39 results in English
An Actor in the Role of Sato Norikiyo who Becomes Saigyo: An Actor in the Role of Yoshinaka
The Japanese art of Ukiyo-e (“Pictures of the floating [or sorrowful] world”) developed in the city of Edo (now Tokyo) during the Tokugawa or Edo Period (1600-1868), a relatively peaceful era during which the Tokugawa shoguns ruled Japan and made Edo the seat of power. The Ukiyo-e tradition of woodblock printing and painting continued into the 20th century. This diptych print of between 1849 and 1852 shows Saigyō surrounded by men trying to prevent him from leaving his house to become a priest. The poet Saigyō (1118-90) was born into ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The War of Kabul and Kandahar
Muḥārabah-ʼi Kābul va Qandahar (The war of Kabul and Kandahar) is an account of the First Afghan War (1839–42) by Munshi ʻAbd al-Karīm, an associate of Shāh Shujāʻ, the emir of Afghanistan. Mawlawī Muḥammad ʻAbd al-Karīm was an Indo-Persian historian from Lucknow, India, who was active in the mid-19th century. He was a prolific munshi (writer, secretary, and language teacher) and translator. He rendered into Persian from Arabic such works as Tārīkh al-Khulafā (History of the Caliphs), by al-Sūyūtī (1445–1505) and a history of Egypt by Ibn Iyās ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Occupational Portrait of Three Railroad Workers Standing on Crank Handcar
Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre (1789–1851) invented the daguerreotype process, which was announced in France on August 19, 1839. American photographers quickly capitalized on this new invention because of its capability of capturing a "truthful likeness." Daguerreotypists encouraged not only celebrities and political figures to have their pictures taken, but also ordinary tradesmen. Workers, proud of their skills and their professions, would spend nearly a day’s wages to have a photographic portrait made. This daguerreotype, made by an unknown photographer sometime in the 1850s, is an occupational portrait of three railroad ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Arabia
John Tallis and Company was a British mapmaking and publishing firm, founded by John Tallis (1817–76), which was active in London circa 1835−60. Tallis maps were known for their accurate information with numerous place-names and geographical details, as well as for the use of shaded areas to indicate topographical features. They are identifiable by the scrolling on the borders and the finely-drawn scenes inscribed on the margins of the maps, which John Tallis and his illustrators derived from travelogues and other written sources. John Rapkin (1815−76) was ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Bukhara, Afghanistan, Baluchistan, Etcetera
This mid-19th century British map shows Bukhara (an independent khanate located in what is today Uzbekistan), Afghanistan, Baluchistan (in present-day Iran and Pakistan), and the eastern part of Persia (present-day Iran). Five different geographic scales are provided on the left and right margins of the map: Indian cos (i.e., kos, a measure of distance dating from ancient India and still used in the 19th century), Persian farsangs (or parasangs; one farsang was equal to approximately 5.56 kilometers), French leagues, English miles, and “Hours of a Karavan of Camels ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Qurʼan
This exquisite illuminated Qurʼan (Or 15227) dating from the 19th century originates from the east coast of the Malay Peninsula. On the basis of various codicological features, the manuscript can be attributed to the cultural zone encompassing Kelantan, on the northeast coast of Malaysia, and Patani, in southern Thailand. In many ways, the Qurʼan is typical of manuscript production in Patani, with black endpapers of Thai manufacture, a cloth cover with elaborate stitched headbands, and illuminated frames with typical Patani features, such as the interlocking-wave motif. And yet the exactitude ...
Contributed by The British Library
Abigail Fillmore
Abigail Fillmore (1798‒1853) was the wife of Millard Fillmore (1800‒74), the 13th president of the United States. She was first lady during Fillmore’s one term in office, from 1850 to 1853. Born in upstate New York, she was by profession a public school teacher. She had two children. The image is from an album of mostly Civil War-era portraits by the famous American photographer Matthew Brady (circa 1823‒96) that belonged to Emperor Pedro II of Brazil (1825‒91), a collector of photography as well as a ...
Map of the Mining District of California
The California gold rush of 1849 began with the strikes at Sutter’s Mill on the American River near Sacramento. This map produced in 1850 shows the location of the main gold workings in the mining district. The map indicates towns, ranches, Indian villages, old Spanish missions, as well as rivers, roads, the topography of the mountains, geological formations (particularly as they relate to gold), and inlets and bays along the Pacific coast. It focuses on the parts of California east of San Francisco Bay, especially along the rivers in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Teresa Cristina Maria, Empress and Consort of Pedro II, Emperor of Brazil
The Thereza Christina Maria Collection consists of 21,742 photographs assembled by Emperor Pedro II and left by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a vast range of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and the Brazilian people in the 19th century, as well as includes many photographs from Europe, Africa, and North America. This photograph by the celebrated Brazilian portrait photographer Joaquim José Insley Pacheco (1830-1912) depicts Thereza Christina Maria, the wife of the emperor, in whose honor the emperor insisted that the collection ...
Collected Poems
This manuscript, most likely from the second half of the 19th century, is a collection of poems by the great Persian poet Urfi, who lived and worked in Mughal India in the late 16th century (died 1591), and who was known for his splendid and deeply melancholy qasidas (odes). Urfi had a great influence on the development of poetry in Turkey and throughout the Ottoman Empire. The manuscript is from the Bašagić Collection of Islamic Manuscripts in the University Library of Bratislava, Slovakia, which was inscribed on the UNESCO ...
Four Excellent Songs: The Laird of Cockpen; The Lass of Arranteenie; Mirren Gibb's Public House; Jack's the Lad
Robert Burns (1759-96) is best known for his poems and songs that reflect Scotland's cultural heritage. He was born in Alloway, Ayrshire, Scotland, the first of seven children belonging to William Burnes, a tenant farmer, and his wife Agnes Broun. Burns had little formal education, but he read English literature and absorbed the traditional, largely oral Scots-language folk songs and tales of his rural environment. He began to compose songs in 1774, and published his first book, Poems, Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect, in 1786. The work was a ...
An Interesting History of Robert Burns; The Ayrshire Bard
Robert Burns (1759-96) is best known for his poems and songs that reflect Scotland's cultural heritage. He was born in Alloway, Ayrshire, Scotland, the first of seven children belonging to William Burnes, a tenant farmer, and his wife Agnes Broun. Burns had little formal education, but he read English literature and absorbed the traditional, largely oral Scots-language folk songs and tales of his rural environment. He began to compose songs in 1774, and published his first book, Poems, Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect, in 1786. The work was a ...
Jim Crow; Hey for a Lass Wi' a Tocher; Mary of Castlecary; Haud Awa Frae Me Donald; This is No My Plaid; Of A' the Airts the Wind can Blaw; Auld Langsyne
Robert Burns (1759-96) is best known for his poems and songs that reflect Scotland's cultural heritage. He was born in Alloway, Ayrshire, Scotland, the first of seven children belonging to William Burnes, a tenant farmer, and his wife Agnes Broun. Burns had little formal education, but he read English literature and absorbed the traditional, largely oral Scots-language folk songs and tales of his rural environment. He began to compose songs in 1774, and published his first book, Poems, Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect, in 1786. The work was a ...
Portrait of Mauma Mollie
Mauma, a Partridge family slave, was transported to South Carolina on a slave ship from Africa. She came to Jefferson County, Florida with John and Eliza Partridge in the 1830s, and was Frances Weston Partridge’s nurse. Henry Edward Partridge recorded in his diary in 1873: “We buried either in 57 or 58 our faithful old ‘Mauma’ Mollie – her who had nursed nearly all of the children of the family; been a friend as well as faithful servant to my Mother; in whose cabin we had often eaten the homely ...
New Testament of Our Lord Jesus Christ
The noted educational reformer, grammarian, and priest Neofit Rilski (1793–1881) was the first to translate the New Testament into modern Bulgarian. Rilski’s translation was critical to religious education, as most Bulgarians could not understand the existing translations of the Bible into Church Slavic. Financed by the Protestant British and Foreign Bible Society and sanctioned by the head of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church, Ilarion, Metropolitan of Tŭrnovo, the translation was a milestone in the Bulgarian National Revival and in the efforts of Bulgarians to achieve religious autonomy from the ...
British Empire Throughout the World, Exhibited in One View
John Bartholomew and Co. was a mapmaking firm established in Edinburgh, Scotland, by John Bartholomew, Sr. (1805-61). His son, John Bartholomew, Jr. (1831-93), carried on the business. In the 1830s, the firm secured the commission to produce the maps in the Encyclopedia Britannica, which it held for the next 90 years. The business grew in the late 19th century as the British Empire expanded abroad and educational opportunity increased at home, driving up demand for maps. Among the cartographic innovations attributed to the firm were the use of red to ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of Central America Including the States of Guatemala, Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica, the Territories of Belise and Mosquito, with Parts of Mexico, Yucatan and New Granada
John Baily was an Englishman who lived for many years in Central America. He was employed in 1837-38 by the government of Nicaragua to survey a potential canal route from the Caribbean Sea to the Pacific Ocean. This map, published in London in 1850, was accompanied by a book, Central America, published separately, which contained much of the detailed information that Baily gathered to make this map. The map shows four possible canal routes: one surveyed for the government of Costa Rica in 1848 by the Danish engineer Andres Oersted ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Map of the World
While under nearly two centuries of restricted foreign contact during the Edo period (1600-1868), the Japanese people still maintained a curiosity in foreign cultures. World maps in particular are indications of how the Japanese perceived their country and its position in the international community. Many were published in the port city of Yokohama and popularized for both informational and entertainment purposes. This map, a woodcut dating from the second half of the 19th century, depicts an enormous archipelago representing Japan at the center of the world. Images of a Russian ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Siyah Mashq
This calligraphic practice sheet includes a number of diagonal words and letters used in combinations facing upwards and downwards on the folio. The common Persian cursive script Nasta'liq is favored over the more "broken" Shikastah script. These sheets, known as siyah mashq (literally black practice in Persian), were entirely covered with writing as a means to practice calligraphy while conserving paper. In time, they became collectible items and thus were signed and dated (this fragment, however, has no signature or date). Many fragments such as this one were provided ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Central America; Describing Each of the States of Guatemala, Honduras, Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica
John Baily was an Englishman who lived for many years in Central America. He was employed in 1837–38 by the government of Nicaragua to survey a potential canal route from the Caribbean Sea to the Pacific Ocean. In 1850 Baily published this book and a separate map of Central America that showed four proposed routes for an isthmian canal. Central America begins with an introductory chapter on the geography, history, and economy of the region as a whole, followed by individual chapters devoted to Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Mosquito ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Illustrated Book of Thai Poetry
The poems collected in this remarkable Thai manuscript from the second half of the 19th century are by an unknown poet. They all share the same theme: the loss of a beloved woman. Drawing upon all the possible degrees of refinement that the Thai language, poetry, and art can master, each poem is a work of art in itself, praising the beauty of the beloved woman and mourning her passing. Preceding the poems are 13 illustrations connected to the overall theme. They show mythological creatures and motifs from Thai legends ...
Contributed by Bavarian State Library
Church at Ocaña where the Colombian Convention Met, Province of Ocaña
This watercolor by Carmelo Fernández (1809−87) shows the church at Ocaña, in present-day Norte de Santander Department, in northeastern Colombia. It was here that in April−June 1828 a national convention called for by Simón Bolívar sought to establish a new political and administrative structure for the then Republic of Gran Colombia. Fernández was born in San José de Guama, Venezuela, into a well-connected family (he was the nephew of José Antonio Páez, a hero of Venezuelan independence and three times president). He studied art in New York when ...
The Passageways of Ocaña, Province of Ocaña
This watercolor by Carmelo Fernández (1809−87) depicts a scene in the Province of Ocaña (present-day Norte de Santander Department) in northeastern Colombia. Three men and their mules are gingerly making their way through a steep rocky gorge. Fernández was born in San José de Guama, Venezuela, into a well-connected family (he was the nephew of José Antonio Páez, a hero of Venezuelan independence and three times president). He studied art in New York when still a youth. He returned home in 1827 and served in the military, where he ...
Growers of Anise, Mestizo Indians, Province of Ocaña
This watercolor by Carmelo Fernández (1809−87) shows two aniseed growers with their crop in Ocaña (in present-day Norte de Santandar Department) in northeastern Colombia. The men are identified as mestizos, signifying in this context of mixed European and Indian ancestry. Aniseed has been cultivated for centuries as an herb, fragrance, and flavoring. In Colombia it is used as an ingredient in the alcoholic drink known as aguardiente (literally, fire water). Fernández was born in San José de Guama, Venezuela, into a well-connected family (he was the nephew of José ...
White Women, Province of Ocaña
This watercolor by Carmelo Fernández (1809−87) is a scene from Ocaña Province (present-day Norte de Santandar Department) in northeastern Colombia. The caption at the bottom of the painting identifies the subject as “White Women,” and two women, possibly a mother (in black) and her daughter (in white) are shown. The third woman, in the background, of Afro-Colombian descent, might be their servant. Fernández was born in San José de Guama, Venezuela, into a well-connected family (he was the nephew of José Antonio Páez, a hero of Venezuelan independence and ...
Inhabitants of the Capital, Province of Pamplona
This watercolor by Carmelo Fernández (1809−87) shows a group of people by the church in Pamplona (in present-day Norte de Santander), northeastern Colombia. The city of Pamplona was founded in the mid-16th century and quickly developed into an important political, religious, and administrative center. It was a mining center, had a university, and played a role in Colombia’s independence movement in 1810. Fernández was born in San José de Guama, Venezuela, into a well-connected family (he was the nephew of José Antonio Páez, a hero of Venezuelan independence ...
Church or Chapel of the Rosary of Cúcuta Where the Congress of Colombia Met, Province of Santander
This watercolor by Carmelo Fernández (1809−87) shows a church in Cúcuta, in the province of Santander (present-day capital of Norte de Santander), in northeastern Colombia. The caption identifies the church as “the church or chapel of the Rosary of Cúcuta, where the admirable congress of Colombia met.” The caption is inaccurate. The 1821 constitution was drafted and adopted in Cúcuta, but the “Admirable Congress” (convened to reform the constitution and so called for the high reputation of its members) met in Bogotá in 1830. Fernández was born in San ...
Suspension Bridge over the Zulia River, Province of Santander
This watercolor by Carmelo Fernández (1809−87) shows a suspension bridge over the Zulia River in the province of Santander (present-day Norte de Santander), in northeastern Colombia. Several people are about to cross over the bridge, which is made of vines. The Zulia River forms a small part of the international border between Colombia and Venezuela. Fernández was born in San José de Guama, Venezuela, into a well-connected family (he was the nephew of José Antonio Páez, a hero of Venezuelan independence and three times president). He studied art in ...
Charles Oakford's Hat and Cap Store, Wholesale and Retail. Number 104, Chestnut Street, Philadelphia
This print is an advertisement for the retail and wholesale hat store operated by Charles Oakford in Philadelphia. Oakford established his business in 1827, relocated to 104 Chestnut Street in 1843, where he began his wholesale trade in 1850, and operated from this address until 1852. The advertisement contains an exterior view of the store, surrounded by a decorative border comprised of hats and vignettes. The proprietor is seen standing behind the double-sided glass door of his establishment and displays of hats adorn the showcase windows of the store. The ...
Porteus' Works. Pine Oil Camphine Distilled by Steam. Number 581, North Front Street. Philadelphia
This advertisement for the J.A. Porteus Chemical Works in Philadelphia depicts aspects of industry in mid-19th century America. The illustration at the top shows a view of the works, located at 581 North Front Street. Laborers load a horse-drawn wagon and a dray with barrels that are lined along the building. A couple walks past the factory, which is comprised of gable-roofed brick buildings of various heights. The illustration below is a cross-section view of an enormous distilling machine used in making the firm’s products, which included turpentine ...
Henry Beagle, Blacksmith and Hame Manufacturer. Corner of Magnolia and Willow Streets between Fifth and Sixth Streets, Philadelphia
This advertising print from around 1850 depicts the premises of Henry Beagle, blacksmith and hame manufacturer, located on the 400 block of Magnolia Street, Philadelphia. The word “hame” refers to the two curved wooden or metal pieces of a harness that fit around the neck of a draft animal, and to which the traces—the part of the harness by which a horse or other draft animal pulls a cart−are attached. The print announces: “Has on hand a general assortment of Dray, Cart, Wagon and Plough Hames, ironed in ...
S.F. Jacoby and Company. Importers and Dealers in Foreign and Domestic Marble in All Their Varieties. J.K. and M. Freedley Dealers in American Marble
William H. Rease, born in Pennsylvania circa 1818, was the most prolific lithographer of advertising prints in Philadelphia during the 1840s and 1850s. This advertisement contains a montage of three titled views showing the sites involved in the operations of the Jacoby and Freedley companies. The scenes are separated and surrounded by an ornate border, comprised of patriotic imagery on top, including an eagle clutching the American flag and shield near a bust of George Washington and the state seals of Pennsylvania and Massachusetts. Filigree, foliage, and tassels decorate the ...
Warnick & Leibrandt's Philadelphia Stove Works and Hollow-Ware Foundry. First Wharf above Noble Street, Philadelphia
William H. Rease, born in Pennsylvania circa 1818, was the most prolific lithographer of advertising prints in Philadelphia during the 1840s and 1850s. This advertisement shows two views of the stove works and hollow-ware foundries owned and operated by Charles W. Warnick and Frederick Leibrandt. The upper scene depicts the stove works at Gunners Run (later the Aramingo Canal) and Franklin Avenue (later Girard Avenue). Viewed from the opposite bank of Gunner's Run, the scene shows laborers with horse-drawn carts and drays on the bank of the canal, in ...
Humane Society of Philadelphia
This circa 1850 lithograph depicts Humane Society volunteers conducting a rescue on the Delaware River near the old Navy Yard in Southwark, Philadelphia. In the image, male volunteers attend to a rescued man on land, carry another man to shore, and row a boat to retrieve a third victim near a capsized vessel. The Delaware riverfront and multiple sailing ships are visible in the background. This lithograph was created by M. Schmitz (probably Matthew Schmitz), a lithographer known primarily for creating sheet music covers. Schmitz was born in Prussia circa ...
Philadelphia Cemetery on the Passyunk Road
This lithograph from circa 1850 shows a view of the chapel at Philadelphia Cemetery (also referred to as New Philadelphia Cemetery), fronting on Passyunk Avenue between Twentieth and Twenty-second Streets. Pedestrians linger outside of the stone wall and carriage gate. Philadelphia Cemetery opened in 1828; the last burial there occurred in 1902. The bodies were removed to Arlington Cemetery in Drexel Hill circa 1915. The print was produced by Thomas S. Sinclair (circa 1805–81). Sinclair was born in the Orkney Islands of Scotland and was active in Philadelphia by ...
Wakefield Manufacturing Company. Hosiery. Germantown, Philadelphia County
This lithograph from circa 1850 shows a pastoral view of the hillside area surrounding the mills of the Wakefield Manufacturing Company. The mills were established circa 1815 by William Logan Fisher, and were located at Eighteenth Street and Fisher's Lane in Philadelphia. In the foreground of this image, six children (one with a basket over his head) play on the hillside, while a man drives a horse-drawn cart loaded with boxes marked "hosiery" on the left. Mill buildings are visible in the distance, behind which more people can be ...
Fountain Park near Philadelphia. Residence of A. McMakin, Esquire
This circa 1850 lithograph, by artist Edwin Whitefield (1816–92), shows the estate of Andrew McMakin, a Philadelphia newspaper proprietor. The estate was located south of Laurel Hill on the Ridge Turnpike at East Falls in Philadelphia. In this view, trees partially obscure the main residence that is flanked by outbuildings that were used as an ice-house, bath-house, and hot-house. A fountain adorns the lawn, and two deer graze. In the foreground, two men travel on horseback and a third walks with a cane. They traverse the dirt road in ...
John C. Farr and Company, Importers of Watches, Watchmakers Tools, Silver and Plated Ware, Musical Boxes, Et cetera. Number 112 Chestnut Street between Third and Fourth Streets, Philadelphia
This advertising print from circa 1850 shows street and pedestrian activity in front of the four-story corner storefront of the jewelry and watch store located at 112 ( i.e., 316) Chestnut Street in Philadelphia. A sign illustrated with a watch and reading, “No. 112 John C. Farr & Co. Wholesale and Retail,” adorns the side of the building. The sign is over a window with a shade that advertises watches, jewelry, and silverware. At the store entrance, a clerk greets two ladies and a girl between the display windows filled with silverware, jewelry, and watches. In front of the store, a lady and gentleman converse near the horses of an out-of-view carriage. At the corner, a man (possibly a store clerk) talks with two ladies who are accompanied by a child and dog. A partial view of the neighboring business (Eugene Roussel, perfumer) can be seen, including signage and the display window of the shop. This print also contains a Gothic-style border and pictorial elements that flank the central image. The pictorial elements are a clock sculpture, a pocket watch, and embellished text reading, “Watches” and “Jewelry.” Text at the bottom reads: “John C. Farr & Co. Importers of watches, watchmakers tools. Silver & plated ware, musical boxes, &c.” Farr started his business in the mid-1820s and changed the firm name to John C. Farr & Company in 1850. The business relocated circa 1854. This lithograph was printed by one of the most prominent lithographers and printers of the day, Peter S. Duval. Duval was born circa 1804 or 1805 in France. He emigrated from France to Philadelphia in the fall of 1831 to accept a job as a lithographer with the printing firm of Childs & Inman. By 1837 he had established his lithographic printing shop; he remained in business until his retirement in 1869.
St. Mark's Church, Philadelphia
This lithograph from circa 1850 shows an exterior view of the Gothic-style Saint Mark’s Episcopal Church, located at 1607-1627 Locust Street in Philadelphia. Saint Mark’s Church was built between 1848 and 1851 after the designs of the Scottish-born architect and landscape designer John Notman (1810–65). Below the image is the church seal with a motto reading, “Sigillum Ecclesiae S. Marci Philada. 1848.” Saint Mark’s was founded in 1847 by a group of Philadelphians intent on following the spiritual principles of the Oxford Movement, a current within ...