39 results in English
Holy Qurʼan
According to Islamic belief, the Holy Qurʼan was revealed by God to the Prophet Mohammad (570–632) by the Angel Gabriel over a period of 22 years. The Qurʼan speaks in powerful, moving language about the reality and attributes of God, the spiritual world, God's purposes with mankind, man's relationship and responsibility to God, the coming of the Day of Judgment, and the life hereafter. It also contains rules for living, stories of earlier prophets and their communities, and vital insights and understandings concerning the meaning of existence ...
The Old People Mill
This 1852 single-sheet satirical print depicting “the old people mill” is part of a collection of 850 such broadsides printed in various Swedish cities and now preserved in the National Library of Sweden. These prints were often pasted inside the lids of chests in which people stored their belongings. The print on the left and the accompanying verses below are devoted to “the mill for old men," those on the right to “the mill for old women,” magical mills from which they return young and beautiful. In the era before ...
Persia, Arabia, etc.
This 1852 map from the New Universal Atlas by the Philadelphia publisher Thomas, Cowperthwait & Co. shows the Arabian Peninsula, the kingdom of Persia, Afghanistan, and Baluchistan. The provinces of Persia, including Irakadjemi, Fars, Khorasan, and Kerman, are shown by different colors. The Arabian Peninsula is divided into the traditional divisions used by European geographers, Arabia Petrea, Arabia Felix, and Arabia Deserta. Yemen and Oman are shown, along with the locations of important towns, mountains, ruins, and wells and sources of fresh water in the Arabian Desert. Afghanistan includes the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Extended Christian Catechism of the Orthodox Universal Eastern Church
Shown here is the Bulgarian translation of the 46th edition of the catechism by Filaret (1782−1867), Metropolitan of Moscow, that has already been revised to correct certain features deemed inappropriate by church authorities. Translation was performed by Nikola Kasapski, for use not just in schools but for the broader Christian audience. Kasapski was a teacher and contributor to Bulgarian periodicals such as Liuboslovie (Philology) and Tsarigradski vestnik (Constantinople herald). The book was printed at the royal Serbian publishing house in Belgrade with the support of Khadzhi Naiden Ioanovich. Ioanovich ...
Overview Map of Arabia. Based on C. Ritter's Geography Book III, West Asia, Parts XII−XIII
German geographer and cartographer Heinrich Kiepert (1818–99) is generally regarded as one of the most important scholarly cartographers of the second half of the 19th century. He was head of the Geographical Institute in Weimar between 1845 and 1852 and professor at the University of Berlin from 1852 until his death. Shown here is Kiepert’s 1852 map of Arabia. As indicated in the title, it is based on “C. Ritter’s geography book.” The latter refers to Die Erdkunde im Verhältnis zur Natur und zur Geschichte des Menschen ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Rubbings of Inscriptions on Mao Gong Ding, the Duke Mao Tripod
Mao Gong Ding, the bronze tripod cauldron, was excavated at the end of the Daoguang period (1821−50) in Qishan County, Shaanxi. Dings were used widely as ritual vessels and became hierarchical symbols during the Zhou dynasty (circa 1046−256 BC). This is the most famous ding, originally belonging to Mao Gong. There are 497 characters on the inside of the vessel, the longest bronze inscription known to this day. The inscription records the history of the late Western Zhou (circa 1046−771 BC), specifically the reign of Emperor Xuan ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Story of Shams Abad
This work is the first installment of Qiṣṣah-i Shams Ābād (Story of Shams Abad) by Qamar al-Din Akbar Abadi. The author was the editor of Asʻad al-akhbār (The most propitious news), an early Urdu periodical published at a printing house of the same name in Agra, India, in circa 1840. (The appellation Akbar Abadi refers to Akbar AbAd, the name of Agra during the Mughal Empire.) Qamar al-Din was a scholar of hadith and Islamic history and had mastery of Persian as well as Arabic. He wrote several books, including ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Ruins of Prambanan, Tjandi Sewoe, Soerakarta Residence
This photograph depicts the ruins of the temple of Prambanan in central Java, the largest Hindu temple ever built in Indonesia and one of the largest in Southeast Asia. Dedicated to the triumvirate of Shiva, Brahma, and Vishnu, the temple was built around 850 A.D. by the Mataram dynasty but abandoned soon after its construction. The Mataram dynasty practiced aspects of both Hinduism and Buddhism, and the temple complex includes some of the earliest Buddhist temples in Indonesia. Prambanan was named a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1991. The ...
Arabic Primer of Calligraphy
Muhammad Shafiq (died 1879) was a major Ottoman calligrapher who excelled in instructional calligraphic pieces. This particular work, filled throughout with intricate arabesque floral designs typical of the late Ottoman period, is in a notable Arabic calligraphic style, the naskhi script, which connects the Arabic letters to one another in a harmonious way. Of interest in this particular work is the binding, which reveals the origins of the manuscript. The typical flap is a hallmark of most valuable Islamic bindings throughout history. The covers are richly gilt in floral decorations ...
Contributed by Yale University Library
A Light Note on the Science of Writing and Inks
This manuscript in 20 folios contains two works. The first is a treatise by Muḥammad ibn ʻĪsā al-Ṭanṭāwī on writing tools and the craft of making ink. The work is organized in seven chapters. In the first chapter, the author briefly discusses the best type of reed pens to select for writing. In subsequent chapters, he explains ways to make red, black, and other kinds of ink, including how to write in gold. The treatise was completed on Friday, 1 Rabī‘ II 1268 AH (January 24, 1852). The second work ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Aesop’s Fables
Aesop’s Fables are a favorite for the instruction of children the world over. The first published Bulgarian translations of the fables were found in Petur Beron's Primer with Various Instructions of 1824, commonly known as the Fish Primer. The first separate publication devoted just to Aesop’s tales is this 1852 compilation by Petko Slaveikov (1827–95), a noted poet, publicist, translator, folklorist, and leader in the Bulgarian enlightenment. Slaveikov translated the fables in a literary fashion and with a strong Bulgarian flavor. The book is not illustrated ...
Sacred Images of the Indians, Province of Antioquia
The figures depicted in this watercolor by Henry Price (1819–63) represent sacred symbols, probably made of gold. The province of Antioquia, Colombia, was famous for its abundance of gold, prized by both the indigenous people and the Spanish colonizers. Price was a British painter and musician who was one of the draftsmen of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission), a body tasked with studying the geography, natural resources, natural history, regional culture, and agriculture of the Republic of New Granada (present-day Colombia and Panama). He was born in London but ...
Antique Pottery: Brazier, Pitcher, or Vessel for Offerings, Province of Antioquia
This watercolor by Henry Price (1819–63) depicts pottery from Colombia decorated with zoomorphic figures. The term brasero in the lower-left corner suggests that these items may have been used as braziers, but they also could have been ritual vessels for sacred offerings. Price was a British painter and musician who was one of the draftsmen of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission), a body tasked with studying the geography, natural resources, natural history, regional culture, and agriculture of the Republic of New Granada (present-day Colombia and Panama). He was born ...
Buriticá Indian Male and Female, Province of Antioquia
This watercolor by Henry Price (1819–1863) depicts an Indian man and woman from the town of Buriticá in the province of Antioquia, Colombia. The note in bottom-left margin states: “Colonel Codazzi believes that this (pure) ethnic group is almost extinct.” Price was a British painter and musician who was one of the draftsmen of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission), a body tasked with studying the geography, natural resources, natural history, regional culture, and agriculture of the Republic of New Granada (present-day Colombia and Panama). He was born in London ...
Santa Rosa de Osos, Province of Antioquia
This watercolor by Henry Price (1819–63) shows a rugged landscape with the city of Santa Rosa de Osos in the background. The scene is from the province of Antioquia (present-day Department of Antioquia), Colombia. Located in the central northwestern part of the country, Antioquia is a region of mountains and valleys that lies partly in the Andes mountain range. Price was a British painter and musician who was one of the draftsmen of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission), a body tasked with studying the geography, natural resources, natural history ...
Confluence of the River Grande and River Chico, Province of Antioquia
This watercolor by Henry Price (1819–63) depicts a landscape showing the confluence of the River Grande and River Chico, in the area of Santa Rosa de Osos in the province of Antioquia (present-day Department of Antioquia), Colombia. Located in the central northwestern part of the country, Antioquia is a region of mountains and valleys that lies partly in the Andes mountain range. Price was a British painter and musician who was one of the draftsmen of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission), a body tasked with studying the geography, natural ...
Inhabitants of Antioquia
This watercolor by Henry Price (1819–63) shows people of different social strata and occupations, gathered in a public square of the city of Antioquia, Antioquia (present-day Department of Antioquia), Colombia. Part of a church or cathedral is visible behind the figures on the left, and in the background are the Andes Mountains. Price was a British painter and musician who was one of the draftsmen of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission), a body tasked with studying the geography, natural resources, natural history, regional culture, and agriculture of the Republic ...
Sonsón Mountain, Province of Córdova
This sketch in pencil and watercolor wash by Henry Price (1819–63) is said to be the only work attributed to this artist that is signed – with the initials E.P. (for Enrique Price) in the lower right-hand corner. The sketch is from a lush tropical forest in the province of Córdova, Colombia, and shows three men dwarfed by the dense backdrop of trees, lianas, and thicket. Price was a British painter and musician who was one of the draftsmen of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission), a body tasked with ...
Rocky Mountain of Entrerríos, Province of Córdova
This watercolor by Henry Price (1819–63) shows a large rocky structure against the background of a mountainous landscape. The small figures on the trail in the lower right emphasize the scale of the rock. The scene is from an area close to the present-day town of Entrerríos in Antioquia (present-day Department of Antioquia), Colombia. Price made several paintings of these conspicuous natural landmarks. Price was a British painter and musician who was one of the draftsmen of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission), a body tasked with studying the geography ...
Inhabitants of Ríonegro, Province of Córdova
This watercolor by Henry Price (1819–63) focuses, as do many of his works, on the common people of a particular region of Colombia, in this case the province of Córdova (present-day Department of Antioquia). Antioquia lies in the north of the country and its inhabitants included descendants of the Spanish colonists, indigenous Zenue, black Africans whose ancestors were brought to Colombia as slaves, and Arab immigrants. Price was a British painter and musician who was one of the draftsmen of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission), a body tasked with ...
Maize Harvesters in Ríonegro, Province of Córdova
This watercolor by Henry Price (1819–63) depicts maize harvesters from Ríonegro in the province of Córdova (present-day Department of Antioquia). Antioquia lies in the north of the country and its inhabitants included descendants of the Spanish colonists, indigenous Zenue, black Africans whose ancestors were brought to Colombia as slaves, and Arab immigrants. Price was a British painter and musician who was one of the draftsmen of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission), a body tasked with studying the geography, natural resources, natural history, regional culture, and agriculture of the Republic ...
The Plateau of Herveo, Ruiz, Tolima, Santa Isabel, and Great Crater, Province of Córdova
This watercolor by Henry Price (1819–63) depicts a plateau and volcanic mountains, with Nevado del Ruiz, also known as the Mesa de Herveo, on the right, and Tolima and Santa Isabel seen in the distance. Men in colorful ponchos are surveying the area. Price labels the scene as located in the province of Córdova; other sources identify it as in the province of Mariquita, about 130 kilometers west of Bogotá. Price was a British painter and musician who was one of the draftsmen of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission ...
The Rock of Guatapé, Province of Córdova
This watercolor by Henry Price (1819–63) depicts a large rock formation near Medellín (present-day Antioquia Department), Colombia. The annotation in the lower left gives the height, width, and circumference of the formation and indicates that the measurements were needed by Colonel Codazzi for mapmaking. Price was a British painter and musician who was one of the draftsmen of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission), a body tasked with studying the geography, natural resources, natural history, regional culture, and agriculture of the Republic of New Granada (present-day Colombia and Panama). He ...
People of Manizales, Province of Córdova
This watercolor by Henry Price (1819–63) depicts a scene in Manizales, province of Córdova (present-day Department of Caldas), Colombia. Four people who presumably have just ascended from the steep ravine in the background are shown, including two women and a porter and his passenger. Price was a British painter and musician who was one of the draftsmen of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission), a body tasked with studying the geography, natural resources, natural history, regional culture, and agriculture of the Republic of New Granada (present-day Colombia and Panama). He ...
Goddess in Gold, from a Grave or Tomb of the Indians, near Neira, Province of Córdova
This watercolor by Henry Price (1819–63) depicts a goddess, probably made of gold. The annotation at the bottom indicates that it was found at an Indian burial site near Neira (present-day Caldas Department), Colombia. Price was a British painter and musician who was one of the draftsmen of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission), a body tasked with studying the geography, natural resources, natural history, regional culture, and agriculture of the Republic of New Granada (present-day Colombia and Panama). He was born in London but moved to New York with ...
Gold Washing in the Río Guadalupe, Province of Medellín
This watercolor shows women panning for gold in the Guadalupe River, north of the city of Medellín, province of Medellín (present-day Antioquia Department), Colombia. The extraction of gold was one of the main economic activities in this area. The illustration is by Henry Price (1819–63), a British painter and musician who was one of the draftsmen of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission), a body tasked with studying the geography, natural resources, natural history, regional culture, and agriculture of the Republic of New Granada (present-day Colombia and Panama). Price was ...
A Gathering of Laborers in Angostura de la Candelaria, Río Guadalupe, Province of Medellín
This watercolor by Henry Price (1819–63) depicts men performing a cuelga,a gathering in which men provide work in exchange for food. The men are shown fishing in the Guadalupe River, north of the city of Medellín (present-day Antioquia), Colombia. Price was a British painter and musician who was one of the draftsmen of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission), a body tasked with studying the geography, natural resources, natural history, regional culture, and agriculture of the Republic of New Granada (present-day Colombia and Panama). He was born in London ...
Typical Inhabitants of the Province of Medellín
This watercolor by Henry Price (1819–63) portrays five people of the province of Medellín (present-day Antioquia Department), Colombia. The dress and facial characteristics of the individuals shown are intended to represent the main ethnic and racial groups among the inhabitants of the province, which included people of indigenous, Spanish colonial, mestizo, and Afro-Colombian origin. Price was a British painter and musician who was one of the draftsmen of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission), a body tasked with studying the geography, natural resources, natural history, regional culture, and agriculture of ...
Inhabitants of Medellín, Capital of the Province of Antioquia
This watercolor of a domestic scene by Henry Price (1819–63) portrays an elegant upper-class couple in Medellín, the provincial capital of Antioquia, Colombia. The couple are clearly of European descent, and their stylish attire and the furnishings in their home reflect their high social status. Price was a British painter and musician who was one of the draftsmen of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission), a body tasked with studying the geography, natural resources, natural history, regional culture, and agriculture of the Republic of New Granada (present-day Colombia and Panama ...
The Guadalupe Waterfall, Province of Medellín
This striking watercolor by Henry Price (1819–63) shows the waterfall on the Guadalupe River, northeast of Medellín, Colombia. In the lower right are seen the figures of a surveying team at work, their small sizes pointing up the enormity of the falls. Price was a British painter and musician who was one of the draftsmen of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission), a body tasked with studying the geography, natural resources, natural history, regional culture, and agriculture of the Republic of New Granada (present-day Colombia and Panama). He was born ...
A Miner and Shopkeeper, Province of Medellín
This watercolor by Henry Price (1819–63) shows a miner and a shopkeeper in the province of Medellín (present-day Antioquia Department), Colombia, completing a transaction. As in many of Price’s works, people of different ethnic origins and status in life are depicted. Price was a British painter and musician who was one of the draftsmen of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission), a body tasked with studying the geography, natural resources, natural history, regional culture, and agriculture of the Republic of New Granada (present-day Colombia and Panama). He was born ...
Indian Earthenware from Medellín
In his watercolors and drawings, Henry Price (1819–63) often depicted everyday artifacts used by the indigenous people of Colombia. Shown here is Indian earthenware from the province of Medellín. Price was a British painter and musician who was one of the draftsmen of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission), a body tasked with studying the geography, natural resources, natural history, regional culture, and agriculture of the Republic of New Granada (present-day Colombia and Panama). He was born in London but moved to New York with his family as an adolescent ...
Abbott and Lawrence Liberty Stove Works. Brown Street above Fourth Street, Philadelphia
This circa 1852 advertising print shows the Abbott & Lawrence Liberty Stove Works, founded in 1851 on the 400 block of Brown Street, west of Fourth Street, in the Northern Liberties neighborhood of Philadelphia. This view shows a four-story building containing the office and adorned with a cupola, a large work yard, and a foundry building in the rear. At the multi-story building, a laborer loads stoves that are lined on the sidewalk into a horse-drawn wagon under the eye of a man at the doorway. On the roof, two other men stand in the cupola that is adorned with a statue of Liberty. In the adjacent work yard, laborers shovel and pick at mounds of coal and bricks, and load and transport hand- and horse-drawn carts on the grounds and up a ramp leading to an opening in the foundry. Near the workers, a group of men convenes; one man leans on a shovel. Next to the multi-story building, two boys chase each other over a mound. On the sidewalk, pedestrians (including men, women, and children) stroll past a street lamp, watch the workers, and converse near a dog sniffing a fire hydrant. In the street, drivers guide horse-drawn carts, a drayman travels, a man rides on horseback, and two dogs can be seen in a greeting stance. A pedestrian crosses the path of an "Abbott & Lawrence Liberty Stove ...
Northern Liberties and Spring Garden Water Works
This hand-colored lithograph from 1852 shows an oblique view of the front and north flank of the one-and-a-half story granite engine house at the Spring Garden and Northern Liberties Water Works (later known as the Schuylkill Water Works). The waterworks was located at the foot of Thompson Street on the east bank of the Schuylkill River in Philadelphia. In the foreground, an empty horse-drawn cart is stopped near a pump, where a man fills a bucket with water. A couple strolls arm in arm nearby. At the side door of ...
Hart, Montgomery and Company, Successors to Isaac Pugh and Company. Manufacturers and Importers of Paper Hangings, Number 118 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia. Manufactory, Northeast Corner of Schuylkill Front and Wood Streets
This advertising print from around 1852 shows an exterior view of the manufactory operated from 1849 until 1860 by William Hart and A.J. Montgomery at Schuylkill Front (later 22nd Street) and Wood Streets, depicted within a lithographed tromp l'oeil wood frame. Hart, Montgomery & Company describes itself in the print as manufacturers and importers of paper hangings. During the mid-19th century, Philadelphia was the premier American city of fine wallpaper production. A horse-drawn cart stands idle by a side entrance of the multi-storied factory and four goats roam a ...
H. B. McCalla, Successor to the Late Andrew McCalla. Number 252 Market Street. First Hat and Cap Store below 8th Street, South Side, Philadelphia
This circa 1852 chromolithograph is an advertising print showing the three-and-one-half story storefront located on the 700 block of Market Street in Philadelphia. The building is covered in advertising text, reading: "The Cheapest Wholesale & Retail Hat and Cap Manufactory in the World. Fashionable Styles. Caps. Hats." The attic window of the building also displays signage that reads, "Hat and Cap Store," and a large model hat and cap adorn the roof of the building. Boxes, hats, and milliners at work are visible in the upper windows. A male patron enters through one of the two open doorways to the establishment. Inside, a clerk surveys stacks of hats across from a flight of stairs. At the other end of the store, another clerk assists a patron, standing in front of a mirror, as he tries on hats next to shelves of merchandise. In a display window between the two entryways, hats and caps for men and boys are displayed, flanked by cases of hats and caps outside. In the street, a horse-drawn dray is positioned to receive a delivery opposite a laborer retrieving a crate labeled "M. Dormitzen Middleport Sch. County" from the store cellar. Labeled crates line the sidewalk with addressees that include: "Heitner & Shay Augusta Northumberland Co. Pa."; "T.L. Mitchell Jefferson Co. Pa."; "Young & Lee Allentown Pa."; "Geo. L. Reppler St. Clair Schuylkill Co."; and "Geo. Far... Centre Co. Pa." Partial views of adjacent businesses can be seen; one business displays blankets and a trunk near its entry and another contains signs reading: "Deposi...Roots...Every" and "Branch Americ..." H.B. McCalla took over ...
Tamany Fish House, on the Pea Shore, River Delaware
This hand-colored lithograph from circa 1852 shows visitors enjoying the public grounds of the Tamany Pea Shore Fishing Company, a social and sporting club founded by Philadelphia artisans in 1803 on the New Jersey shore on the Delaware River north of Camden. People are visible in the upper-floor windows and strolling on the veranda of the clubhouse, which was remodeled in 1832. The building is reflected in the water, and is adorned with a flag and a weather vane shaped like a fish. The kitchen building stands to the right ...
The Farm. A Scene near Gray's Ferry, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania
This 1852 lithograph by architect Samuel Sloan (1815–84) was a plate in an architectural design book; it illustrated an Italianate mansion located at the intersection of two roads in Gray's Ferry near Philadelphia. In the foreground, three boys fish in a stream that runs parallel to the property leading to the Schuylkill River, seen in the background (on the left). An orchard occupies the land in front of the house, and farm land sprawls across the property behind the house. A team of two horses plows the farm ...
James S. Mason and Company, 108 North Front Street, Challenge Blacking, Ink, Etcetera, Manufactory
This print is an advertisement for James S. Mason & Co., a manufacturer of ink and blacking located on North Front Street in Philadelphia. The illustration shows a five-story brick and granite building adorned with a large sign reading "Blacking" (a 19th-century term for shoe and boot polish) on its roof. A patron opens the entrance door of the storefront as he peers at a large illustrated print on display in an adjacent window. On the second floor, above the window adorned with the print, a couple is visible in an ...