17 results in English
The Seville Bible
Biblia hispalense (The Seville Bible), also known as the Toletanus Codex, is a manuscript from the first half of the tenth century, in Latin written in lower-case Visigothic script by at least four copyists. The titles also appear in Hebrew, and there are notes in Arabic in the margins. The manuscript consists of booklets of eight sheets each, on parchment, with the text in three columns of 63–65 lines. Included are the texts of the Old and New Testaments, with a preface, prologues, and commentaries by Saint Jerome, Saint ...
Contributed by National Library of Spain
Gospels
Dated to the tenth century, this manuscript is the oldest Armenian codex in North America and the fifth oldest among documented Armenian Gospel books. The principal colophon, on folio 2 verso, records that Sargis the priest completed the text in 415 (966). Within the framed area, the commission of the codex is described: a priest, whose name was replaced by the later owner T’oros, commissioned the work "as decoration and for the splendor of [the] holy church and for the pleasure of the congregation of Rznēr." As the codex ...
Contributed by Walters Art Museum
Corvey Gospel Fragment
This manuscript consists of four folios from a Gospel book that was likely made at the monastery of Corvey in western Germany during the mid-to-late tenth century. Dating to the reign of Otto I, these pages are a magnificent example of early Ottonian manuscript illumination. The heavily ornamented pages, which introduce the Gospels of Luke and John, shine with gold and jewel-like colors against dyed purple grounds. These pages combine monumental classicizing square capitals on purple grounds with rich and complex interlace. This fragment contains the opening pages of Luke ...
Contributed by Walters Art Museum
Sacramentary of Bishop Abraham
Many monasteries in Bavaria were destroyed during the devastating Hungarian invasions of Europe in the ninth and tenth centuries. In the period after the Hungarian wars, Bishop Abraham of Freising (957−94) nevertheless succeeded, despite temporary banishment, in enlarging his see, pushing ahead the mission to the Slavs, and promoting completion of the cathedral library and school in Freising. This sacramentary is the only high-quality liturgical manuscript surviving from this time, albeit in poor condition. The prominence given to Saint Corbinian identifies it as a Freising work. Obituary entries in ...
Contributed by Bavarian State Library
Fulda Sacramentary
The Fulda Sacramentary typifies the structural changes that sacramentaries underwent in Carolingian times, when artistic embellishment was increasingly concentrated on the canon. The opening letter T (of Te igitur; “Thee, therefore,” the first prayer of the mass) of the sacramentary has been transformed on folio 12 recto into a picture of the crucified Christ, surrounded by four medallions depicting, respectively, the hand of God, Saint Mary, Saint John, and a priest in adoration. Executed at the Benedictine monastery at Corvey in the last third of the tenth century, the sacramentary ...
Contributed by Bavarian State Library
Prayerbook of Otto III
This small prayer book was once owned by the Holy Roman Emperor Otto III (980−1002). Although it hardly stands out when compared with other luxuriously illuminated manuscripts, it was intended for the sovereign’s private devotion and is one of only two royal prayer books from the early Middle Ages to survive. It was probably commissioned after the year 984, presumably by Archbishop Willigis of Mainz, when the four-year-old Otto was committed to the care of his mother and grandmother, the empresses Theophanu and Adelaide, after his father’s ...
Contributed by Bavarian State Library
Poem on the Acts of the Apostles
Arator's De Actibus Apostolorum (Acts of the Apostles), written in the sixth century, is the last example of Roman Biblical verse epic in the classical tradition. This 10th-century manuscript is decorated with a pen-and-ink drawing depicting Arator as he hands his work over for correction to Florianus, abbot of a convent near Milan; it is the earliest portrait of Arator to be preserved. The manuscript, which was apparently much used in the Middle Ages, seems to have been written and decorated in southwest Germany towards the end of the ...
Contributed by Bavarian State Library
Liudprand’s “Antapodosis,” “Chronicle of Otto’s Reign,” and Regino of Prüm’s “The Chronicle”
This is a historical miscellany written in Freising, Bavaria, under Bishop Abraham (died 994). It contains two works by Liutprand of Cremona (died approximately 972)‏, Liber de rebus gestis Ottonis (A chronicle of Otto's reign) and Antapodosis (Tit-for-tat); and Chronica quam Regino quondam abbas Pruniensis composuit (Chronicle of Regino of Prüm) by Regino,‏ ‎abbot of Prüm (840−915) and its continuation by Adalbert of Magdeburg (died 981). Liutprand's historical works narrate mainly the history of Italy in the ninth century and first half of the tenth century, but ...
Contributed by Bavarian State Library
Poems by Prudentius
According to inventory records, this manuscript must have been part of the library of the Abbey of Saint Emmeram before 993. It contains the complete works of Prudentius (born 348), which enjoyed great popularity in the Middle Ages but which today are preserved in their entirety in only 30 manuscripts. The manuscript is written in a Carolingian minuscule in several hands and features 11 pen-drawn initials executed by two illustrators in brick-red color, two of them showing zoomorphic elements. The initial A in “Ales diei nuntius” (The winged herald of ...
Contributed by Bavarian State Library
Saint Jerome’s "Against Jovinianus" and "Apologetical Work to Pammachius"
This codex contains two works by Saint Jerome, Adversus Jovinianus (Against Jovinianus) and Apologeticum ad Pammachium (Apologetical work for Pammachius). The latter consists of two letters that refer to Adversus Jovinianus. Written in 393, the main work is a polemical diatribe against the monk Jovinianus, who had asserted the equality of virginity and marriage. Following a treatise on marriage by the Roman author Seneca that is now lost, Jerome defends the Christian ideal of virginity while at the same time excoriating earlier pagan morals and ideas. Pammachius was a Roman ...
Contributed by Bavarian State Library
Dialogue on Dialectics
This codex, which was created at Tegernsee Abbey under the direction of Froumund (circa 960−1008), is the work of several scribes. Besides Froumund, who copied a part of the text and entered several glosses, at least six other scribes were involved. The textbook Dialogus de dialectica (Dialogue on dialectics) deals with dialectics, one of the three artes liberales (liberal arts) of the medieval Trivium, which consisted of grammar, rhetoric, and dialectics, or logic. It was written by Alcuin (735−804), the great English scholar, theologian, and head of the ...
Contributed by Bavarian State Library
Homiliary on Gospels from Easter to first Sunday of Advent
This 10th-century manuscript from the Bergendal Collection at the Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies in Toronto is the oldest extant copy of a book of homilies composed by Heiric (Eric) of Auxerre, France, around 865–870. Heiric, a Benedictine theologian and writer, was a monk at the Abbey of Saint-Germain d’Auxerre. He studied under Lupus of Ferrière, John Scotus Erigena, and Haymo of Auxerre. He was the teacher of Remigius of Auxerre and is an important representative of intellectual life in the Carolingian period. The manuscript was written, by ...
Annals of Creation
The cover of this work by an unknown author bears the title Translation of the Entire Text of the “Yao Annals of Creation.” In this bilingual text, the Dongba text is in color and the Chinese text is in black. The Dongba glyphs are ancient characters that were used to record the dialect of the western Naxi nationality centered around the Li River in Yunnan. They were developed in approximately the seventh century. The Annals of Creation reflect the understanding of the Naxi people concerning the natural world and the ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Qurʼanic Verses
This calligraphic fragment includes, on the left-hand side of the bifolium, the illuminated title and verses 1−6 of the 69th chapter of the Qurʼan entitled al-Haqqah (The truth). This text continues with verses 6−14 on the fragment's verso. The right side of the recto then proceeds with verses 14−19 from the same chapter. Altogether, this fragment contains the title and verses 1−19 of Surat al-Haqqah. This surah dates from the Meccan period and contains 52 verses. It is largely eschatological in nature, and verses 1 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Qurʼanic Verses
This calligraphic fragment includes the beginning of verse 18 from the fifth chapter of the Qurʼan entitled al-Ma'idah (The table). The text continues with the end of verse 18 and the beginning of verse 19 on the folio's verso. Surat al-Ma'idah describes the corruption of religions, in particular Judaism and Christianity, prior to the advent of Islam. Even if warned, the Qurʼan states in 5:18 on the verso that Jews and Christians turned away from the truth and violated their covenants: “Both the Jews and Christians ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Qurʼanic Verses
This calligraphic fragment includes verses 62−64 of the 24th chapter of the Qurʼan entitled al-Nur (The light). The text of this surah ends on the fragment's verso, which also contains the illuminated heading and first three verses of the subsequent (25th) chapter of the Qurʼan entitled al-Furqan (The criterion). Surat al-Nur describes domestic and public matters and discusses how communal life contributes to man's virtues and his spiritual journey towards God, as in verse 24:62: “Only those are believers who trust in God and his Messenger ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Gazing South of the River by Li Jing, Duke of Wei
Li Wei Gong wang jiang nan (Gazing south of the river by Li Jing, Duke of Wei) was a work attributed to Li Jing (571−649). Li Jing, courtesy name Yaoshi, a native of Sanyuan, Yongzhou (in present-day Shaanxi), was a famous military strategist and general at the end of the Sui (581−618) and the beginning of the Tang (618−907). He also had considerable literary ability. He was posthumously bestowed the title of duke of Wei and was known historically as Duke Li of Wei. Li was the ...
Contributed by National Central Library