22 results in English
Map of the Gulf Coast from Florida to Mexico
Joan Vinckeboons (1617–70) was a Dutch cartographer and engraver born into a family of artists of Flemish origin. He was employed by the Dutch West India Company and for more than 30 years produced maps for use by Dutch mercantile and military shipping. He was a business partner of Joan Blaeu, one of the most important map and atlas publishers of the day. Vinckeboons drew a series of 200 manuscript maps that were used in the production of atlases, including Blaeu’s Atlas Maior. This pen-and-ink and watercolor map ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the Jefferson Davis Memorial Highway
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1916, shows a proposed highway across the southern United States linking Miami and Los Angeles. Tentatively named the Jefferson Davis Memorial Highway, the proposed route was to be ...
Map of the Mississippi Highway
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Mississippi Highway, proposed by the Mississippi Highway Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from Duluth, Minnesota, to New Orleans, a distance ...
Map of Part of the United States Exhibiting the Principal Mail Routes West of the Mississippi River
As the United States expanded toward the Pacific Ocean, few services proved more critical than a functioning postal system. Mail delivery became crucial to new settlers writing home, businesses opening branches in the West that had their main offices in cities in the East, and merchants who needed supplies from industries and factories “back East.” Mail service was also important for government administration and keeping Washington in touch with state and territorial capitals. For a short time in the early 1860s, the Pony Express provided service between Missouri and California ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the Territory of the United States from the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean
The United States gained vast territories in the West through the Mexican War of 1846−48 and the 1846 Oregon Treaty with Great Britain. By the early 1850s, government and commercial interests were debating the possibilities of building a transcontinental railroad to the Pacific. The Army Appropriations Act of 1853 provided for the completion of railroad surveys to determine possible routes. This map, issued in 1858 by Secretary of War Jefferson Davis, depicts the United States west of the Mississippi on the eve of the Civil War. California and Texas ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Indian Reservations West of the Mississippi River
As the United States expanded westward in the 19th century, white settlers invariably clashed with Native Americans. Possessing entirely different concepts of land use and ownership, whites and Native Americans increasingly came into a conflict. Compounding the problem was the fact that the U.S. Army was the de facto authority in most parts of the American West at this time, especially after the Civil War, and often resolved issues through force. The United States had long regarded most Indian tribes as sovereign entities, with which it negotiated treaties in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the Trans-Mississippi Territory of the United States During the Period of the American Fur Trade as Conducted from St. Louis between the Years 1807 and 1843
This map, published in 1902 in H.M. Chittenden’s History of the Fur Trade of the Far West, shows major cartographic features of the American West in the early 19th century, including the location of key Native American populations, forts, trading posts, and physical features, such as mountains and rivers. French voyageurs pioneered fur trading and trapping in Canada and the American West before the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, but the basic geography of this vast region was poorly understood before the Lewis and Clark expedition of 1804–6 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Private Henry Augustus Moore of Company F, 15th Mississippi Infantry Regiment
This photograph shows a Confederate soldier during the American Civil War (1861−65). He is identified as Private Henry Augustus Moore of Company F, 15th Mississippi Infantry Regiment. Moore is wearing a grey coat with short, one-inch wide bars across the chest, a uniform based in part on regulations prescribed by the state of Mississippi. He holds a short artillery sword and a sign that reads “Jeff Davis and the South!” Jefferson Davis was a former senator from Mississippi who was inaugurated president of the Confederate States of America on ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Varina Howell Davis
Varina Howell Davis (1826‒1906) was the second wife of Jefferson Davis, president of the Confederate States of America, and thus the only first lady of the Confederacy. Born in rural Louisiana to a family with roots in both the North and the South, she was educated at a boarding school in Philadelphia. She married Davis, a widower, in 1845. She is known to have been skeptical about the South’s ability to win a war with the North and about her husband’s suitability as a national leader, but ...
Map of Louisiana, View of New Orleans
The French royal engineer, de Beauvilliers, drew this 1720 map of the entire hydrographic network of the Mississippi River, from the Illinois Country to New Orleans and the Gulf of Mexico, and the regions west of the Mississippi, stretching through present-day Texas and into New Mexico. The map was made in Paris, based on the journal of Jean-Baptiste Bénard de la Harpe (1683–1765), “commander on the Red River.” De la Harpe was a French officer, trader, and explorer who explored much of present-day Texas, Arkansas, and Oklahoma. He sailed ...
Map of the Two Natchez Forts Captured in February 1730 by the French, Choctaw, Tunica, Acolapissa, and Houma
This plan shows the site of the two forts captured by the French in February 1730 as part of their response to a massacre by the Natchez late the previous year. The conflict between the French and the Natchez had its origins in disputes over land. The Compagnie d’Occident (later the Compagnie des Indes) had established several tobacco plantations in the environs of Fort Rosalie (close to present-day Natchez, Mississippi), near several Indian villages. On November 28, 1729, the Natchez staged an uprising, the principal cause of which was ...
Departure for the Islands
When Canada, also called New France, became a royal province in 1663, there were at least six male colonists of marriageable age for every European-born female. With a view to reducing this imbalance and to ensuring the settlement of the colony, King Louis XIV subsidized the cost of passage to New France for nearly 770 young women between 1663 and 1673. When finances permitted, he granted each a dowry of 50 livres intended to facilitate their marriage and settlement. Contrary to persistent legend, these girls were not prostitutes, but more ...
Taking Possession of Louisiana and the Mississippi River, in the Name of Louis XIVth, by Cavelier de La Salle [From Rouen] on April 9, 1682
This lithograph from the 1870s by Jean-Adolphe Bocquin illustrates the claiming of Louisiana for France by René Robert Cavelier de La Salle, an event that helped to make La Salle one of the heroes of France’s first colonial empire. La Salle was born in Rouen in 1643. Educated at a Jesuit college, he originally intended to enter the priesthood, but in 1666 he left France for Canada, seeking to make his fortune. He obtained a grant of land and worked for a time as a farmer and landlord. With ...
New Travels to the West Indies. Including an Account on the Peoples who Live by the Great Saint Louis River, also Known as the Mississippi River, 1768
Jean-Bernard Bossu (1720–92) was a French soldier and adventurer who in the late 18th century explored large parts of the French colony of Louisiana. He made three extended trips to the New World, in 1751, 1757, and 1760. In 1751 he traveled up the Mississippi River to the lands of the Arkansas Indians, also known as the Quapaw. Bossu wrote extensive letters to the Marquis de l’Estrade about his adventures among the native peoples of the Mississippi Valley, who included not only the Quapaw but also the Illinois ...
Compilation of Rules, Edicts, Declarations and Decisions on Trade, the Justice System and the Police in America’s French Colonies. Including the “Code Noir”
In 1717, French finance minister John Law decided to introduce the importation of slaves into the colony of Louisiana, with the goal of developing the plantation economy in Lower Louisiana. The Compagnie des Indes (Company of the Indies) subsequently obtained the monopoly on economic activity in the region and between 1719 and 1743 imported approximately 6,000 slaves to the colony. To regulate relations between slaves and colonists, the Louisiana Code noir, or slave code, was introduced in 1724. Based largely on the code compiled in 1685 for the French ...
Memoir on Louisiana to be Presented with a Map of This Land to the Sovereign Council of the Navy
Memoire sur la Louisiane (Memoir on Louisiana) is a 23-page handwritten document by the French priest François Le Maire (1575–1658), written for presentation to the sovereign council of the Navy in March 1717, some months before the Compagnie d’Occident (Company of the West) was established with a business monopoly in New France in August of that year. After describing the present state of the young colony (including its geography, ports, natives, and colonists), the author sets forth France’s interests in developing Louisiana and “the most appropriate means ...
Relation, or True Chronicle of what Occurred in the Country of Louisiana for Twenty-two Consecutive Years from the Start of the French Settlement in the Region
André Pénicaut, born around 1680 in La Rochelle, France, was a “carpenter in the construction of royal ships” and an interpreter. This manuscript is his account of the 22 years he spent in Louisiana between 1699 and 1721. Pénicaut first sailed for Louisiana in September 1698 on Le Marin, captained by the Count of Surgères, as part of the expedition led by Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville (1661‒1706), founder of the French colony of Louisiana. Based on his daily notes, Pénicaut’s account is extremely rich, describing in turn ...
Historical Memoirs on Louisiana, Including the Most Interesting Events from 1687 to the Present
Mémoires historiques sur la Louisiane: contenant ce qui y est arrivé de plus mémorable depuis l'année 1687 jusqu'à présent (Historical memoirs on Louisiana, including the most interesting events from 1687 to the present) is based on a manuscript text by soldier Jean-François-Benjamin Dumont de Montigny (born 1696) that was completed in France in 1747. The work was compiled and edited by the Abbé Jean-Baptiste Le Mascrier and published in Paris in 1753. Dumont’s original manuscript is preserved in the Newberry Library in Chicago. It narrates the events ...
A Full and Impartial Account of the Company of Mississippi, Otherwise called the French East-India Company. Projected and Settled by Mister Law
John Law was a Scottish financier and adventurer who was also an authority on banking and the circulation of money. He convinced the regent of France, Philippe d’Orléans, that he could liquidate the French government’s debt by a system of credit based on paper money. In 1716 he launched the Banque générale, which had the authority to issue notes. The following year he founded the Compagnie d’Occident (Company of the West), the capital for which was raised by the sale of 500-livre shares, payable only in ...
President Jefferson Davis, Confederate States of America
Jefferson Davis (1808-89) was the first and only president of the Confederate States of America, the nation formed in 1861 by the secession from the Union of 11 southern states. Born on the Mississippi frontier, Davis graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point and became a slaveholding landowner on a plantation given to him by a wealthy older brother. He served in Congress and the Senate in the 1840s, fought with distinction in the Mexican War of 1846‒48, and in 1853 was appointed secretary of war ...
Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley
Early in the 19th century, as wagon trains streamed into the Ohio and Mississippi valleys, settlers came upon vast numbers of abandoned earthworks that they attributed to a sophisticated race of long-gone mound builders. Giving rise to often-loaded questions about human origins, the mounds and the artifacts found within them became the focus of early American efforts toward a science of archaeology. Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley (1848) was the first major work in the nascent discipline as well as the first publication of the newly established Smithsonian Institution ...
Contributed by Smithsonian Institution
Map of Mississippi, Louisiana and Arkansas
David H. Burr (1803–75) was a surveyor and cartographer, who served as topographer to the United States Post Office Department in 1832–38 and as geographer to the House of Representatives in 1838–47. Under the direction of the postmaster general, Burr compiled information from postmasters throughout the country about transportation routes—post roads, railroads, and canals—and the location of post offices to produce a large set of state and regional maps. Published in 1839 by the prominent London mapmaking firm of John Arrowsmith, Burr’s The American ...
Contributed by Library of Congress