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Gospel Lectionary
The illumination of this early 11th century lectionary is a late example of the Ottonian tradition of book illumination. The manuscript features 292 golden majuscule initials, 30 initials in gold, and five decorated text pages, as well as a full-page initial and a miniature of Christ in Majesty. The 16-line introductory poem on folio 1 verso is written in gold rustic capitals on purple ground. On the opposite page is a depiction of Christ in Majesty: Christ making the sign of blessing sits enthroned within the mandorla, accompanied by the ...
Contributed by Bavarian State Library
Map of France’s Post Offices
Drawn by Alexis-Hubert Jaillot (circa 1632−1712) in 1690, the Carte particulière des postes de France (Particular map of the post offices of France) was preceded by the work of geographer Nicolas Sanson (1600–67), including his 1632 Carte géographique des Postes qui traversent la France (Geographical map of post offices throughout France). The evolution of the mapping of the postal network sheds light on various territorial choices stemming from political or economic requirements. This postal network was the first exchange system managed by the French monarchy within the boundaries ...
Sketch 2. French Concentration, 1914. Schlieffen Plan
This map is a simplified illustration of the plan devised by Alfred, Graf von Schlieffen (1833–1913), Chief of the German Imperial General Staff, for winning a quick German victory in what became World War I. As a military strategist, Schlieffen was principally concerned with Germany’s vulnerable geographic position. Situated between France and Russia, which were allied under a treaty concluded in 1894, Germany was certain to face a war on two fronts should trouble arise with either power. Schlieffen concluded that Germany should first fight France, the more ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Order of Battle on Western Front. 11 a.m., November 11, 1918
World War I ended with the entering into effect of the armistice at 11 a.m. on November 11, 1918. This map, drawn up at the headquarters of the General John J. Pershing, commander of the American Expeditionary Forces, shows the order of battle at the time the fighting stopped. Allied forces are arrayed in a wide arc stretching from the Swiss border to the North Sea, with the Belgians and British on the left, the French in the center and on the right, and the Americans occupying a central ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Town, Luxembourg
This photochrome print of the town of Luxembourg, capital of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is part of “Cityscape Views of Luxembourg” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). According to Baedeker’s Belgium and Holland including the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (1905), at around the time this photograph was taken the town had a population of 21,000. “The situation of the town is peculiar and picturesque. . . . The view of the town, with its variety of mountain and valley, gardens and rocks, groups of trees and huge viaducts ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Luxembourg, a Famous Fortress in the Duchy of the Same Name in the Netherlands
The city of Luxembourg, capital of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is strategically located on a plateau above two gorges formed by the Alzette and Petrusse rivers. Already in the 4th century, it was the site of a Roman fort. In 963, Siegfried, Count of Ardennes and founder of the state of Luxembourg, built a castle on the same location. The walled town grew up around the castle, and the fortifications were strengthened over the course of centuries. This map, by Mattheus Seuter (1678-1756), shows both the fortifications and, in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Lorraine and Saar Minefields
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Lorraine and Saar Minefields is Number 31 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The study focuses on coal and iron-ore production in the 2,500-square mile (6,475-square kilometer) region ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Luxemburg and Limburg
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Luxemburg and Limburg is Number 27 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The first part of the study covers the political history of and social and political conditions in the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress