45 results in English
Map Showing the Different Routes Surveyed for the Union Pacific Rail Road Between the Missouri River and the Platte Valley
President Abraham Lincoln signed the Pacific Railroad Act into law on July 1, 1862. The act gave two companies, the Union Pacific Railroad and the Central Pacific Railroad, responsibility for completing the transcontinental railroad. The Union Pacific was to lay track westward from a point near Omaha, Nebraska toward Ogden, Utah; the Central Pacific was to build eastward from Sacramento, California. The Union Pacific began construction on December 2, 1863. This map, submitted to Secretary of Interior James Harlan on September 18, 1865, by Lieutenant Colonel J.H. Simpson of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Topographical Map of the Road from Missouri to Oregon, Commencing at the Mouth of the Kansas in the Missouri River and Ending at the Mouth of the Walla-Wallah in the Columbia
This map, produced in 1846 in seven sections, was compiled by order of the U.S. Senate from the field notes and journal of Captain John C. Frémont (1813−90) and associated sketches and notes of his assistant, Charles Preuss (1803−54). It traces the route to the Pacific paralleling the large river systems traversing the North American continent. Frémont was an experienced frontiersman who led four expeditions into the western regions of the United States. Popularly known in his day as “The Pathfinder,” Frémont worked with the frontiersman Kit ...
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Topographical Sketch of the Gold & Quicksilver District of California
Published in July 1848 after the first gold strikes at Sutter’s Mill on the American River in northern California, this map shows the location of key gold and quicksilver (mercury, in the form of cinnabar) deposits in the territory of California. Soon after the find, prospectors began streaming into California in enormous numbers, and demand was high for geographic knowledge of the region, especially as it related to previous strikes. The map displays the basic topography of California by showing mountains, rivers, bays, and mountain passes, but its main ...
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Plan of Battle at Uzynagash on the 19th, 20th and 21st of October, 1860
This topographic map of the battle plan used by the Russians fighting the Kokandians at Uzynagash (present-day Uzun-Agach, Kazakhstan) on October 19–21, 1860, is from the historical part of the Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Plan of Siege and Assault on the Fortresses of Ak-Mechet from July 5–28, 1853
This drawing shows a topical map of the battle plan used by the Russians at Ak-Mechet (present-day Kzyl-Orda, Kazakhstan), on the Syr Darya River, drawn and illustrated by Ranked Topographer Province Secretary Petrov. It is from the historical part of the Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Assault and Siege of the Fortified City of Chimkent from September 19–25, 1864
This topographic map shows the Russian battle plan for the siege of Chimkent (also seen as Shymkent, in present-day southern Kazakhstan) in September 1864, when Russian forces under General Cherniaev captured the city by defeating the forces of the Kokand khanate. The map is from the historical part of the Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Blockade and Siege of the Fortified City of Tashkent from May 9 to June 15, 1865
This topographic map shows the battle plan used by Russian forces in the blockade and siege of the ancient city of Tashkent in May-June 1865. The Russians under the command of General Cherniaev captured the city by overcoming the forces of the Kokand khanate commanded by ʻAlimqul, who died in the battle. The map is from the historical part of the Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Assault and Siege of the Fortified City, Ura Tiube, from September 27 to October 2, 1866
This topographic map was prepared for use by the Russian forces commanded by General Kryzhanovskii when they overcame Ura Tyube (also called Istaravshan, in the northwest of present-day Tajikistan) in the fall of 1866. The map is from the historical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Assault and Siege of the Fortress of Dzhizak from October 12-18, 1866
This topographical map shows the battle plan for the Russian assault on the fortress of Dzhizak (also seen as Jizzakh and Jizzax, in present-day eastern Uzbekistan) in October 1866. The old center of the city was largely destroyed in the ensuing battle. The map is from the historical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Siege of Samarkand Summit on May 1, 1868
This topographical map shows the Russian siege of Samarkand (in present-day Uzbekistan), which fell to Russia on May 1, 1868. This map is from the historical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Defense of the Samarkand Citadel from June 1-8, 1868
Samarkand (in present-day Uzbekistan) fell to Russian forces on May 1, 1868.  A month later, the city rose against the Russian garrison and, with great numbers of Samarkandians, other Bukharans, and Kazakhs, overwhelmed the citadel. General K.P. von Kaufman quickly marched his army to relieve the garrison at Samarkand and overcame the siege on June 8. The topographical map presented here shows the citadel at Samarkand and the area around it at the time of the local uprising against the Russian forces. The map is from the historical part ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Battle Plan of Zyrabulak of June 2, 1868
In May 1868, the emir of Bukhara ignored a peace offer from Russia and with his army attacked Russian forces at Zerabulak (also seen as Zyrabulak), northwest of Samarkand (in present-day Uzbekistan). Despite outnumbering the Russians almost two to one, the emir’s forces suffered a crushing defeat. Shown here is the topographical map of the Russian battle plan for Zerabulak. The map is from the historical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Assault of the Kitab Fortress August 13-14, 1870
Kitab was a mountainous province of Bukhara (in present-day Uzbekistan) that in 1868 aided in a rebellion against Russian rule in the region. General A.K. Abramov led an expedition against Kitab in August 1870. This topographical map shows battle plans of the Russian assault on the fortress at Kitab. After the Russians retook Kitab, the emir of Bukhara resumed his government of the area and acknowledged Russian supremacy. The map is from the historical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Battle over Chin-cha-go-zi and Siege of the City. June 18, 1871
This topographical map shows battle plans for the Russian assault on Chin-cha-go-zi, located in the northwestern part of Xinjiang province, China. The battle was part of the Russian invasion of the Ili River region. During the Dungan Revolt of 1864, this region had come under the control of the Muslim Dungans and Taranchis, who had overthrown the Qing authority and established the Taranchi Sultanate. The Russians captured the town of Chin-cha-go-zi with a quick artillery offensive on June 18, 1871, and a few days later entered Ghulja, capital of the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Battle over Suidun. June 19, 1871
This topographical map shows battle plans for the Russian assault on the citadel at Suidun (present-day Shuiding), located in the northwestern part of Xinjiang province, China. The capture of Suidun took place on June 19, 1871, and was part of the Russian invasion of the Ili River region. During the Dungan Revolt of 1864, this region had come under the control of the Muslim Dungans and Tarachis, who had overthrown the Qing authority and established the Taranchi Sultanate. Following their victories at Chin-cha-go-zi and Suidun, the Russians temporarily assumed control ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Central Asia. Edited According to the Latest Sources
This map covers Central Asia and adjoining regions, including eastern Persia and the lands stretching from east of the Caspian Sea to Mongolia and Tibet. It was published in 1880 in Vienna, Leipzig, and Pest (Hungary), based on the research of Josef (also seen as Joseph) Chavanne (1846−1902), an Austrian geographer, cartographer, and explorer. The map shows cities and towns, which are classified according to three different population sizes (fewer than 20,000, 20,000−50,000, and more than 50,000 inhabitants), as well as forts and fortified ...
Topographical, Historical, and Statistical Map of the City of San Salvador de Bayamo
Rafael Rodríguez Rodríguez was a Spanish soldier, surveyor, and geographer whose principal cartographic works were published between 1840 and 1870. He compiled and created the first atlas of Cuba, which was published under the title Atlas Cubano (The Cuban atlas) in 1841. An assistant to the artillery corps, Rodríguez achieved the rank of captain of artillery. He carried out military topographical work on the island, and in 1844 became a member of the government statistical commission. Presented here is one of 16 maps that make up the Atlas Cubano, a ...
General Map of the Republic of Nicaragua, 1858
Maximilian von Sonnenstern was a German civil engineer who was employed for many years by the government of Nicaragua and carried out detailed surveys of the country. Sonnenstern’s Mapa general de la republica Nicaragua (General map of the Republic of Nicaragua) is the first official map of Nicaragua, created by order of the Nicaraguan government. The map contains four cross sections, showing the heights of mountains and volcanoes. Three inset maps depict the towns of León, Granada, and Viejo León (the old city of León that was abandoned by ...
General Map of the Republic of El Salvador, 1858
Maximilian von Sonnenstern was a German civil engineer who was employed for many years by the government of Nicaragua and carried out detailed surveys of the country. Sonnenstern also produced maps of other Central American countries. His Mapa general de la republica de Salvador (General map of the Republic of El Salvador), created in 1858 and published in 1859, was commissioned by Rafael Campo (1813‒90), president of El Salvador in 1856‒58. The map contains nine cross sections, showing the heights of mountains and volcanoes. An inset map ...
Map of Central America, 1856
This 1856 map of Central America was created by the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, based on information provided by the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee, and edited and printed by the New York mapmaker and publisher Adolphus Ranney (1824‒74). It shows the extreme southern part of Mexico and the six countries of Central America: Guatemala, Honduras, San Salvador (El Salvador), Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and the Mosquito Coast (later British Honduras, today Belize). Panama is still part of Colombia, which at this time is called New Granada ...
Map of Lebanon According to Reconnaissance Information Collected by the Topographical Group from the Syria Expedition of 1860-1861
This map of Lebanon showing part of Syria with Damascus was made by French military cartographers in 1862. It is based on information gathered by the topographic unit in the expeditionary corps sent by France to Lebanon in 1860‒61. Lebanon was at that time part of the Ottoman Empire and the central region known as Mount Lebanon was mainly populated by Christians and Druzes. A Maronite peasant uprising in 1858 led to fighting between the two groups, which culminated in the massacre in 1860 by the Druze of about ...
Lake Titicaca
This map of Lake Titicaca was made by Rafael E. Baluarte, cartographer of the Geographical Society of Lima, for a presentation to the society in December 1891 of a monographic study of the lake by Dr. Ignacio La Puente. It is based on surveys and explorations of the lake and its environs by the British diplomat and explorer Joseph Barclay Pentland (1797–1873), the Italian-Peruvian geographer and naturalist Antonio Raimondi (1826–90), the Swiss-born naturalist Louis Agassiz (1807–73), and others. The map shows ancient ruins, mines, the sites of ...
Chile, 1816
This hand-colored map of 1816 shows most of Chile, from its northern border to approximately 44° South. Relief is shown by hachures. An inset map depicts Isola de Tierra, the easternmost of the Juan Fernández Islands, the archipelago in the Pacific Ocean that appears at the far western edge of the map. The map has two distance scales, Spanish geographical miles and British statute miles. Yellow is used to highlight the borders of the Viceroyalty of La Plata, an administrative unit of the Spanish Empire established in 1776 out of ...
Environs of Quebec City, American Blockade from December 8, 1775 to May 13, 1776
Environs de Québec, bloqué par les Américains du 8 décembre 1775 au 13 mai 1776 (Environs of Quebec City, American blockade from December 8, 1775 to May 13, 1776) was produced in 1777 by cartographer, author, and illustrator Georges-Louis Le Rouge (born 1712), royal geographer to King Louis XV. The map shows places and events related to the American siege of and attack upon Quebec City during the Revolutionary War. By this action the Continental Congress hoped to swing Quebec to the cause of American independence. The attack was led ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of Bays, Harbors, and the Port of Placentia by the Island of Newfoundland
This map, Carte des bayes, rades et port de Plaisance dans l'Isle de Terre-Neuve (Map of bays, harbors, and the port of Placentia by the island of Newfoundland), was created by the French cartographer Jacques Nicolas Bellin (1703‒72) in 1755, based in part upon earlier geographic notations compiled by Pierre-François-Xavier de Charlevoix (1682−1761), a French Jesuit priest, historian, and explorer. The map shows the Avalon Peninsula in Newfoundland with the harbors of Placentia and Argentia. It also highlights a battery on Signal Hill above Placentia Road, as ...
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Rochambeau’s Army, 1782. Map of the Williamsburg, Virginia Area, Where the French and American Armies Camped out in September 1781
This topographic pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map of the Williamsburg, Virginia, area was made in 1782 by Jean Nicolas Desandrouins, a French army engineer and cartographer, shortly after the October 1781 Battle of Yorktown. It shows the encampments and positions of the French and American forces in September 1781, on the eve of the battle. The map provides a detailed plan of Williamsburg and its environs, and shows the location of estates, towns, and other significant sites. It shows houses and public buildings in Williamsburg, plantations in the countryside, roads ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of Amboy. Views of the Charleston and Fort Sullivan Harbors
The map presented here shows the city and harbor of Charleston, South Carolina, at the time of the first British siege of Charleston and attack on Fort Sullivan in June 1776. This was the earliest British attempt to capture Charleston during the Revolutionary War, by which General Henry Clinton and Admiral Sir Peter Parker sought to put down the rebellion in the southern colonies. Above the map of Charleston is a view of Fort Sullivan, where William Moultrie, a colonel in the state militia of South Carolina, repulsed a British ...
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Plan of New York and its Environs
This map, Plan de New-York et des environs (Plan of New York and its environs) was published in Paris in 1777. It was based upon initial surveys by engineer John Montrésor in 1775, and further cartographic work by Georges-Louis Le Rouge in 1777. North is oriented to the upper right. The map shows Lower Manhattan and the early site of New Amsterdam, which served as the Dutch and later the British seat of power in colonial New York. It covers the southern tip of Manhattan, from Greenwich (Village) on the ...
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Map of New York and Surrounding Islands
This hand-drawn map in pen-and-ink and watercolor, probably made in 1781, depicts New York City and its surrounding islands. The map covers the area from Blackwell’s Island in the northeast to Red Hook (in present-day Brooklyn) in the south, and includes a street plan of southern Manhattan. The map includes Fort George, towns such as Bedford on western Long Island, roads, ferries, redoubts, some vegetation, and relief. Islands include Bucking Island, Bedloes or Kennedy Island, and “the Governors Island.” Relief is shown by hachures. Soundings indicate water depth. The ...
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Map of New York and its Environs
This manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor, most likely made by a French military cartographer in 1781, shows New York and its environs near the conclusion of the American Revolution. The map extends from Yonkers, New York in the north to Staten Island in the south and from New Rochelle, New York in the east to Totowa, New Jersey in the west. The map identifies roads, fortifications, redoubts, batteries, vegetation, and relief. A legend on the right side of the map is keyed to earthworks, fortifications, and batteries on Manhattan ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Northern Part of New York Island
This manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor was probably created in 1781 by a French military cartographer engaged in reconnaissance work during the final stages of the Revolutionary War in the United States. The map is oriented with north to the right. The British captured New York in September 1776. In the summer of 1781, General George Washington, commander of the Continental Army, considered an attack on New York, but he and the Comte de Rochambeau instead feigned preparations for an attack on the city while stealthily moving their troops ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Reconnaissance, July 1781
This manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor was probably created in 1781 by a French military cartographer engaged in reconnaissance work during the final stages of the American Revolutionary War. The map is oriented with north to the right. The British captured New York in September 1776. In the summer of 1781, General George Washington, commander of the Continental Army, considered an attack on New York, but he and the Comte de Rochambeau instead feigned preparations for an attack on the city while stealthily moving their troops to Yorktown, Virginia ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Reconnaissance, July 1781
This manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor was probably created in 1781 by a French military cartographer engaged in reconnaissance work during the final stages of the American Revolutionary War. The map is oriented with north to the right. The British captured New York in September 1776. In the summer of 1781, General George Washington, commander of the Continental Army, considered an attack on New York, but he and the Comte de Rochambeau instead feigned preparations for an attack on the city while stealthily moving their troops to Yorktown, Virginia ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Reconnaissance of the Fortifications on the Northern Part of New York Island for Which Principal Points Were Geometrically Identified on July 22 and 23
This manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor was created in July 1781 by a French military cartographer engaged in reconnaissance work during the final stages of the American Revolutionary War. The map is oriented with north to the right. The British captured New York in September 1776. In the summer of 1781, General George Washington, commander of the Continental Army, considered an attack on New York, but he and the Comte de Rochambeau instead feigned preparations for an attack on the city while stealthily moving their troops to Yorktown, Virginia ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Position of the American and French Armies in Kings Ferry, Peak's Hill, Crompond and Hunts Tavern from September 17 to October 20, 1782
This pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map of 1782 is attributed to cartographer Louis-Alexandre Berthier (1753‒1815), who served with the Marquis de Lafayette (1757–1834) and the Comte de Rochambeau during the American Revolution and who later was one of Napoleon’s marshals. Berthier stayed in America from September 30, 1780 until December 24, 1782 and accompanied the combined French-American army on its march from New England to Yorktown, Virginia and its return march to Boston. The map depicts the positions of the French and American armies in New York ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of Rhode Island and the Position of the French Army in Newport
Plan de Rhodes-Island, et position de l'armée françoise a Newport (Map of Rhode Island and the position of the French Army in Newport) is a manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor dating from 1780. The map is oriented with north to the right. It shows the plan of defense for Newport, Rhode Island, and its environs during the Revolutionary War. It highlights General Rochambeau’s main troop encampments around Newport as well as the position of the fleet of Admiral Charles Louis de Ternay at the entrance to Newport ...
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Map of the City, Port, and Harbor of Newport, with Part of Rhode Island, Occupied by the French Army under the Command of Monsieur Count de Rochambeau and the French Squadron Commanded by Monsieur le Chevalier Destouches
Plan de la ville, port, et rade de Newport, avec une partie de Rhode-Island occupée par l'armée française aux ordres de Mr. Le comte de Rochambeau, et de l'escadre française commandée par Mr. le Chevalier Destouches (Map of the city, port, and harbor of Newport, with part of Rhode Island, occupied by the French army under the command of Monsieur le comte de Rochambeau and the French squadron commanded by Monsieur le Chevalier Destouches) is a pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map dating from around 1780. The map is ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the City, Port, and Harbor of Newport and Rhode Island. Landing in 1780
Plan de la ville, du port, et de la rade de New-port et Rhode Island. Debarquement en 1780 (Map of the city, port, and harbor of Newport and Rhode Island. Landing in 1780) is a manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor. The map is oriented with north to the right. This was a preliminary draft for other French maps of Newport, Rhode Island. The map shows the defense plan for Newport and its environs during the Revolutionary War. It highlights General Rochambeau’s main troop encampments around the city as ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
March of the French Army from Providence to the North (Hudson) River
Marche de l'armée française de Providence à la Rivière du Nord (March of the French Army from Providence to the North [Hudson] River) is a manuscript map in black and red pen-and-ink and watercolor, dating from 1781. The map is accompanied by a manuscript text on the itinerary of the march (not shown here). The two documents contain the plan for the movement of French Army troops from Providence, Rhode Island, to the Hudson River. Roads, towns, villages, rivers, creeks, ferry crossings, and troop symbols are listed prominently. Relief ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of Plymouth Township and Part of Baradères
This manuscript pen-and-ink and watercolor map shows Plymouth Township in the southwest of the French colony of Saint-Domingue (present-day Haiti). The map is oriented with north to the bottom. Relief is shown by hachures. The map shows the eastern limits of Baradères in 1781 and the revised limits of 1790, as well as property tracts with the names of their owners. Located on the western part of the island of Hispaniola, Saint-Domingue was one of France’s most valuable colonies, with an economy based almost entirely on sugarcane plantations worked ...
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The Province of New Jersey, Divided into East and West, Commonly Called the Jerseys
William Faden, a noted English publisher who specialized in maps and prints, published The Province of New Jersey, Divided into East and West, Commonly Called the Jerseys in 1777. The map is often considered a revolutionary map, both for its detailed depiction of topography in the northern part of the state and its indication of the boundary lines made in 1743 demarcating “West Jersey” and “East Jersey.” The hand-colored map features an extraordinary number of city and town names throughout the colony. County boundaries, rivers, and roads are indicated, and ...
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Tenochtitlán, 1521
This topographical map of Mexico City and its surroundings dates from around 1550, some three decades after the conquest of the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlán by Hernán Cortés in 1521. Tenochtitlán was founded in the 14th century on an island in the salt lake of Texcoco. Upon occupying the city, the Spanish pulled down its central parts and replaced the Aztec temples with buildings constructed in the Spanish style, but they left the street layout virtually intact. The map shows the new buildings. The cathedral (Iglesia Major) is in the ...