6 results in English
Book of Taxation
Kitāb al-Kharāj (Book of taxation)is a classic text on fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence), written by Abū Yusūf Yaʿqūb Ibrāhīm al-Anṣārī al-Kūfī (died 798; 182 A.H.) at the request of the Abbasid caliph Hārūn al-Rashīd (763 or 766-809). Abū Yusūf was the most famous student of Abū Ḥanīfa and along with his illustrious teacher is considered one of the founders of the Ḥanafī school of law. In the introduction to the book, Abū Yusūf describes how the caliph asked him to write a work treating the collection of al-kharāj (the ...
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Map of the Village of the Ottawa “Savages,” at the Erie Strait, 1732
Detroit was founded in 1701 by a French trader, Antoine Laumet de Lamothe Cadillac, who built a fort on the Detroit River and named it Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit in honor of Louis Phélypeaux, Comte de Pontchartrain, the French navy minister. The British later shortened the name to Detroit (“strait”). Fort Pontchartrain was located near three Indian villages, one of which was the Ottawa village depicted here. The map shows the grid-like pattern in which communal houses known as wigwams were arranged. At the top of the map two houses ...
Map of Fort Pontchartrain in Canada, on the Strait of Lake Erie
Fort Pontchartrain, located at the straits of Lake Erie and Lake Saint-Clair in what is today the city of Detroit, Michigan, was established in 1701 by Antoine Laumet de Lamothe Cadillac, a French military officer. It was named in honor of France’s navy minister, the Comte de Pontchartrain. Lamothe Cadillac was something of a visionary megalomaniac who hoped to make the post “the Paris of New France.” The interior of the fort was arranged according to a grid plan, similar to a small town. During the 18th century, Detroit ...
Canadian Indian
This hand-colored drawing portrays a Canadian Indian, most likely a Nipissing, who was part of a settled community on the Île aux Tourtesnear Montreal. An explanatory manuscript on a separate folio states: “these natives, who are good warriors, used to live by a Canadian lake named after them, and were attracted to the colony in 1704 in order to make it their home. They currently live on the Île aux Tourtes, which is southwest of the Island of Montreal on the Saint Lawrence River. The idea was to have ...
A Current Description of the Province of the Society of Jesus in Paraguay with Neighboring Areas
Between 1609 and 1780, the Roman Catholic Society of Jesus (the Jesuits) established an autonomous Christian Indian state on the territory of present-day Paraguay, Uruguay, and parts of Argentina and Brazil. After unsuccessful efforts to Christianize the warlike Guaycurú Indians of northeastern Paraguay, the Jesuits concentrated on organizing the Guaraní Indians into a series of reducciones (reductions or townships), in which a kind of communal living was practiced. The system of reductions was an attempt to correct earlier abuses, in which the Paraguayan Indians were transformed into virtual slaves who ...
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Map of Orinoco River that Includes Visible Islands and Tributaries at the Delta of the River, 1732
This early-18th century map of the valley of the Orinoco River contains extensive information about the Indian nations bordering the river, Christian missions and other settlements, the extensive array of streams that flow into the Orinoco, and navigational hazards and islands. The map includes a keyed index and a detailed historical note on the exploration of the river from 1682 to 1732. The note records information about the martyrdom of several religious figures. As indicated in the note, much of the information for the map came from different religious sources ...
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