank. The city sprawls into the surrounding hills. A train travels away from the area on the Air Line Railroad. Smaller images above and below the map ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Arabia Infelix, or the Turks in Yamen
Arabia infelix; or the Turks in Yamen is a history of Yemen and the southern Arabian Peninsula from earliest times to the eve of World War I. George Wyman Bury (1874‒1920) was an adventurer and sometime soldier who spent 16 years exploring the mountainous regions of Yemen. Arabia infelix covers all aspects of Yemen, which, until the end of the war, formed part of the Ottoman Empire. Chapters treat biblical and ancient history, flora and fauna, the manners and customs of its rural and urban population, as well as ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Flora of Aden. Records of the Botanical Survey of India, Volume VII, Number 2
Flora of Aden is a botanical catalog of plants found in Aden and vicinity at the southern tip of the Arabian Peninsula. The work appeared in three issues in 1914‒16. Despite never having traveled to the region, Father Ethelbert Blatter was able to add 250 plants to the literature of the region’s known species. He relied on various herbaria and travel accounts, beginning with those by Henry Salt (1780‒1827). Each plant is described in detail with its physical description, Latin and local names, location, growing season, and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Trieste
This movie poster is by the Italian artist Tito Corbella (born in Pontremoli in 1885, died in Rome in 1966), who is best known as a designer of postcards of glamorous women. He also produced illustrations and film posters, such as the one presented here. The poster portrays a woman wearing a red dress adorned with white lilies; she is kneeling, her arms upstretched, with chains on her wrists. The woman symbolizes the city of Trieste, historically part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and, during World War I, its main point ...
Contributed by Alessandrina Library
The Authors of the European Catastrophe Facing Civilization
This poster, published in Florence around 1915, portrays two women, personifications of Civilization and History, cursing the rulers of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire (Wilhelm II, Franz Joseph I, Ferdinand I, and Mehmed V, respectively), and pointing at them as responsible for the First World War. The rulers appear withered by the gazes of the women. The background shows soldiers lying dead on a battlefield and a city in flames. The strongly-worded caption below the image reads: “On the ruins, produced by the insanity of an old tyrant ...
Contributed by Alessandrina Library
As Firm as the Roman Legionary
This watercolor illustration portrays an armed Roman legionary holding a standard with the colors of the Italian flag while facing a German barbarian wearing a winged helmet. The image overtly suggests a parallel between the Italians fighting the Germans during World War I and the legions of ancient Rome which fought against the barbarian German tribes in the time of Julius Caesar. The standard bears the letters “S.P.Q.R.” (Senatus Populusque Romanus; The Roman Senate and the People), the motto of ancient Rome that was emblazoned on the ...
Contributed by Alessandrina Library