46 results in English
The Freedom of the Seas
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. The Freedom of Seas is Number 148 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Freedom of the seas was a highly contentious issue during World War I, as the Allied and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
President George Washington
George Washington (1732‒99) was the first president of the United States, a founding father and national hero revered by both North and South during the American Civil War. He had limited formal education, but he learned surveying and served in the French and Indian War with the Virginia militia under General Edward Braddock of the British army. He rose to the rank of colonel, and was the logical choice to command the Continental Army in the American War of Independence. Washington wished to return to private life after the ...
Environs of Quebec City, American Blockade from December 8, 1775 to May 13, 1776
Environs de Québec, bloqué par les Américains du 8 décembre 1775 au 13 mai 1776 (Environs of Quebec City, American blockade from December 8, 1775 to May 13, 1776) was produced in 1777 by cartographer, author, and illustrator Georges-Louis Le Rouge (born 1712), royal geographer to King Louis XV. The map shows places and events related to the American siege of and attack upon Quebec City during the Revolutionary War. By this action the Continental Congress hoped to swing Quebec to the cause of American independence. The attack was led ...
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Map of the Terrain on the Left Bank of the James River Across from Jamestown, Virginia, Where a Battle Took Place on July 6, 1781, between the American Army led by the Marquis de La Fayette and the English Army under the Leadership of Lord Cornwallis
This pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map was drawn by Jean Nicolas Desandrouins (1729–92), an engineer with the French army of General Rochambeau during the American Revolution. It shows the layout of the Battle of Green Spring, in southeastern Virginia, on July 6, 1781. This battle came near the end of the war, and involved Continental Army troops under the Marquis de Lafayette and General Anthony Wayne and British troops under General Lord Cornwallis. The battle was a minor victory for the British and the last land battle in Virginia ...
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Map of Portsmouth, Virginia
This pen-and-ink manuscript map shows Portsmouth, Virginia, at the time of the American Revolution. Portsmouth served as a primary British post and naval base. On July 4, 1781, British general Charles Cornwallis (1738–1805) left Williamsburg, Virginia in order to cross the James River at Jamestown and reach Portsmouth. Once at Portsmouth, the British army loaded onto transports. Cornwallis and his men then sailed to Yorktown, where their defeat at the Siege of Yorktown would conclude the American Revolution. The map shows forts, bridges, country homes, marshes, a windmill, and ...
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Map of the Fortifications of Portsmouth, Virginia
This 1781 pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map shows the fortifications and houses of Portsmouth, Virginia, at the time of the American Revolution. Portsmouth served as a primary British post and naval base. On July 4, 1781, British general Charles Cornwallis (1738–1805) left Williamsburg, Virginia, in order to cross the James River and reach Portsmouth. Once at Portsmouth, the British army loaded onto transports. Cornwallis and his men then sailed to Yorktown, where the British defeat at the Siege of Yorktown would conclude the American Revolution. The map shows the ...
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Detailed Map of West Point on the York River, at the Confluence of the Pamunkey and Matapony Rivers
This 1781 pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map shows the region around West Point, Virginia, situated at the point where the Pamunkey and Matapony (present-day Mattaponi) Rivers join to form the York River. The map shows soundings and channels in the rivers, as well as ferries, roads, and vegetation. The villages of Bingham, Delaware, and Brackson are shown, along with Brackson’s Plantation, and the Meredy, Smith, Dodleys, and other plantations. The road to Williamsburg is visible in the lower left, running inland from the right bank of the York River ...
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Rochambeau’s Army, 1782. Map of the Williamsburg, Virginia Area, Where the French and American Armies Camped out in September 1781
This topographic pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map of the Williamsburg, Virginia, area was made in 1782 by Jean Nicolas Desandrouins, a French army engineer and cartographer, shortly after the October 1781 Battle of Yorktown. It shows the encampments and positions of the French and American forces in September 1781, on the eve of the battle. The map provides a detailed plan of Williamsburg and its environs, and shows the location of estates, towns, and other significant sites. It shows houses and public buildings in Williamsburg, plantations in the countryside, roads ...
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City, Port and Harbor of Baltimore, Maryland
Ville, port, et rade de Baltimore (City, port and harbor of Baltimore) is a manuscript map, in pen-and-ink and watercolor, that depicts the harbor and environs of Baltimore, Maryland, towards the end of the Revolutionary War. The map was created by Louis-Alexandre Berthier (1753–1815), a young French officer who accompanied the army of the Comte de Rochambeau to North America in 1780 and served on his general staff. Berthier later became a marshal in the French army and chief of staff to Napoleon. The map shows fortifications, troop encampments ...
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Partial Map of Boston Harbor to Show its Defenses
Plan d’une partie de la rade de Boston (Partial map of Boston Harbor) is a manuscript map, in pen-and-ink and watercolor, dating from 1778, the third year of the American Revolution. It depicts Boston Harbor from Castle William Island to Point Alderton. The map shows the position of the French fleet under Admiral Comte d’Estaing in Boston Harbor, where the French ships had gone for repairs after an inconclusive engagement off the coast of Rhode Island with the British fleet under Admiral John Byron. It also highlights French ...
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Map of Portsmouth Harbor Drawn by Sight
This pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map made by engineers of the French Army shows the city and harbor of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, as they appeared in the early 1780s. The map shows part of the fleet of Admiral Charles Louis de Ternay, which brought General Rochambeau and 6,000 troops from France to fight with the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War in the United States. The fleet reached Portsmouth on July 10, 1780. The map centers on the Piscataqua River that flows through Portsmouth to the Atlantic Ocean. It ...
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Portsmouth, New Hampshire
This manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor made by engineers of the French Army shows the city and harbor of Portsmouth, New Hampshire as they appeared in the early 1780s. The map is oriented with north to the right. Relief is represented by hachures and shading. The map indicates three ships from the French fleet of Admiral Charles Louis de Ternay, the Pluton, Auguste, and Bourgogne, anchored to the right of Newcastle Island. The map centers on the Piscataqua River that flows through Portsmouth to the Atlantic Ocean. It charts ...
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Map of Amboy. Views of the Charleston and Fort Sullivan Harbors
The map presented here shows the city and harbor of Charleston, South Carolina, at the time of the first British siege of Charleston and attack on Fort Sullivan in June 1776. This was the earliest British attempt to capture Charleston during the Revolutionary War, by which General Henry Clinton and Admiral Sir Peter Parker sought to put down the rebellion in the southern colonies. Above the map of Charleston is a view of Fort Sullivan, where William Moultrie, a colonel in the state militia of South Carolina, repulsed a British ...
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Position of the Combined Army at Philipsburg from July 6 to August 19
This pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map is attributed to cartographer Louis-Alexandre Berthier (1753‒1815), who served with the Marquis de Lafayette (1757–1834) and the Comte de Rochambeau during the American Revolution and who later was one of Napoleon’s marshals. Berthier stayed in America from September 30, 1780 until December 24, 1782 and accompanied the combined French-American army on its march from New England to Yorktown, Virginia and its return march to Boston. This map depicts the Philipsburg, New York camp that the two armies occupied from July 6 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Campaign of 1776
This map from around 1780 shows the fighting in New York and New Jersey in 1776, the first full year of the American Revolutionary War. The inset in the upper left shows the campaign in and around Philadelphia in the following year. The main map shows the site of the British landings on Staten Island in preparation for the New York campaign; troop movements and the sites of battles on Long Island, in Westchester County, and on Manhattan Island; and towns and roads in southeastern New York and eastern New ...
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Attack on the Continental Army on Long Island on August 27, 1776. Drawing of New York Island and Adjacent Areas
Attaque de l'armée des provinciaux dans Long Island du 27. aoust 1776 (Attack on the Continental Army on Long Island on August 27, 1776) shows the American and British positions in the Battle of Long Island (the Battle of Brooklyn Heights) on August 27, 1776. The map is hand-colored and is watermarked. Relief is shown by hachures. This was the first major battle in the Revolutionary War after the issuing of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776, as well as the largest engagement of the entire war ...
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Map of New York and Surrounding Islands
This hand-drawn map in pen-and-ink and watercolor, probably made in 1781, depicts New York City and its surrounding islands. The map covers the area from Blackwell’s Island in the northeast to Red Hook (in present-day Brooklyn) in the south, and includes a street plan of southern Manhattan. The map includes Fort George, towns such as Bedford on western Long Island, roads, ferries, redoubts, some vegetation, and relief. Islands include Bucking Island, Bedloes or Kennedy Island, and “the Governors Island.” Relief is shown by hachures. Soundings indicate water depth. The ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of New York and its Environs
This manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor, most likely made by a French military cartographer in 1781, shows New York and its environs near the conclusion of the American Revolution. The map extends from Yonkers, New York in the north to Staten Island in the south and from New Rochelle, New York in the east to Totowa, New Jersey in the west. The map identifies roads, fortifications, redoubts, batteries, vegetation, and relief. A legend on the right side of the map is keyed to earthworks, fortifications, and batteries on Manhattan ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Northern Part of New York Island
This manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor was probably created in 1781 by a French military cartographer engaged in reconnaissance work during the final stages of the Revolutionary War in the United States. The map is oriented with north to the right. The British captured New York in September 1776. In the summer of 1781, General George Washington, commander of the Continental Army, considered an attack on New York, but he and the Comte de Rochambeau instead feigned preparations for an attack on the city while stealthily moving their troops ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Reconnaissance, July 1781
This manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor was probably created in 1781 by a French military cartographer engaged in reconnaissance work during the final stages of the American Revolutionary War. The map is oriented with north to the right. The British captured New York in September 1776. In the summer of 1781, General George Washington, commander of the Continental Army, considered an attack on New York, but he and the Comte de Rochambeau instead feigned preparations for an attack on the city while stealthily moving their troops to Yorktown, Virginia ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Reconnaissance, July 1781
This manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor was probably created in 1781 by a French military cartographer engaged in reconnaissance work during the final stages of the American Revolutionary War. The map is oriented with north to the right. The British captured New York in September 1776. In the summer of 1781, General George Washington, commander of the Continental Army, considered an attack on New York, but he and the Comte de Rochambeau instead feigned preparations for an attack on the city while stealthily moving their troops to Yorktown, Virginia ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Environs of New York, Long Island, Etcetera
This manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor was probably created in 1781 by a French military cartographer. The map is oriented with north to the right. The British captured New York in September 1776. In the summer of 1781, General George Washington, commander of the Continental Army, considered an attack on New York, but he and the Comte de Rochambeau instead feigned preparations for an attack on the city while stealthily moving their troops to Yorktown, Virginia. There, the British under General Charles Cornwallis (1738–1805) were forced to surrender ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Reconnaissance of the Fortifications on the Northern Part of New York Island for Which Principal Points Were Geometrically Identified on July 22 and 23
This manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor was created in July 1781 by a French military cartographer engaged in reconnaissance work during the final stages of the American Revolutionary War. The map is oriented with north to the right. The British captured New York in September 1776. In the summer of 1781, General George Washington, commander of the Continental Army, considered an attack on New York, but he and the Comte de Rochambeau instead feigned preparations for an attack on the city while stealthily moving their troops to Yorktown, Virginia ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Position of the American and French Armies in Kings Ferry, Peak's Hill, Crompond and Hunts Tavern from September 17 to October 20, 1782
This pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map of 1782 is attributed to cartographer Louis-Alexandre Berthier (1753‒1815), who served with the Marquis de Lafayette (1757–1834) and the Comte de Rochambeau during the American Revolution and who later was one of Napoleon’s marshals. Berthier stayed in America from September 30, 1780 until December 24, 1782 and accompanied the combined French-American army on its march from New England to Yorktown, Virginia and its return march to Boston. The map depicts the positions of the French and American armies in New York ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
An Accurate Map of North and South Carolina, with Their Indian Frontier
This hand-colored map of the Carolinas dating from 1775 is known as the “Mouzon map.” Henry Mouzon (circa 1741–circa 1807), mapmaker and civil engineer of Saint Stephen’s Parish, was appointed by Governor Lord Charles Greville Montague to survey South Carolina in 1771. Mouzon’s map is more detailed and accurate than any previous map of the Carolinas. Extending from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the Appalachian Mountains, the map was based on James Cook’s 1773 map of South Carolina and John Collet’s 1770 map of North ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of Rhode Island and the Position of the French Army in Newport
Plan de Rhodes-Island, et position de l'armée françoise a Newport (Map of Rhode Island and the position of the French Army in Newport) is a manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor dating from 1780. The map is oriented with north to the right. It shows the plan of defense for Newport, Rhode Island, and its environs during the Revolutionary War. It highlights General Rochambeau’s main troop encampments around Newport as well as the position of the fleet of Admiral Charles Louis de Ternay at the entrance to Newport ...
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Map of the City, Port, and Harbor of Newport, with Part of Rhode Island, Occupied by the French Army under the Command of Monsieur Count de Rochambeau and the French Squadron Commanded by Monsieur le Chevalier Destouches
Plan de la ville, port, et rade de Newport, avec une partie de Rhode-Island occupée par l'armée française aux ordres de Mr. Le comte de Rochambeau, et de l'escadre française commandée par Mr. le Chevalier Destouches (Map of the city, port, and harbor of Newport, with part of Rhode Island, occupied by the French army under the command of Monsieur le comte de Rochambeau and the French squadron commanded by Monsieur le Chevalier Destouches) is a pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map dating from around 1780. The map is ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the City, Port, and Harbor of Newport and Rhode Island. Landing in 1780
Plan de la ville, du port, et de la rade de New-port et Rhode Island. Debarquement en 1780 (Map of the city, port, and harbor of Newport and Rhode Island. Landing in 1780) is a manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor. The map is oriented with north to the right. This was a preliminary draft for other French maps of Newport, Rhode Island. The map shows the defense plan for Newport and its environs during the Revolutionary War. It highlights General Rochambeau’s main troop encampments around the city as ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the Position of the French Army around Newport and the Squadron Moored in the Harbor of this City
Plan de la position de l'armée françoise autour de Newport et du mouillage de l'escadre dans la rade de cette ville (Map of the position of the French Army around Newport and the squadron moored in the harbor of this city) is a manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor of Newport, Rhode Island, during the Revolutionary War. The map is oriented with north to the upper left. It includes very detailed information on streets and buildings in Newport. It shows the defense plan for the city and its ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Four Positions of the French Fleet and the Positions of the English Fleet
This pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map dates from 1780. It shows the positions and movements of French and English ships-of-war during an unnamed naval battle off the coast of Rhode Island during the Revolutionary War. The French vessels are listed by name and associated number on the map; the English vessels are only noted by a generic x. The French ships were part of the fleet commanded by Admiral Charles Louis de Ternay that conveyed the French expeditionary army led by General Rochambeau to North America. Ternay’s fleet departed ...
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March of the French Army from Providence to the North (Hudson) River
Marche de l'armée française de Providence à la Rivière du Nord (March of the French Army from Providence to the North [Hudson] River) is a manuscript map in black and red pen-and-ink and watercolor, dating from 1781. The map is accompanied by a manuscript text on the itinerary of the march (not shown here). The two documents contain the plan for the movement of French Army troops from Providence, Rhode Island, to the Hudson River. Roads, towns, villages, rivers, creeks, ferry crossings, and troop symbols are listed prominently. Relief ...
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Map of York, Virginia Showing the Attacks by the French and American Armies in October 1781
This pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map shows the movements of the French and American armies in the vicinity of York, Virginia, in October 1781, during the Battle of Yorktown. The map is by Querenet de la Combe, a cartographer and lieutenant colonel of engineers with the army of the French commander, General Rochambeau. York (more commonly known as Yorktown after the Revolutionary War) was founded in 1691 and became a major port for the export of tobacco. The map shows British defenses at Yorktown, as well as the parallel formations ...
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Map of the Fortifications of Yorktown, Virginia
This pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map shows an unfinished plan for the Siege of Yorktown in September‒October 1781. York (more commonly known as Yorktown after the Revolutionary War) was founded in 1691 and became a major port for the export of tobacco. The map shows the British defenses, advance redoubts, and roads leading into the town. It is oriented with north to the upper left. Relief is shown by hachures, and scale is approximately 1:5,000. The map has imperfections, including trimming on the upper and right edges ...
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Notes on the Environs of York
This pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map of 1781 shows the area from Williamsburg to Yorktown, between the James and York Rivers, at the time of the Battle of Yorktown, which took place in September‒October of that year. Williamsburg was founded in 1632, and it was the capital of colonial Virginia from 1699 until 1780. York (more commonly known as Yorktown after the Revolutionary War) was founded in 1691 and became a major port for the export of tobacco. The map shows roads, houses, hospitals, and a church, and it ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Notes on the Environs of York. Map Provided by Local Land Surveyors
This pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map is a draft containing information provided by local land surveyors that was used by a French military cartographer to create a finished map. It shows the area from Williamsburg to Yorktown, Virginia, between the James and York Rivers, where the Battle of Yorktown was fought in September‒October 1781. Williamsburg was founded in 1632, and was the capital of colonial Virginia from 1699 until 1780. York (more commonly known as Yorktown after the Revolutionary War) was founded in 1691 and became a major port ...
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Coastline from Yorktown to Boston. Advances by the Army
Côte de York-town à Boston (Coastline from Yorktown to Boston) is a manuscript map, in pen-and-ink and watercolor, created in 1782, during the American Revolutionary War. The map is oriented with north toward the upper right. It shows the route marched by the army of the Comte de Rochambeau from Providence, Rhode Island, to Yorktown, Virginia, as well as the return route and troop encampments on the way to Boston. The initial march south, from June 10 to September 30, 1781, is shown by the yellow line from Providence to ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Sketch of the Engagement at Trenton, Given on the 26th of December 1776
This hand-colored map was submitted by Lieutenant Andreas Wiederholdt (circa 1752–circa 1805) as a part of his testimony at the Hessian Court of Inquiry on the Battle of Trenton, held in Philadelphia in April and May 1778. The map is an invaluable source of information about the battle, which took place on December 26, 1776. General George Washington and the Continental Army won a significant victory immediately after Washington’s famous crossing of the Delaware River. The Hessians were German auxiliaries of the British in the American Revolutionary War ...
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Various Encampments of the Army from Yorktown to Boston
Differents camps de l’armée de York-town à Boston (Various encampments of the army from Yorktown to Boston) is a manuscript map, in pen-and-ink and watercolor. It was created in 1787 by French cartographer François Soulés (1748–1809), based on an earlier version from 1782. The map is oriented with north toward the upper right. It shows the route marched during the American Revolutionary War by the army of the Comte de Rochambeau from Providence, Rhode Island, to Yorktown, Virginia, as well as the return route and troop encampments. The ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
American Campaign, 1782
Amérique, Campagne 1782 (American campaign, 1782) is a compendium of manuscript maps, in pen-and-ink and watercolor, created in 1782, at the end of the Revolutionary War. The maps show the location of the camps of the army of the Comte de Rochambeau, during its march north from Williamsburg, Virginia, to Boston between July and December, 1782. The soldiers marched in four divisions, each a day’s march apart. Camps thus shown were occupied sequentially for four or more nights. Yellow rectangles on the map signify French troops; green rectangles signify ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Bloody Massacre Perpetrated in King Street, Boston, on March 5th 1770 by a Party of the 29th Regiment
In Boston in the late 1760s, the stirrings of what became the American Revolution began as residents grew angry about the heavy taxation to which they were subjected. With the Townshend Acts of 1767, the British placed taxes on imported goods, including glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea. To enforce the acts, they imposed a heavy military presence on the Massachusetts colonists that exacerbated tensions between the local populace and representatives of the crown. On March 5, 1770, British sentries guarding the Boston Customs House were surrounded by jeering Bostonians ...
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Treaty of Paris
This treaty, sent to Congress by the American negotiators John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, and John Jay, formally ended the Revolutionary War. It was one of the most advantageous treaties ever negotiated for the United States. Two crucial provisions were British recognition of U.S. independence and the delineation of boundaries that would allow for American expansion westward to the Mississippi River. Two duplicate originals of the treaty exist in the American Original file of the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration. They are most easily distinguished from each other ...
Illustrated Family Record (Fraktur) Found in Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty-Land-Warrant Application File W3079, for Philip Frey, Pennsylvania
During the American Revolution, the Continental Congress passed laws promising pensions or grants of government-owned land to officers and soldiers who served in the war, as well as to the survivors of those killed. This illustrated family record in the German Fraktur script, hand-colored with large birds, is a birth and baptismal document submitted as part of the application for a pension by Anna Margaretha Kolb, wife of Revolutionary War veteran Philip Frey. From Pennsylvania, Frey served between April 1776 and January 1778. He fought in the battles at Long ...