31 results in English
Theater and Drama: A Collection of Critical Articles on Theater and Dramatic Literature
Mikola Kindratovich Voroniy (1871–1938) was a prominent Ukrainian poet, writer, actor, and director. This book is a collection of his most important articles on the art of the theater and dramatic literature. The topics covered include the work of actors and directors, dramatic literature as the most complex genre of literary and artistic expression, and the nature and role of the audience. The author draws general conclusions from his analysis and discusses the ways in which the theater might develop in the future. Voroniy received his university education in ...
Snapshot from an Airplane: The Harbor of Copenhagen
This view of Copenhagen harbor is the earliest known Danish aerial photograph. The picture was taken by Holger Damgaard (1870–1945), the first full-time press photographer in Denmark. Damgaard worked for the Danish newspaper Politiken from 1908 until 1940, where he documented a wide variety of events, places, and persons. Aerial photography goes back to the 1850s, when the first photographs were taken from balloons. The first photograph taken from an airplane was made in 1909, when the American aviation pioneer Wilbur Wright flew over Rome, carrying a passenger who ...
National Highways System Proposed in 1913
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This system was to be composed of six main national highways, 13 trunk national highways, and 40 link highways. The link highways, the NHA explained, would connect “the Mains and Trunks” and reach out “in ...
National Highways Map of the State of Wisconsin
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1913, shows 1,500 miles (2,414 kilometers) of national highway proposed for Wisconsin. The NHA employed engineers to plan routes that would maximize the percentage of each ...
State of South Carolina
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1913, shows 1,000 miles (1,609 kilometers) of national highway proposed for South Carolina. The NHA employed engineers to plan routes that would maximize the percentage of ...
State of Alabama Showing Fifteen Hundred Miles of National Highways
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1913, shows 1,500 miles (2,414 kilometers) of national highways proposed for Alabama. The NHA employed engineers to plan routes with the aim of maximizing the share ...
The Cookhouse Tent and Steam Wagon from Buffalo Bill's Wild West, 1913
Every aspect of circuses and shows such as Buffalo Bill’s Wild West was of interest to spectators in the towns and cities visited by these traveling spectacles. In this image dating from 1913, local townspeople gather to watch the cookhouse staff of Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show prepare a meal outside the cookhouse tent. The steam wagon and cookhouse tent can be seen, along with the backs of the spectators, who include both men and women. The picture was taken by G. Herbert Whitney, an amateur photographer from ...
Contributed by Circus World Museum
Ringling Bros. World’s Greatest Shows
This colorful lithograph advertising the Ringling Bros. Circus was printed by the Strobridge Lithographing Company of Cincinnati, Ohio, and New York, a significant producer of circus posters. The poster depicts the immense size of a large American circus in the early part of the 20th century and is an example of the colorful, eye-catching advertisements commonly used by circuses to attract crowds. The texts at the bottom proclaim “A Magic Moving City of Tents, The Home of Many Marvels, Largest Show Ever Perfected. A Really Great World’s Exposition,” and ...
Contributed by Circus World Museum
Echo of Babylon, Number 168, January 5, 1913
Seda Babel (Echo of Babylon), first published in 1909 in Baghdad, was among Iraq’s earliest newspapers. It appeared weekly on Friday. Until the end of World War I, Iraq was part of the Ottoman Empire and was subject to Ottoman law. In 1908, in line with the liberalizing revolution of the Young Turks, imperial press regulation loosened, allowing Iraq’s intellectuals and writers the freedom to publish newspapers, magazines, and books. Seda Babel was one of more than a dozen newspapers to appear as a result, and part of ...
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Imperial House of Romanov
This publication was produced in 1913 to mark the 300th anniversary of the Romanov dynasty. It contains an introduction, a genealogical sketch on the Romanov boyars, and a short history of the Romanovs in 17 chapters. The volume also includes biographies, portraits, and photographs of the members of the dynasty. In the introduction, “Three Centuries of the House of Romanov,” Elpidifor Barsov (1836−1917) provides a brief historical overview of the context of Romanov rule. He describes first “the time of troubles” preceding the election of Mikhail Fedorovich, the first ...
Album Commemorating the Tercentenary Anniversary of the Imperial House of Romanov
This book is one of many works published in Russia in connection with the celebration, in 1913, of the 300th anniversary of the House of Romanov. The author, Ivan Bazhenov, was a church historian, theologian, and local historian in Kostroma. In his introduction, Bazhenov states that the goal of the publication is “to give the readers an opportunity to understand and evaluate the great significance of this anniversary and at the same time to awaken their gratitude for the founder of the Romanov dynasty.” He begins by describing Russia before ...
Correspondence of the Masters of Eloquence
Rasa’il al-bulagha’ (Correspondence of the masters of eloquence) is a compilation of classical epistolary writing assembled by the famous modern authority on the Arabic language Muhammad Kurd ‘Ali. It focuses on the writings of the eighth-century literary master ‘Abd Allah ibn Muqaffa’ and contains shorter pieces by other writers whom Kurd ‘Ali judged to be exemplars of style, such as ‘Abd al-Hamid ibn Yahya al-Katib and Ibn Qutayba. ‘Abd Allah ibn al-Muqaffa’, whose prose style is regarded as a model for writers to this day, is represented by ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
The Biographical Account of Timur
Kulliyat-e Farsi Taymurnamah (literally, The biographical account of Timur) is a biography of Timur or Tamerlane (1336−1405), the Turkic-Mongolian founder of the Timurid dynasty and lineage. It chronicles in detail his personal, political, and military life, including campaigns and conquests, and events in the regions of present-day Central Asia, Afghanistan, and Iran. Many biographies of Timur were produced during his lifetime and after. This lithographed version was published in Tashkent by Matba-e Ghulam Hasan in 1912. The last page of the introduction (pages 2−7) states that this book ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Meeting Minutes of the First Plenary Session of the Cabildo of Gran Canaria
The Cabildo de Gran Canaria (Council of Gran Canaria) is an administrative and legislative body that was first formed in 1913 under the Ley de Cabildos (Councils Act) passed the previous year in the Kingdom of Spain. Such councils were an instrument of governance used by the old regime in both the Canary Islands and the Americas. During the dictatorship of Francisco Franco members of the Cabildo were appointed by the government, and its functions were limited to administration, focusing on such matters as public health and welfare and roads ...
Shahnameh
This copy of the Shahnameh (Book of kings) was published by subscription in Bombay in 1906 by the Indian Parsi community. The Shahnameh is a Persian epic poem of more than 50,000 couplets that recounts the pre-Islamic and Sassanid history of Persia and the story of the Islamic conquest. Abu al-Qasim Firdawsi, the author, worked for some 30 years on the Shahnameh, which he presented to his patron, the Turkic-Persianate ruler of Ghaznavid dynasty, Sultan Mahmud, in 1010. This lithographic edition has a table of contents, a prose foreward ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Dawn for the Blind in the Craft of Composition
Ṣubḥ al-aʻshá (Dawn for the blind), as this encyclopedic masterpiece is commonly known, was compiled by medieval Egyptian scholar Ahmad al-Qalqashandi (1355 or 1356−1418) for the secretaries in the chancery of the sultans of Egypt. Scholars have long mined the work for the information it contains on a wide variety of cultural and literary topics, for example the histories of Egypt and Syria, non-Muslim populations in the Muslim world, state formation and administration, calligraphy, libraries, and even codes and cyphers. Scholars have also produced many critical analyses of the ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Map of Lebanon According to Reconnaissance Information Collected by the Topographical Group from the Syria Expedition of 1860-1861
This map of Lebanon showing part of Syria with Damascus was made by French military cartographers in 1862. It is based on information gathered by the topographic unit in the expeditionary corps sent by France to Lebanon in 1860‒61. Lebanon was at that time part of the Ottoman Empire and the central region known as Mount Lebanon was mainly populated by Christians and Druzes. A Maronite peasant uprising in 1858 led to fighting between the two groups, which culminated in the massacre in 1860 by the Druze of about ...
Doctor Hermann Haack: How a School Wall Map is Created
Justus Perthes was a prominent German cartographic publishing firm founded in 1785 by Johann Georg Justus Perthes (1749–1816) and operated by his descendants into the 20th century. Based in Gotha, the firm published the work of such prominent cartographers as August Heinrich Petermann (1822−78). This print shows three building views of the Justus Perthes Geographisches Anstalt (Geographic Institute) that was part of the firm and directed for a time by Petermann. The illustrations at the bottom show the process used in the creation and printing of Justus Perthes ...
Eduard Glaser’s Journey to Ma'rib
Eduard Glaser (1855–1908) was a preeminent scholar of South Arabia. He was born in Rust in Bohemia, and later moved to Vienna, where he studied Arabic and Sabaean grammar under Austrian orientalist David Heinrich Müller. Glaser made four journeys to South Arabia in the late 19th century (1882–84, 1885–86, 1887–88, and 1892–94) to study and copy down Sabaean inscriptions. The Sabaeans were a people of South Arabia in pre-Islamic times, founders of the kingdom of Saba’, the biblical Sheba. They spoke a Semitic language, now ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Book of Running Charts of the Yukon and Stewart Rivers, 1913-1950
Presented here is a book of 117 hand-drawn maps of the Yukon and Stewart Rivers in Canada and Alaska. The maps were made between 1913 and 1950 by Ralph W. Newcomb, who worked for many years as a pilot guide on these rivers. Originally part of a loose-leaf notebook, the maps show hazards on the rivers, including swift currents, eddies, mud bars, and sharp bends. They also indicate landmarks along the banks, such as rock slides, glaciers, wooded areas, and such man-made features as abandoned cabins, wagon wheels, and tailings ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Panama and the Canal in Picture and Prose
Published in 1913, Panama and the Canal in Picture and Prose is a comprehensive overview of Panama and the Panama Canal in the year before it was opened to commerce. Organized in 20 chapters, the book begins with an introductory chapter about Jamaica, “the front door to Panama.” Chapters two through six give an overview of the history and geography of Panama. Chapter 15 covers the geography, population, economy, and other aspects of the newly-established Republic of Panama; Chapter 16 is devoted to the Indians of Panama. The remaining chapters ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Honeymooning on the Panama Canal
The construction of the Panama Canal, its opening to traffic in early 1914, and the Panama Pacific International Exposition, held in San Francisco in 1915 to celebrate the completion of the canal, all inspired a wave of songwriting in the United States. The most notable of the compositions honoring the canal was “The Pathfinder of Panama,” written by the military march composer John Philip Sousa in 1915. This was also a time in which American popular sheet music publication was enjoying a golden age of sorts. Songs were published with ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Of the Jews of Yemen
This booklet is a collection of essays on Yemeni Jews. It was published in Berlin in 1913 on behalf of the Hilfskomitee für die Yemenitischen Juden (Assistance Committee for the Yemeni Jews), a Berlin-based Jewish organization dedicated to the resettlement  of Yemeni Jews in the Holy Land as part of the “overall Jewish colonization in Palestine.” The booklet contains five short essays, an introduction, and a conclusion. Written by different authors, the essays discuss such issues as the “origins of the Yemeni Jews; the conditions under which they live; the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Southwestern Arabia
Das südwestliche Arabien (Southwest Arabia) by Walther Schmidt is a book on applied geography, primarily covering the areas of present-day Yemen. It is the eighth in Series IV of the Angewandte Geographie (Applied geography) publications, a series of books edited by Dr. Hugo Grothe and published by the firm of Heinrich Keller of Frankfurt am Main with the aim of “broadening geographic understanding in its relationship to cultural and scientific life.” The book, published in 1913, is a compilation of geographic information, including a long bibliography and a chronological list ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Burma Under British Rule
Joseph Dautremer was a French scholar specializing in Asian languages who served for a time as the French consul in Rangoon, the capital of British Burma. Burma Under British Rule is a detailed study of Burma, with chapters devoted to the history, people, physical geography, economy, and international trade of the country. A brief concluding chapter deals with the Andaman Islands, where the British maintained a penal colony. Originally published in Paris in 1912, Dautremer’s book was translated from the French into English by Sir (James) George Scott (1851 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Natal, Rhodesia, and British East Africa
In May 1910, the Verein für Sozialpolitik (Association for Social Policy), an influential organization of German economists based in Berlin, decided to commission a series of studies on the colonization and settlement of tropical regions by Europeans, with the goal of determining whether and under what conditions such colonization was economically and socially sustainable. The studies were to assist in the development of the German overseas empire, and German East Africa in particular. Each study was to include an overview of a particular region of settlement; analyses of its economy ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Two Quaint Republics, Andorra and San Marino
Andorra and San Marino are two of the world’s smallest – and oldest – countries. Andorra is located in the Pyrenees between France and Spain. An agreement of 1278 placed it under the joint suzerainty of the Spanish Bishop of Urgel and the French Count of Foix (whose rights later were transferred to the French crown and eventually the president of France). In 1993 Andorra adopted its own constitution and became self-governing. San Marino is located in the Appennine Mountains of northeastern Italy, totally surrounded by Italian territory. It is the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Isfandiyar, Khan of the Russian Protectorate of Khorezm (Khiva), in Uniform, Seated on Chair, Outdoors
This is a 1913 photograph of Asfandiyar-khan (Seid Isfandiyar Tyurya; 1871-1918), penultimate ruler of the Khanate of Khiva. Located largely in what is now Uzbekistan, the Khanate of Khiva existed within the ancient territory of Khwarezm from 1511 to 1920 under various dynasties descended from Genghis Khan. A campaign by General Konstantin von Kaufman in 1872–73 culminated in the conquest of Khiva on May 28, 1873, following which the khanate was granted status as a Russian protectorate. In this portrait, taken in the Winter Garden of the Small Hermitage ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Isfandiyr, Khan of the Russian Protectorate of Khorezm (Khiva), Three-Quarter Length Portrait, in Official Robes, Seated on Chair, Outdoors
This is a 1913 photograph of Asfandiyar-khan (Seid Isfandiyar Tyurya; 1871-1918), penultimate ruler of the Khanate of Khiva. Located largely in what is now Uzbekistan, the Khanate of Khiva existed within the ancient territory of Khwarezm from 1511 to 1920 under various dynasties descended from Genghis Khan. On May 28, 1873 General Konstantin von Kaufman conquered Khiva, and the khanate was granted status as a Russian protectorate. In this portrait, taken in the Winter Garden of the Small Hermitage in Saint Petersburg, the khan wears a Karakul sheepskin hat and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Ecclesia Anglicana: For What Does She Stand?
Frank Weston (1871–1924) was an Anglican clergyman who served as bishop of Zanzibar (present-day Tanzania) in 1908–24. He was a staunch Anglo-Catholic, meaning he belonged to the wing of the Anglican Church that emphasized the church’s continuity with its Roman Catholic heritage rather than its Protestant identity. Weston became involved in the bitter Kikuyu controversy of 1913–14, which arose from a 1913 conference in Kikuyu (present-day Kenya), British East Africa, where Anglicans, Methodists, and Presbyterians agreed to federate in response to a perceived threat from non-Christian ...
Planting in Uganda. Coffee—Para Rubber—Cocoa
Planting in Uganda. Coffee—Para Rubber—Cocoais a comprehensive analysis of plantation agriculture in early 20th-century Uganda, written by two senior managers of Ugandan companies. As stated in the preface, it was intended to assist white planters who were attracted to Uganda by the fertile soils and favorable climate but who, in many cases, had no knowledge of agricultural conditions in the country. It deals with three main products—coffee, Para rubber (today usually simply referred to as rubber), and cocoa—and focuses on two provinces, Buganda and Bugosa ...