69 results in English
Havana on the Island of Cuba
Joan Vinckeboons (1617–70) was a Dutch cartographer and engraver born into a family of artists of Flemish origin. He was employed by the Dutch West India Company and for more than 30 years produced maps for use by Dutch mercantile and military shipping. He was a business partner of Joan Blaeu, one of the most important map and atlas publishers of the day. Vinckeboons drew a series of 200 manuscript maps that were used in the production of atlases, including Blaeu’s Atlas Maior. This pen-and-ink and watercolor map ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Brochure for White Star Line’s Two Ships “Olympic” and “Titanic”
This Danish-language brochure, published in Copenhagen in 1911 or 1912, advertises two ships of the British-owned White Star Line, the Olympic and Titanic. Included are facts about the line and its fleet; information about tickets, timetables, and classes of service; and illustrations of the dining rooms, libraries, cabins, and decks. The brochure lists amenities available to second- and third-class passengers and shows the menus for the morning, midday, and evening meals offered on each of the seven days of the voyage across the Atlantic. The publication was aimed at people ...
View and Map of the Affair at Ratan, of August 20, 1809
This watercolor by the Swedish artist and draftsman Carl Gustaf Gillberg (1774–1855) depicts the fighting at Ratan on August 20, 1809 between the armies of Sweden and Russia. Contemporaneously with the Napoleonic wars, at the beginning of the 19th century Sweden and Russia fought what became known as the Finnish War, which had the effect of radically altering the political topography of the Baltic. Sweden’s defeat put an end to its domination in the region. Finland, previously a province of Sweden, became a grand duchy under the rule ...
Commercial Law of Egypt
This volume, Qanun al-Tijarah (Commercial law of Egypt), contains two printed works, the commercial and the maritime codes of Egypt. The two documents are extracted from a more comprehensive but unidentified work, possibly covering civil procedure and the criminal code. Each title is preceded by the order of Egyptian ruler Khedive Muhammad Tawfīq authorizing publication and implementation of the law. The first title, Commercial Code, includes definitions of terms and focuses on debt and bankruptcy. The second title, Maritime Code, covers ships operating under the Ottoman flag and the rights ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Submarine Vessel, Transverse Section
The first working submarine, the Nautilus, was constructed in Paris in 1801 by the American engineer Robert Fulton (1765−1815). Best known for his development, in 1807−8, of the first commercially successful steamboat, Fulton built the submarine, or “plunging boat,” in hopes that Napoleon would adopt it for use in his war with Great Britain. The French and later the British showed some initial enthusiasm for Fulton’s idea, but in the end both declined to support the project. Fulton then turned to steamboats as a way to finance ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Pumps, Cocks, Water Chamber, and Anchor for “Plunging Boat”
The first working submarine, the Nautilus, was constructed in Paris in 1801 by the American engineer Robert Fulton (1765−1815). Best known for his development, in 1807−8, of the first commercially successful steamboat, Fulton built the submarine, or “plunging boat,” in hopes that Napoleon would adopt it for use in his war with Great Britain. The French and later the British showed some initial enthusiasm for Fulton’s idea, but in the end both declined to support the project. Fulton then turned to steamboats as a way to finance ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Cock Cavity and Wheel Details for “Plunging Boat”
The first working submarine, the Nautilus, was constructed in Paris in 1801 by the American engineer Robert Fulton (1765−1815). Best known for his development, in 1807−8, of the first commercially successful steamboat, Fulton built the submarine, or “plunging boat,” in hopes that Napoleon would adopt it for use in his war with Great Britain. The French and later the British showed some initial enthusiasm for Fulton’s idea, but in the end both declined to support the project. Fulton then turned to steamboats as a way to finance ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Vessel under Sail and Anchored
The first working submarine, the Nautilus, was constructed in Paris in 1801 by the American engineer Robert Fulton (1765−1815). Best known for his development, in 1807−8, of the first commercially successful steamboat, Fulton built the submarine, or “plunging boat,” in hopes that Napoleon would adopt it for use in his war with Great Britain. The French and later the British showed some initial enthusiasm for Fulton’s idea, but in the end both declined to support the project. Fulton then turned to steamboats as a way to finance ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Water Chambers, Valves, Water Passages
The first working submarine, the Nautilus, was constructed in Paris in 1801 by the American engineer Robert Fulton (1765−1815). Best known for his development, in 1807−8, of the first commercially successful steamboat, Fulton built the submarine, or “plunging boat,” in hopes that Napoleon would adopt it for use in his war with Great Britain. The French and later the British showed some initial enthusiasm for Fulton’s idea, but in the end both declined to support the project. Fulton then turned to steamboats as a way to finance ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Vessel-Sighting Mechanism Details
The first working submarine, the Nautilus, was constructed in Paris in 1801 by the American engineer Robert Fulton (1765−1815). Best known for his development, in 1807−8, of the first commercially successful steamboat, Fulton built the submarine, or “plunging boat,” in hopes that Napoleon would adopt it for use in his war with Great Britain. The French and later the British showed some initial enthusiasm for Fulton’s idea, but in the end both declined to support the project. Fulton then turned to steamboats as a way to finance ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Submarine Vessel, Longitudinal Section
The first working submarine, the Nautilus, was constructed in Paris in 1801 by the American engineer Robert Fulton (1765−1815). Best known for his development, in 1807−8, of the first commercially successful steamboat, Fulton built the submarine, or “plunging boat,” in hopes that Napoleon would adopt it for use in his war with Great Britain. The French and later the British showed some initial enthusiasm for Fulton’s idea, but in the end both declined to support the project. Fulton then turned to steamboats as a way to finance ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Maritime Regulations
Libre appellat Consolat de mar (Maritime regulations) is a collection of maritime and commercial ordinances and decrees of medieval origin that once had legal authority. The text comes from the ancient Costumes de la Mar, of Barcelona, written between 1260 and 1270. It integrates Catalan norms as well as those from other sources, including Pisan, Genoese, Venetian, and Marsilian. The definitive writing was done in the 14th century in Barcelona, with the addition of other legal texts. The work was widely circulated. Among the numerous editions printed in Catalan, two ...
Bird’s-Eye View of Amsterdam, 1597
This bird’s-eye view of Amsterdam in 1597 is from the collection of cityscapes and broadsheets that once belonged to the Swedish statesman Count Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie (1622−86). In the upper right is a key, in Dutch, listing important landmarks in the city, including churches, city hall, and bridges. The map is by Pieter Bast (circa 1570−1605), a Dutch cartographer and engraver, who specialized in cityscapes. The Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie Collection consists of 187 engravings from the late 1500s and early 1600s. The prints ...
Image of the City of Constantinople, Which the Turks Call Istanbul, Portrayed as it is in Reality
This panoramic view of Constantinople in 1616 is from the collection of cityscapes and broadsheets that once belonged to the Swedish statesman Count Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie (1622−86). Numerous mosques, monuments, and other landmarks are labeled in Latin. Below the engraving of the city, which is by Pieter van den Keere (also seen as Petrus Kaerius, 1571−circa 1646), is a portrait of Emperor Constantine and a separately printed description in 16 columns. ‏The Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie Collection consists of 187 engravings from the late 1500s ...
Panorama of Genoa, 1553
This panoramic view of Genoa in 1553 is from the collection of cityscapes and broadsheets that once belonged to the Swedish statesman Count Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie (1622−86). ‏In the upper left is a brief description of the work and of the city, in Italian, by the artist, Anton van den Wyngaerde (died 1571). The Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie collection consists of 187 engravings from the late 1500s and early 1600s. The prints originally were bound, ordered, and assigned a number. The early provenance of the collection ...
The Very Large Portuguese City of Lisbon, a Most Famous Market Town for the Whole East and West India
This panoramic view of Lisbon in 1619 is from the collection of cityscapes and broadsheets that once belonged to the Swedish statesman Count Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie (1622-86). ‏The coat of arms of Portugal is in the upper-left corner; the coat of arms of Lisbon on the right. At the bottom of the engraving is a description of the city, printed in 16 columns, in French and in Latin. The Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie collection consists of 187 engravings from the late 1500s and early 1600s. The prints ...
Panorama of London from Southwark, 1600
This panoramic view of London from Southwark is from the collection of cityscapes and broadsheets that once belonged to the Swedish statesman Count Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie (1622−86). ‏In the upper-left corner is the coat of arms of England; in the upper right is the coat of arms of the city of London. The inset in the lower-left corner shows a view of Westminster; that in the lower-right corner a smaller plan of central London. In the middle of the panorama is a cartouche with a text, in ...
Representation of Hispalis, Generally Known as Seville, World-Famous City and Renowned in Spain
This panoramic view of Seville in 1619 is from the collection of cityscapes and broadsheets that once belonged to the Swedish statesman Count Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie (1622−86). ‏At the bottom of the engraving is a description of the city, printed in 16 columns, in French. The print shows Seville from the right bank of the Guadalquivir River, with the Triana Bridge on the left, and the Spanish fleet below the Golden Tower on the right. The Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie Collection consists of 187 engravings from ...
View from Mountain behind Orca and Looking towards Observation Island, Alaska
This image is from the album of photographs compiled by Albert K. Fisher (1856−1948) to document the Harriman Expedition that explored the coast of Alaska in June and July of 1899. Fisher was an ornithologist and vertebrate zoologist who participated in many important scientific expeditions to the American West, including the Death Valley expedition of 1891 and biological surveys in California, Nevada, the Arizona Territory (including New Mexico), Utah, and portions of other western states in 1892. Fisher was also a member of the Harriman Expedition. The photograph is ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Steamer George W. Elder at Hubbard Glacier, Alaska
This image is from the album of photographs compiled by Albert K. Fisher (1856−1948) to document the Harriman Expedition that explored the coast of Alaska in June and July of 1899. Fisher was an ornithologist and vertebrate zoologist who participated in many important scientific expeditions to the American West, including the Death Valley expedition of 1891 and biological surveys in California, Nevada, the Arizona Territory (including New Mexico), Utah, and portions of other western states in 1892. Fisher was also a member of the Harriman Expedition. The photograph is ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Orca from Prince William Sound, Alaska. June 25, 1899
This image is from the album of photographs compiled by Albert K. Fisher (1856−1948) to document the Harriman Expedition that explored the coast of Alaska in June and July of 1899. Fisher was an ornithologist and vertebrate zoologist who participated in many important scientific expeditions to the American West, including the Death Valley expedition of 1891 and biological surveys in California, Nevada, the Arizona Territory (including New Mexico), Utah, and portions of other western states in 1892. Fisher was also a member of the Harriman Expedition. The photograph is ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Inside Passage Steamer Al-Ki. Ketchikan, Alaska. July 29, 1899
This image is from the album of photographs compiled by Albert K. Fisher (1856−1948) to document the Harriman Expedition that explored the coast of Alaska in June and July of 1899. Fisher was an ornithologist and vertebrate zoologist who participated in many important scientific expeditions to the American West, including the Death Valley expedition of 1891 and biological surveys in California, Nevada, the Arizona Territory (including New Mexico), Utah, and portions of other western states in 1892. Fisher was also a member of the Harriman Expedition. The photograph is ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Queen of the Panama Canal
The construction of the Panama Canal, its opening to traffic in early 1914, and the Panama Pacific International Exposition, held in San Francisco in 1915 to celebrate the completion of the canal, all inspired a wave of songwriting in the United States. The most notable of the compositions honoring the canal was “The Pathfinder of Panama,” written by the military march composer John Philip Sousa in 1915. This was also a time in which American popular sheet music publication was enjoying a golden age of sorts. Songs were published with ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Sailing through the Panama Canal
The construction of the Panama Canal, its opening to traffic in early 1914, and the Panama Pacific International Exposition, held in San Francisco in 1915 to celebrate the completion of the canal, all inspired a wave of songwriting in the United States. The most notable of the compositions honoring the canal was “The Pathfinder of Panama,” written by the military march composer John Philip Sousa in 1915. This was also a time in which American popular sheet music publication was enjoying a golden age of sorts. Songs were published with ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Dhows of the Indian Ocean: Disputes over Zanzibar and Muscat
Les boutriers de la Mer des Indes, affaires de Zanzibar et Mascate (The dhows of the Indian Ocean: Disputes over Zanzibar and Muscat) is a diplomatic history of the confrontation in the 19th century between France and Britain involving these territories. Britain’s goal was to preserve maritime security in the Indian Ocean, while France was attempting to retain its few trading outposts and its diplomatic influence in Muscat, Zanzibar, and on the East African coast. The author, Charles Brunet, takes the view that the French position was doomed because ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Relief Ship Sails for Near East
The caption for this wire-service photograph states: “The USS Pensacola, now used as a relief ship carrying food and clothing to the destitute countries in the Near East, sailed from New York with a cargo valued at more than two million dollars. The Pensacola is not the first ship to sail for the Near East, two others having preceded it. The relief ships are under the auspices of the American Committee for Relief in the Near East. Photo shows the Pensacola pulling out of the pier at Hoboken to start ...
First Shipment of Kosher Meat Sent to Danzig, Poland
In 1919, when hundreds of thousands of Jews were trapped between the warring forces of Poland and Russia, American Jews shipped desperately needed food to these refugees. In this photo, barrels of kosher salted beef are loaded aboard the SS Ashburn in New York harbor to be sent to Danzig (present-day Gdansk, Poland). The Joint Distribution Committee of American Funds for the Relief of Jewish War Sufferers (later the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, both names abbreviated as JDC) was formed in 1914 to send aid, including food, clothing, medicine ...
Saint Thomas Island, Danish Possession in the Antilles: View from the Brazilian Observatory with the Sandbank and the East Part of the Harbor and the City Charlotte Amalie
This photograph is contained in an album that commemorates the participation of Brazil in the international effort to track the transit of Venus in 1882. This involved the establishment by the Imperial Observatory of an observatory, named after Emperor Dom Pedro II (1825-91), on the island of Saint Thomas in the Danish West Indies (present-day U.S. Virgin Islands). The transit of Venus is a rare astronomical event that occurs when Venus passes between the Earth and the sun, becoming visible in daylight against the solar disk. The transits occur ...
Saint Thomas Island, Danish Possession in the Antilles: View from the Brazilian Observatory with the West Part of the Harbor and the City Charlotte Amalie
This photograph is contained in an album that commemorates the participation of Brazil in the international effort to track the transit of Venus in 1882. This involved the establishment by the Imperial Observatory of an observatory, named after Emperor Dom Pedro II (1825-91), on the island of Saint Thomas in the Danish West Indies (present-day U.S. Virgin Islands). The transit of Venus is a rare astronomical event that occurs when Venus passes between the Earth and the sun, becoming visible in daylight against the solar disk. The transits occur ...
St. Augustine: Part (Below Thirty Degrees Latitude) is on the Mainland of Florida, but the Sea Coast is More Low-Lying and thus Torn Away and Rendered Island-Like
This map is the earliest engraving of any city or territory now part of the United States. It also includes the dorado fish, one of the natural history subjects drawn by John White, governor of the first Anglo-American settlement in America, in the Hatteras region, then part of Virginia (now North Carolina). Sir Francis Drake’s 1585-86 raid on the West Indies picked up the Virginia settlers and returned them to Europe. In the course of the return voyage, the author of this view-plan was able to copy the figure ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Steamer S. Salvador, São Francisco River
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. In 1868, photographer Augusto Riedel accompanied Luis Augusto, Duke of Saxe, son-in-law of Emperor Pedro II, on an expedition into the interior of Brazil. The expedition probably traveled by ...
Pier in the Town of Hankou, Hubei Province, China, 1874
In 1874-75, the Russian government sent a research and trading mission to China to seek out new overland routes to the Chinese market, report on prospects for increased commerce and locations for consulates and factories, and gather information about the Dungan Revolt then raging in parts of western China. Led by Lieutenant Colonel Iulian A. Sosnovskii of the army General Staff, the nine-man mission included a topographer, Captain Matusovskii; a scientific officer, Dr. Pavel Iakovlevich Piasetskii; Chinese and Russian interpreters; three non-commissioned Cossack soldiers; and the mission photographer, Adolf Erazmovich ...
Port of Aden from the Sea
This 1894 photograph depicts Aden (in present-day Yemen) as viewed from the sea. The port city of Aden was occupied by the British in 1839 and became an important fueling depot for the British Navy. Situated at a strategically advantageous spot at the entrance to the Red Sea, Aden became a British Crown Colony in 1937 and remained under British control for another three decades. William Henry Jackson (1843-1942) took the photograph for the World’s Transportation Commission, a mission organized by U.S. railroad publicist Joseph Gladding Pangborn to ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Voyage Around the World by the King's Frigate La Boudeuse and the Ship L'Etoile in 1766, 1767, 1768, and 1769
Following France’s defeat in the Seven Years' War (1756-63), Louis-Antoine de Bougainville (1729-1811), a soldier with a distinguished military record in Canada, received permission from King Louis XV to undertake France’s first major geographical exploration of the Pacific. In 1766-69 Bougainville became the first Frenchman to circumnavigate the globe. His voyage, meticulously recounted in this book, resulted in several significant scientific contributions, including establishing the precise location of a number of Pacific islands and determining the width of the Pacific Ocean. However, it was Bougainville’s observations of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
View of the Island and the City of Batavia Belonging to the Dutch, for the India Company
This hand-colored engraving of the Dutch colonial capital of Batavia (present-day Jakarta) was created by Jan Van Ryne in 1754. Van Ryne was born in the Netherlands, but spent most of his working life in London, where he specialized in producing engravings of scenes from the British and Dutch colonies. Located at the mouth of the Ciliwung River, Jakarta was the site of a settlement and port possibly going back as far as the fifth century A.D. In 1619, the Dutch captured and razed the existing city of Jayakerta ...
Panama Canal—West Lirio Slide
This 1923 photograph from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress documents a recent landslide in the West Lirio section of the Panama Canal and its effects on eastbound and westbound shipping. Frank G. Carpenter (1855–1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography, whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890–1972) to illustrate his ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Saint Augustine Map, 1589
This engraved hand-colored map or view-plan by Baptista Boazio depicts Sir Francis Drake's attack on Saint Augustine on May 28-29, 1586. Boazio, an Italian who worked in London from about 1585 to 1603, made maps to illustrate accounts of English expeditions and campaigns. He prepared a series of maps marking Drake's route for Walter Bigges' work on Drake's expedition to the West Indies, first published in 1588 and followed by later editions. This map highlights an episode from Drake's Caribbean expedition, pictorially portraying how the English ...
View of the Damage from the Hurricane of 1906
The sixth hurricane of 1906 was one of 11 hurricanes or tropical cyclones that Atlantic hurricane season. The storm made landfall on September 27, 1906, west of Biloxi, Mississippi, but wreaked its greatest damage from Mobile, Alabama to Pensacola, Florida. The Category 4 hurricane was the most destructive storm to strike the Pensacola area in 170 years. Winds in excess of 105 miles (170 kilometers) per hour stretched past the city and port of Pensacola, and Escambia Bay in the Gulf of Mexico saw a storm surge as high as ...
Makian As It Appears from the Side of Ngofakiaha
This view of the island of Makian and the village of Ngofakiaha in the Maluku Islands (present-day Indonesia) is from the Atlas Blaeu-Van der Hem. Representing the entire surface of the Earth, the 50 volume work is often considered the most beautiful and most remarkable atlas ever composed. The collectors atlas (a special form of compiling cartographic material) was based on the Atlas Maior (Great atlas), published in Amsterdam by Joan Blaeu (1596–1673) in various editions between 1662 and 1672. This was the largest and most expensive book produced ...
Contributed by Austrian National Library
Foreigners' Ship: Steamship
Commodore Matthew C. Perry entered the port of Yokohama in 1853 with an intimidating fleet of steam warships, in order to compel Japan to open up after nearly two centuries of restricted foreign contact. The Japanese people became increasingly exposed to Western culture as new trade agreements prompted cross-cultural interaction. The mixture of anxiety, curiosity, and awe at this influx of unfamiliar technology and customs is reflected in the detailed depictions of foreign subjects by ukiyo-e (pictures of the floating world) artists. With the arrival of Perry, Yokohama-e (pictures of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Send the Eagle's Answer: More Ships
This poster, issued by the publication section of the Emergency Fleet Corporation in Washington, D.C., shows a large, colorful eagle flying above ships setting sail for a distant shore in flames. The Emergency Fleet Corporation was established under congressional mandate by the United States Shipping Board in April 1917, ten days after the United States declared war on Germany. Its purpose was to acquire, maintain, and operate the merchant ships that were needed to transport American troops and their supplies to France. The bald eagle as a symbol of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Winter in Panama with the U.S. Army
This World War I recruitment poster for the U.S. Army features a drawing of a ship transiting the Panama Canal and photographs of training exercises conducted in Panama. Under a treaty concluded with Panama in 1903, the United States was given permanent control over a zone of land 16 kilometers (10 miles) wide and about 64 kilometers (40 miles) long across the Isthmus of Panama, for the purpose of building, operating, and defending the Panama Canal. This strip of land, known as the Panama Canal Zone, was the site ...
Contributed by Library of Congress