33 results in English
Map of the Jefferson Davis Memorial Highway
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1916, shows a proposed highway across the southern United States linking Miami and Los Angeles. Tentatively named the Jefferson Davis Memorial Highway, the proposed route was to be ...
Map of the Pacific Highway
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Pacific Highway, proposed by the Pacific Highway Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from Blaine, Washington, to San Diego, California, a ...
Map of the Sunshine Highway
The National Highways Association (NHA) was established in 1911 to promote the development of an improved national road network in the United States. Under the slogan “Good roads for everyone!” the NHA advocated the building and permanent maintenance by the federal government of a system of 50,000 miles (some 80,500 kilometers) of highways. This map, issued by the NHA in 1915, shows the Sunshine Highway, proposed by the Sunshine Highway Association and endorsed by the NHA. The projected route runs from the U.S.–Canada border in Washington ...
California or New Carolina: Place of Apostolic Works of Society of Jesus at the Septentrional America
Nicholas de Fer (1646-1720) was a French cartographer and publisher of atlases. This hand-colored map by de Fer from 1720 is actually a pirated copy of a manuscript map of 1696 by Father Eusebio Kino (1645-1711). Kino was an Italian-born Jesuit priest who was trained as a cartographer. Best known for his work in establishing missions and in defending the rights of Indians, he also made important geographic discoveries. In the 1680s and 1690s he explored Pimería Alta in present-day southern Arizona and northern Mexico. His explorations of Baja California ...
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Salmon Canneries of the Pacific Northwest
In the late 19th century, salmon canneries became a major industry along the Pacific coastline of the United States and Canada. American fishing interests in the Pacific Northwest pressed for the Alaska Purchase in 1867 and strongly shaped regional politics up until the turn of the 20th century. Imperial Russia had imposed limits on Americans fishing in Alaskan waters. After Russia sold Alaska to the United States in 1867, Americans gained access to new fishing grounds, including some of the world’s best salmon runs. The combination of access to ...
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Map of the Gold Regions of California
The California Gold Rush of 1849 was a major event that sparked interest around the world and spurred the long-term rise and development of San Francisco and the surrounding region. Previously a Spanish and Mexican outpost, California witnessed a huge influx of prospectors and settlers after the gold strikes at Sutter’s Mill in early 1848. This map shows the entire area of California, including the Baja (present-day Mexico), and highlights in bright yellow the gold-producing regions along several rivers. The map also lists the names of various mountains, bays ...
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Map of Part of the United States Exhibiting the Principal Mail Routes West of the Mississippi River
As the United States expanded toward the Pacific Ocean, few services proved more critical than a functioning postal system. Mail delivery became crucial to new settlers writing home, businesses opening branches in the West that had their main offices in cities in the East, and merchants who needed supplies from industries and factories “back East.” Mail service was also important for government administration and keeping Washington in touch with state and territorial capitals. For a short time in the early 1860s, the Pony Express provided service between Missouri and California ...
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Map of the Territory of the United States from the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean
The United States gained vast territories in the West through the Mexican War of 1846−48 and the 1846 Oregon Treaty with Great Britain. By the early 1850s, government and commercial interests were debating the possibilities of building a transcontinental railroad to the Pacific. The Army Appropriations Act of 1853 provided for the completion of railroad surveys to determine possible routes. This map, issued in 1858 by Secretary of War Jefferson Davis, depicts the United States west of the Mississippi on the eve of the Civil War. California and Texas ...
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Map Showing Routes of the Pacific Coast Steamship Company
This foldable tourist brochure, published by Rand McNally and Company in 1891, shows the main routes and schedules of the Pacific Coast Steamship Company. One side of the large sheet is a map showing the company’s routes from San Diego, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, and other ports. An inset map on the right shows the routes from Seattle and Victoria, British Columbia, through the Inside Passage to Juneau, Sitka, and Glacier Bay in Alaska. A table in the upper right gives distances in nautical miles from San Francisco ...
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Western Motor Car Route Guide
This automobile guide shows the main highway route between Vancouver, Canada, and San Diego, California, circa 1915. The map lists the distance in miles from Vancouver to cities along the way, and highlights in red lettering the major intermediate stops, such as Seattle, Portland, San Francisco (Oakland), Bakersfield, and Los Angeles. Major civic expositions occurring in San Francisco and San Diego in 1915, which stimulated significant motor travel that year, are noted in red as well. Parts of the route include the Pacific Highway as well as follow segments of ...
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Indian Reservations West of the Mississippi River
As the United States expanded westward in the 19th century, white settlers invariably clashed with Native Americans. Possessing entirely different concepts of land use and ownership, whites and Native Americans increasingly came into a conflict. Compounding the problem was the fact that the U.S. Army was the de facto authority in most parts of the American West at this time, especially after the Civil War, and often resolved issues through force. The United States had long regarded most Indian tribes as sovereign entities, with which it negotiated treaties in ...
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Map of the Trans-Mississippi Territory of the United States During the Period of the American Fur Trade as Conducted from St. Louis between the Years 1807 and 1843
This map, published in 1902 in H.M. Chittenden’s History of the Fur Trade of the Far West, shows major cartographic features of the American West in the early 19th century, including the location of key Native American populations, forts, trading posts, and physical features, such as mountains and rivers. French voyageurs pioneered fur trading and trapping in Canada and the American West before the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, but the basic geography of this vast region was poorly understood before the Lewis and Clark expedition of 1804–6 ...
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Map of Upper & Lower California Showing the Military Stations and Distribution of Troops
During the Mexican-American War of 1846–48, U.S. troops occupied parts of the Mexican territory of Alta (Upper) California in an arc from present-day Sacramento to San Diego. This hand-drawn map of 1847 shows the locations in Alta California where U.S. forces were stationed. The notation on the lower left-hand side gives the distances between sites and the numbers of men deployed. Longitude and latitude are marked but there is no exact scale. The map shows the extent of U.S. control, later to be formalized in the ...
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Topographical Sketch of the Gold & Quicksilver District of California
Published in July 1848 after the first gold strikes at Sutter’s Mill on the American River in northern California, this map shows the location of key gold and quicksilver (mercury, in the form of cinnabar) deposits in the territory of California. Soon after the find, prospectors began streaming into California in enormous numbers, and demand was high for geographic knowledge of the region, especially as it related to previous strikes. The map displays the basic topography of California by showing mountains, rivers, bays, and mountain passes, but its main ...
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Map of the Mining District of California
This map, produced in two parts in the early years after the California Gold Rush of 1849, shows the regions where gold was discovered in the territory. Accompanying the map was a 16-page appendix that gave further information on the location and significance of the gold strikes. The discovery of gold at Sutter’s Mill on the American River in January 1848 attracted migrants from the east coast of the United States, as well as from Europe, Central and South America, Australia, and Asia. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ending ...
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Major General Henry Halleck
Henry Halleck (1815−72) was born in Waterville, New York. He graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1839, and served in the Mexican War of 1846−48. He retired from the army in 1854 to practice law, but after the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861 he reentered the service with the rank of major general. He commanded the Department of the Missouri from November 19, 1861, to July 11, 1862, when he became general in chief of all the Union armies, a position ...
Major General Irvin McDowell
Irvin McDowell (1818−85) was a Union general in the American Civil War. Born in Columbus, Ohio, he graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1838 and fought in the Mexican War of 1846−48. Early in the Civil War he was a brigadier general at the head of the Department of Northeastern Virginia, and thus was in command of the Union army at the First Battle of Bull Run in July 1861. He held several other commands during the war, and was promoted to major ...
Map of the Discoveries Made of the Northwest Coast of North America
Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa (1717‒79) was born in Seville, Spain. He served as captain general of Cuba from 1766 to 1771 and as viceroy of New Spain from 1771 to 1779. He reorganized the Spanish military units in the viceroyalty and strengthened and rebuilt fortifications along the Pacific coast and on the Gulf of Mexico, with the objective of forestalling encroachments by other powers. Bucareli took a keen interest in the northern reaches of New Spain. He fought Indian insurrections, invested in fortifying presidios and Spanish and ...
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Regional Guide for Agricultural Employment in the Western States
“Guía de las regiones de trabajos agrícolas en los estados del oeste” (Regional guide for agricultural employment in the Western States) is a guide with accompanying map that was issued in 1962 by the Farm Labor Service of the U.S. Department of Labor and the U.S. Employment Service. It offered information in Spanish to migrant laborers on temporary agricultural employment in seven western states: Washington, Oregon, Idaho, California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona. The map has inset text with translations into Spanish of the names of important fruits and ...
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Spherical Map of the Territories of Upper and Lower California and the State of Sonora
The Mexican naval officer and explorer José María Narváez visited California in 1822 and produced this pen-and-ink and watercolor map of the region from the Rio Grande westward to California. It shows the Pacific coastline, the lands inhabited by different Indian tribes, and the route of the 1775 expedition of Juan Bautista de Anza from Monterrey, Mexico, to California and back. Red lines demarcate the boundaries between Alta (Upper) and Baja (Lower) California and between the four districts of Alta California (San Diego, Santa Barbara, Monterey, and San Francisco). Symbols ...
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The Unique Map of California
The Unique Map of California was issued in 1888 by the Southern Pacific Railroad Company and the California State Board of Trade as part of a campaign to promote the economic, cultural, and natural advantages of California as a place in which to live and invest. The map covers the entire state, with insets showing temperature, soil, land area, and scenic images. Annual rainfall in inches is indicated by circled numbers across the map. An inset at the top shows a cross-section of the Sierra Nevada Mountains and the elevation ...
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Map of the Mining District of California
The California gold rush of 1849 began with the strikes at Sutter’s Mill on the American River near Sacramento. This map produced in 1850 shows the location of the main gold workings in the mining district. The map indicates towns, ranches, Indian villages, old Spanish missions, as well as rivers, roads, the topography of the mountains, geological formations (particularly as they relate to gold), and inlets and bays along the Pacific coast. It focuses on the parts of California east of San Francisco Bay, especially along the rivers in ...
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View of the Panamint Range Mountains, Mines, Mills and Town Site, 1875
In the early 1870s, prospectors made a large silver strike in the Panamint Mountains west of Death Valley, California. It proved to be a substantial regional mother lode, and brought many stampeders streaming into the region. Sherman Town (also known as Panamint City), a classic boomtown of the era, sprang up overnight at the foot of the Panamint range and had a population of 2,000 people in 1874. The Panamint Mining and Concentration Works owned the town and the many mining sites throughout the neighboring mountains. This 1875 map ...
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Through my Uncle's Panama Canal I'll Sail
The construction of the Panama Canal, its opening to traffic in early 1914, and the Panama Pacific International Exposition, held in San Francisco in 1915 to celebrate the completion of the canal, all inspired a wave of songwriting in the United States. The most notable of the compositions honoring the canal was “The Pathfinder of Panama,” written by the military march composer John Philip Sousa in 1915. This was also a time in which American popular sheet music publication was enjoying a golden age of sorts. Songs were published with ...
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Sunny California
During the Great Depression of the 1930s, agricultural workers fled the Dust Bowl conditions on the Great Plains in search of employment in the American West. Many of these people eventually found their way to the migrant work camps in central California that had been established, under President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal, by the Farm Security Administration (FSA). In this song, Mrs. Mary Sullivan tells how she left Texas, traveled across New Mexico and Arizona in search of work, and after surviving the catastrophic March 1938 Colton, California ...
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The Distant Countries: Notes on the Journey (California, Mauritius, Aden, Madagascar)
Louis Laurent Simonin (1830–86) was a French mining engineer, writer, and traveler, who in this book, published in 1867, chronicled his impressions of four widely different places: the U.S. state of California; the British-controlled island of Mauritius; Aden (Yemen); and Madagascar. Simonin explained that these places would be of interest to European readers and that all four had shown economic development and other progress in recent years. He was impressed by California’s diverse population, and remarked on the state’s achievements in communications and transportation. Turning to ...
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Map of California Shown as an Island
Joan Vinckeboons (1617-70) was a Dutch cartographer and engraver born into a family of artists of Flemish origin. He was in the employ of the Dutch West India Company and produced maps for over 30 years for use by Dutch mercantile and military shipping. He was a business partner of Joan Blaeu, one of the most important map and atlas publishers of the day. Vinckeboons drew a series of 200 manuscript maps that were used in the production of atlases, including Blaeu’s Atlas Major. This map from around 1650 ...
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Trees with Snow on Branches, "Half Dome, Apple Orchard, Yosemite," California by Ansel Adams
In 1941 the U.S. National Park Service commissioned noted photographer Ansel Adams (1902-84) to create a photographic mural for the Department of the Interior Building in Washington, DC. The theme was to be nature as exemplified and protected in the national parks and national monuments of the United States. The project was halted because of World War II and never resumed. The holdings of the Still Picture Branch of the U.S. National Archives include 226 photographs taken for this project, most of them signed and captioned by Adams ...
Between Weedpatch and Lamont, Kern County, California. Children Living in Camp... Rent $2.75 Plus Electricity
"Between Weedpatch and Lamont, Kern County, California. Children living in camp." This photograph and the accompanying description are by Dorothea Lange (1895-1965), one of the most important American photographers of the 20th century. After apprenticing in New York City, Lange moved to San Francisco and in 1919 established her own studio. During the 1920s and early 1930s, she worked as a portrait photographer. In 1932, wanting to see a world different from the society families she had been photographing, she began shooting San Francisco's labor unrest and urban unemployed ...
Edison, Kern County, California, Young Migratory Mother, Originally from Texas
"Young migratory mother, originally from Texas. On the day before the photograph was made she and her husband traveled 35 miles each way to pick peas. They worked 5 hours each and together earned $2.25. They have two young children... Live in auto camp." This photograph and the accompanying description are by Dorothea Lange (1895-1965), one of the most important American photographers of the 20th century. After apprenticing in New York City, Lange moved to San Francisco and in 1919 established her own studio. During the 1920s and early ...
Age 70, She Came from Near Greeley, Nebraska, with Sister Age 65, Nephew Age 30, and Brother Age 68
This photograph and the accompanying caption are by Dorothea Lange (1895-1965), one of the most important American photographers of the 20th century. After apprenticing in New York City, Lange moved to San Francisco and in 1919 established her own studio. During the 1920s and early 1930s, she worked as a portrait photographer. In 1932, wanting to see a world different from the society families she had been photographing, she began shooting San Francisco's labor unrest and urban unemployed. In 1935, she accepted a position as a staff photographer with ...
Hayward, California, Two Children of the Mochida Family who, with Their Parents, Are Awaiting Evacuation
In 1942, Executive Order 9066 ordered the removal of 110,000 civilians of Japanese descent, including 71,000 American citizens, from the western United States for placement in internment camps. The evacuees were suspected, without evidence, of being potential supporters of Japan, with which the United States was then at war. This photograph, taken by noted photographer Dorothea Lange (1895-1965) for the government agency known as the War Relocation Authority, shows one family waiting to be taken away. Lange’s notes on the photograph read: "Members of the Mochida family ...
Destitute Pea Pickers in California: Mother of Seven Children, Age Thirty-two, Nipomo, California. Migrant Mother
This photograph is one of a series taken by Dorothea Lange (1895-1965) as part of her work in California during the Great Depression. At the time, many migrants were fleeing the Dust Bowl of the Great Plains in search of work and a better life. Lange’s photos document the difficult conditions these migrants found when they reached California. Lange’s work was conducted for the Resettlement Administration in Washington and built upon earlier investigations she had done among farm laborers in Nipomo and in California’s Imperial Valley. Her ...
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