47 results in English
West View of Madrid
Charles Clifford (1819−63) was one of the most important photographers to have worked in Spain in the 19th century and a crucial figure in the history of photography in the country. Clifford was born in the United Kingdom. It is unknown precisely when he went to Spain, but the first time that his name makes an appearance in Madrid is in 1850. By this time, the photographer already had a studio in the city, although most of his output, which consisted of depictions of a variety of localities around ...
Contributed by National Library of Spain
Life in the Desert, or, Recollections of Travel in Asia and Africa
Life in the Desert, or, Recollections of Travel in Asia and Africa is an English translation of a work originally published in 1860 in France under the title Les Mystères du Désert. The purported author, Louis Du Couret (1812–67), claimed to be the son of a colonel in the French army. He traveled to the Middle East in 1836, where he served as a military officer under Muḥammad ʻAlī (1769–1849), pasha and wali (governor) of Egypt, and fought in the Battle of Nezib in Syria in 1839. He ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the Amur Country with Evidence of Surveys, Routes and Schedules, Produceed from 1850 to 1860
This map depicts the southern part of the Russian Far East, including the Amur River region and Sakhalin Island. It shows the routes of the expeditions undertaken by the Russian government in this region in 1850-60, each marked by a different color identified in the legend at the lower left. In this period, Russia conducted rigorous and extensive explorations of the Far East to create maps, gain knowledge about mineral deposits, and demarcate the border with China. The expedition led by Gennadii Nevelskoi made some of the most important discoveries ...
Arabia
This mid-19th-century British map shows the Arabian Peninsula and neighboring parts of Africa, including Egypt, the Sudan, and Abyssinia. The traditional Greek and Roman division of Arabia into the three parts of Arabia Petraea, Arabia Deserta, and Arabia Felix is used. Qatar is shown as Catura. Also indicated are Oman, Bahrain, and the territories of Mecca and Medina. The map emphasizes the vast, empty interior of the peninsula with such annotations as “great space covered with sand” and “deserts very barren and continued between Mekka and Oman.” Four different caravan ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Emperor Alexander II with the Children: Sergei and Maria
This photograph, taken in 1860 or 1861, shows Tsar Alexander II (1818−81, ruled 1855−81), with two of his eight children: Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna (born 1853) and Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich (born 1857). Alexander is seated in a chair, three-quarters to his left, wearing a military uniform. The grand duchess is leaning on her father’s right knee, facing forward; the grand duke is sitting on his father’s left leg.  Alexander was most respected for his emancipation of the serfs in 1861, and his domestic reforms included ...
Yangshi Lei Archives, 2. Plan of Jiuzhou Qingyan at Yuanmingyuan
Shown here is the site plan of the Hall of Jiuzhou Qingyan, one of the 40 scenic spots in Yuanmingyuan (the Old Summer Palace), a vast complex of gardens and palaces constructed in the 18th−19th centuries in the northwest suburbs of Beijing. It was situated between the front and back lakes and was the center of the Jiuzhou scenic region. Being the largest building group in the back lake area, it was originally a place for the lodging of the emperors and empresses. On a medial axis the plan ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Imperial Palace and Surroundings
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. The Summer Palace was a favorite residence of Pedro II, who initiated its construction in the Rio de Janeiro suburb of Petrópolis in 1845. In 1943, the Summer Palace ...
Mother Church: Front View
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. The Igreja Matriz (Mother Church) of Petrópolis was located on Imperatriz Street, now known as Sete de Setembro Street. The church was demolished in 1924, but one of its ...
Emperor Street
This photograph is from Vistas de Petrópolis (Views of Petrópolis), an album created in the 1860s by Pedro Hees (1841–80), one of Brazil’s most important early photographers. Petrópolis was founded by government decree on March 16, 1843, and named after Emperor Pedro II (1825–91, reigned 1831–89). The decree provided for the construction of the Imperial Palace and its dependencies and gardens, which formed the Quinta Imperial de Petrópolis (Imperial farm of Petrópolis). Called the Imperial City for its associations with the royal family, Petrópolis served as ...
Nassau Street and Kopke College
This photograph is from Vistas de Petrópolis (Views of Petrópolis), an album created in the 1860s by Pedro Hees (1841–80), one of Brazil’s most important early photographers. Petrópolis was founded by government decree on March 16, 1843, and named after Emperor Pedro II (1825–91, reigned 1831–89). The decree provided for the construction of the Imperial Palace and its dependencies and gardens, which formed the Quinta Imperial de Petrópolis (Imperial farm of Petrópolis). Called the Imperial City for its associations with the royal family, Petrópolis served as ...
Artists Street
This photograph is from Vistas de Petrópolis (Views of Petrópolis), an album created in the 1860s by Pedro Hees (1841–80), one of Brazil’s most important early photographers. Petrópolis was founded by government decree on March 16, 1843, and named after Emperor Pedro II (1825–91, reigned 1831–89). The decree provided for the construction of the Imperial Palace and its dependencies and gardens, which formed the Quinta Imperial de Petrópolis (Imperial farm of Petrópolis). Called the Imperial City for its associations with the royal family, Petrópolis served as ...
Bourbon Street
This photograph is from Vistas de Petrópolis (Views of Petrópolis), an album created in the 1860s by Pedro Hees (1841–80), one of Brazil’s most important early photographers. Petrópolis was founded by government decree on March 16, 1843, and named after Emperor Pedro II (1825–91, reigned 1831–89). The decree provided for the construction of the Imperial Palace and its dependencies and gardens, which formed the Quinta Imperial de Petrópolis (Imperial farm of Petrópolis). Called the Imperial City for its associations with the royal family, Petrópolis served as ...
Praça da Confluência Park and Residence of the Barão de Mauá
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. The neoclassical residence of the Barão de Mauá stands at the beginning of Rio Branco Avenue in Petrópolis. Irineu Evangelista de Souza, the Barão de Mauá (1813-89), purchased it ...
Dom Afonso Street
This photograph is from Vistas de Petrópolis (Views of Petrópolis), an album created in the 1860s by Pedro Hees (1841–80), one of Brazil’s most important early photographers. Petrópolis was founded by government decree on March 16, 1843, and named after Emperor Pedro II (1825–91, reigned 1831–89). The decree provided for the construction of the Imperial Palace and its dependencies and gardens, which formed the Quinta Imperial de Petrópolis (Imperial farm of Petrópolis). Called the Imperial City for its associations with the royal family, Petrópolis served as ...
Joinville Street and Lane
This photograph is from Vistas de Petrópolis (Views of Petrópolis), an album created in the 1860s by Pedro Hees (1841–80), one of Brazil’s most important early photographers. Petrópolis was founded by government decree on March 16, 1843, and named after Emperor Pedro II (1825–91, reigned 1831–89). The decree provided for the construction of the Imperial Palace and its dependencies and gardens, which formed the Quinta Imperial de Petrópolis (Imperial farm of Petrópolis). Called the Imperial City for its associations with the royal family, Petrópolis served as ...
Rhenania Street
This photograph is from Vistas de Petrópolis (Views of Petrópolis), an album created in the 1860s by Pedro Hees (1841–80), one of Brazil’s most important early photographers. Petrópolis was founded by government decree on March 16, 1843, and named after Emperor Pedro II (1825–91, reigned 1831–89). The decree provided for the construction of the Imperial Palace and its dependencies and gardens, which formed the Quinta Imperial de Petrópolis (Imperial farm of Petrópolis). Called the Imperial City for its associations with the royal family, Petrópolis served as ...
Bragança Street
This photograph is from Vistas de Petrópolis (Views of Petrópolis), an album created in the 1860s by Pedro Hees (1841–80), one of Brazil’s most important early photographers. Petrópolis was founded by government decree on March 16, 1843, and named after Emperor Pedro II (1825–91, reigned 1831–89). The decree provided for the construction of the Imperial Palace and its dependencies and gardens, which formed the Quinta Imperial de Petrópolis (Imperial farm of Petrópolis). Called the Imperial City for its associations with the royal family, Petrópolis served as ...
Dona Januária Street
This photograph is from Vistas de Petrópolis (Views of Petrópolis), an album created in the 1860s by Pedro Hees (1841–80), one of Brazil’s most important early photographers. Petrópolis was founded by government decree on March 16, 1843, and named after Emperor Pedro II (1825–91, reigned 1831–89). The decree provided for the construction of the Imperial Palace and its dependencies and gardens, which formed the Quinta Imperial de Petrópolis (Imperial farm of Petrópolis). Called the Imperial City for its associations with the royal family, Petrópolis served as ...
Itamaraty Waterfall
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. This photograph shows the Cascata do Itamaraty (Itamaraty Waterfall) on the Piabanha River near Petrópolis. The waterfall still exists, but is known today as the Cascata de Bulhões. Most ...
Cascatinha do Retiro
This photograph is from Vistas de Petrópolis (Views of Petrópolis), an album created in the 1860s by Pedro Hees (1841–80), one of Brazil’s most important early photographers. Petrópolis was founded by government decree on March 16, 1843, and named after Emperor Pedro II (1825–91, reigned 1831–89). The decree provided for the construction of the Imperial Palace and its dependencies and gardens, which formed the Quinta Imperial de Petrópolis (Imperial farm of Petrópolis). Called the Imperial City for its associations with the royal family, Petrópolis served as ...
New Cemetery
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. This photograph depicts the New Cemetery of Petrópolis. This photograph is one of a series taken in the late 1860s by Pedro Hees, considered by many to be the ...
Khmer Alphabet
On April 27, 1858, Alexandre Henri Mouhot, aged 31, sailed from London to Bangkok with the aim of exploring the remote interior regions of mainland Southeast Asia. He was particularly interested in ornithology and conchology, but he also had a passion for philology, photography, and foreign languages. Born in 1826 in Montbeliard, France, Mouhot became a Greek scholar, and at the age of 18 went to teach Greek and French at the Military Academy in Saint Petersburg, where he quickly picked up Russian and Polish. At the same time he ...
Contributed by The British Library
Map of Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay; Map of Chili
S. Augustus Mitchell was born in Connecticut in 1790 and became a teacher. He found the materials available in early 19th-century America for teaching geography inadequate and, after moving to Philadelphia in 1829 or 1830, formed a company that soon was producing improved maps, atlases, tourist guides, and geography textbooks. Mitchell issued the first edition of his New Universal Atlas in 1846. His son, S. Augustus Mitchell, Jr., took over the firm in about 1860. He published Mitchell’s New General Atlas from which these maps of five South American ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
President Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln (1809‒65) was the 16th president of the United States. He was born in a log cabin near Hodgenville, Kentucky, and grew up in southwestern Indiana. He had little formal schooling. Largely self-educated, he became a lawyer in Springfield, Illinois, and was elected to the Illinois State Assembly in 1836 and in 1846 to a single term in the U.S. Congress. In the 1850s he became a leader in the new Republican Party and a national spokesman against the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, which opened up the ...
Vice President Hannibal Hamlin
Hannibal Hamlin (1809‒91) of Maine served as vice president to President Abraham Lincoln in 1861‒65 and was the first U.S. vice president from the Republican Party. He served in the U.S. Senate as a Democrat from 1848 to 1857, but broke with his party over the issue of slavery. He was replaced by Andrew Johnson on the Republican ticket for the election of 1864, and thus did not become president when Lincoln was assassinated in April 1865. After the war, Hamlin returned to the Senate (1869 ...
Governor Sam Houston of Texas
Sam Houston (1793‒1863) was born in Virginia. As a teenager he lived for three years among the Cherokee Indians, whose language and culture he learned. He enlisted in the army in 1813 and fought in the War of 1812. After studying law and being elected to Congress and then as governor of Tennessee, he moved to Texas, where he played a large role in the uprising of American settlers against Mexican rule. He served for two terms as president of the independent Republic of Texas. After Texas was annexed ...
Monsieur Blondin! The Most Famous Tightrope Dancer in the World
Most likely used as a poster, this 1860 broadside mounted on wall paper advertises the show of the famous French tightrope walker Monsieur Blondin. Jean-Francois Gravelet (1824–97), also known as Charles Blondin or the Great Blondin, was born in France. By the age of five he was able to walk on a rope stretched between two kitchen chairs. He repeated his tight roping feats for the next 70 years, taking more and more risks, until his death in London in 1897. Blondin became a household name in Canada when ...
Arabia Felix, Memoirs of Travels in Africa and Asia
L’Arabie heureuse, souvenirs de voyages en Afrique et en Asie (Arabia Felix, memoirs of travel in Africa and Asia)purports to be an account of the author’s adventures in Arabia. It is claimed that Louis du Couret (1812‒67) was a French adventurer who converted to Islam and took the name Hajji ʻAbd al-Hamid. He was commissioned with the military rank of bey (roughly colonel) by Muhammad ‘Ali, ruler of Egypt. Details of his life and the authenticity of his travel books are in doubt. The life of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Edward W. Stanly
Edward Stanly (1810–72) was a lawyer who served as a member of Congress from 1837 to 1843 and again from 1849 to 1853. He was born in New Bern, North Carolina, and graduated from the American Literary, Scientific, and Military Academy (present-day Norwich University, Vermont) in 1829. During the Civil War, he was appointed brigadier general in the Union army and served as the Unionist military governor of eastern North Carolina. He found this to be an impossible position under wartime conditions and resigned in less than a year ...
Governor Henry A. Wise of Virginia
Henry Alexander Wise (1806–76) was a politician and Confederate general in the American Civil War. Born in Drummondtown (present-day Accomac), Virginia, he served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1832 to 1844, as minister to Brazil from 1844 to 1847, and as governor of Virginia from 1856 to 1860. He is best known for refusing to commute the death sentence of John Brown after Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry. Wise led Virginia’s secession from the Union in 1861, a role he would later downplay. During ...
History of the City of Medina
Heinrich Ferdinand Wüstenfeld (1808–99) was a German Orientalist who specialized in Arab history and literature. He studied at the universities of Göttingen and Berlin, and taught at Göttingen from 1842 until 1890. His Geschichte der Stadt Medina (History of the city of Medina) is a history of Medina (present-day Saudi Arabia), the burial place of the Prophet Muhammad. It is based on Khulāṣat al-Wafā (Summary of the fulfillment), itself a concise version of Wafa al-Wafa bi akhbar Dar al-Mustafa (Fulfillment of the promise on the history of the home ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Tripoli Mosque
This image from the latter half of the 19th century depicts a street scene in Tripoli, Libya, under the minaret of a nearby mosque. Baedeker’s The Mediterranean (1911) said of Tripoli: “The town with its white houses, its slender minarets of the Turkish type, its green gardens and groups of palms, the reddish-yellow dunes of drift-sand from the Sahara, and the deep-blue sea, all bathed in dazzling sunshine, present a most fascinating picture.”
Contributed by Library of Congress
Tripoli Mosque
This late 19th-century photograph depicts a street scene in Tripoli, Libya, under the minaret of a nearby mosque. Baedeker’s The Mediterranean (1911) noted of Tripoli: “The town with its white houses, its slender minarets of the Turkish type, its green gardens and groups of palms, the reddish-yellow dunes of drift-sand from the Sahara, and the deep-blue sea, all bathed in dazzling sunshine, present a most fascinating picture.”
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Voyage Down the Amoor: With a Land Journey through Siberia, and Incidental Notices of Manchooria, Kamschatka, and Japan
Perry McDonough Collins was appointed the American Commercial Agent to the Amur River in March 1856. He arrived at his post in Irkutsk in January 1857 after a 35-day overland journey from Moscow. On June 4, 1857, he began a trip down the Amur River, which forms the border between the Russian Far East and northeastern China. On July 10, he arrived at the mouth of the river, becoming the first American to sail its course. In March 1858 Collins sent a report to the U.S. Department of State ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Relieving Guard at the Vatican
This pencil caricature depicts King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy and Napoleon III as soldiers changing guard, while Pope Pius IX peers around the corner. The caricature relates to the intricate maneuvering in the mid-19th century among France, Austria, the Papal States, and Italian nationalists that preceded the unification of Italy. French and Austrian troops had been in Rome to protect the Papal States since 1850, when Pius IX began to fear the rise of anti-papal nationalists. In 1858, the Sardinians entered into an agreement with Napoleon III to fight ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Colonel John Whitehead Peard: Commonly Known as Garibaldi's Englishman
This original watercolor, signed and dated August 22, 1860, by Thomas Nast (1840-1902), originally was thought to be of Italian patriot Giuseppe Garibaldi, but later was identified as showing Colonel John Whitehead Peard. Known as “Garibaldi’s Englishman,” Peard was an Oxford-educated lawyer and the son of a British admiral. He joined Garibaldi in 1860, ostensibly because of the brutality of the officials he witnessed during a visit to Naples. Peard fought in the wars of Italian unification and was awarded the Cross of the Order of Valour by King ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Forest. Anita Dying
This painting depicting Italian patriots during the wars of Italian independence is excerpted from a multi-scene, “moving” panorama that is more than 1.2 meters tall and 110 meters long. Giant paintings such as these were a popular form of entertainment in the 19th century. The panorama scroll would be unrolled slowly as a narrator described the action. In its entirety, this panorama chronicles the life and exploits of Giuseppe Garibaldi, the Italian freedom fighter. The work is attributed to John James Story (1827-1900), an artist from Nottingham, England, but ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Dutch, American, English
After nearly two centuries of restricted foreign contact, Japan became increasingly exposed to Western culture in the 1850s as new trade agreements prompted cross-cultural interaction. The influx of unfamiliar technology and customs gave rise to anxiety as well as awe among the Japanese people, whose curiosity about the external world is evident in the detailed depictions of foreign subjects by ukiyo-e (pictures of the floating world) artists. Yokohama-e (pictures of Yokohama) depicting the commercial trading port that connected Japan to the West, as well as Western culture in general, became ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Smith's New Map of London
By 1800, the population of London had reached one million, making it the world’s largest city. By the end of the 1900s, its population was approaching five million. The rapid growth of cities such as London created new challenges for mapmakers, including confused street names, the constant appearance of new streets and buildings, and the problem of aligning the trigonometric measurement of streets with actual measurement. Growth also created new demand for maps -- from businesses, insurance companies, government agencies, and tourists. This 1860 map by C. Smith & Son shows ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Young Jewish Girls. Tunis
This photograph of two Jewish girls on a beach in Tunis, Tunisia is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855–1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography, whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890–1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
American, French, Chinese
After nearly two centuries of restricted foreign contact, Japan was increasingly exposed to Western culture in the 1850s as new trade agreements prompted cross-cultural interaction. The influx of unfamiliar technology and customs incited anxiety as well as awe among the Japanese populace, and their strong curiosity is evident in the detailed depictions of foreign subjects by ukiyo-e (pictures of the floating world) artists. Hiroshige II (circa 1826–69) was the pupil and adopted son of the great landscape master, Utagawa Hiroshige (1797–1858). In this 1860 print, Hiroshige II illustrates ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
America
After nearly two centuries of restricted foreign contact, Japan was increasingly exposed to Western culture in the 1850s, as new trade agreements prompted cross-cultural interaction. The influx of unfamiliar technology and customs incited anxiety as well as awe among the Japanese populace, and their strong curiosity is evident in the detailed depictions of foreign subjects by ukiyo-e (pictures of the floating world) artists. Hiroshige II (circa 1826–69) was the pupil and adopted son of the great landscape master, Utagawa Hiroshige (1797–1858), and produced this work in 1860. In ...
Contributed by Library of Congress