41 results in English
Eternal Wisdom, a School Play from Kiev
The school drama is a theatrical form that developed in Ukraine in the 17th and 18th centuries. Students would perform plays written by their teachers as a way of receiving religious instruction and studying the principles of drama. The genre was said to have developed from the dialogic verse of the Christmas and Easter cycles that were popular in Western Europe beginning in the 12th and 13th centuries and that spread to Ukraine in the late 16th–early 17th centuries. This book is a 1912 edition of a Jesuit school ...
Muslim School. Punishments (Striking with Cane on Palms or Soles)
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Muslim School, or Mekteb-khane
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Muslim School. School Routine
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Muslim School. Handwriting Lessons
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Muslim School. Listening to Lessons
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Zeravshan Okrug. A Jewish School in Samarkand
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Pinkas of the Talmud Torah Religious School from Kopychintsy
This pinkas (record book) of the Talmud Torah religious school from the town of Kopychintsy in eastern Galicia, Ukraine, reflects the activity of a religious school in the late 19th century. It consists of the traditional components of such works: the title page, the second title, blessings, the statutes, a list of members of society, and the diaries of the activities of the Talmud Torah school. All pages of the pinkas are richly decorated in the traditional manner of this type of Jewish document. The title pages are designed as ...
Nassau Street and Kopke College
This photograph is from Vistas de Petrópolis (Views of Petrópolis), an album created in the 1860s by Pedro Hees (1841–80), one of Brazil’s most important early photographers. Petrópolis was founded by government decree on March 16, 1843, and named after Emperor Pedro II (1825–91, reigned 1831–89). The decree provided for the construction of the Imperial Palace and its dependencies and gardens, which formed the Quinta Imperial de Petrópolis (Imperial farm of Petrópolis). Called the Imperial City for its associations with the royal family, Petrópolis served as ...
The Uganda Journal, Volume 34, Part 2, 1970
The Uganda Literary and Scientific Society was established at Entebbe, Uganda Protectorate, in 1923. Its main activity consisted of the reading of papers and the delivery of lectures on topics relating to Uganda. In 1933 the society moved its headquarters to Kampala and decided to issue a regular publication, The Uganda Journal. The journal’s declared aim was “to collect and publish information which may add to our knowledge of Uganda and to record that which in the course of time might be lost.” Four issues per year were published ...
Bird’s Eye View of Garfield, New Jersey, 1909
This panoramic map shows a view of Garfield, New Jersey, as it appeared in 1909. Garfield was originally known as East Passaic, but later was named in honor of U.S. President James Garfield. The map shows the town along the banks of the Passaic and Saddle rivers, with several bridges crossing the water. Street names in the town are visible, as well as a railway, labeled “Erie Railroad.” In the lower left corner of the map are five inset images, showing greater detail of several buildings: “Borough Hall,” “First ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Bird's Eye View of the City of Champaign Looking from the South East. Champaign County, Illinois, 1869
This panoramic map shows Champaign, Illinois, as it appeared in 1869. The view, looking from the southeast, shows an area that is a hub of rail activity, with tracks running on the outskirts of and through the city. Multiple trains traverse the intersecting lines, which are labeled: Illinois Central Railroad, Champaign & Monticello Railroad, and Indianapolis, Bloomington & Western Railroad. The index at the bottom of the map indicates various points of interest, including several schools, Baptist, Congregational, Presbyterian, “Christian,” Catholic, and two Methodist churches, the city park, the gas works, and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Bird's Eye View of the City of Moline, Rock Island County, Illinois, 1869
This panoramic map shows Moline (in Rock Island County), Illinois, as it appeared in 1869. The Mississippi River is in the foreground, with the city of Moline extending away from the water and into the hills. Several vessels are seen on the river, including barges and two steamboats named the Savanah and the Dubuque. Railroad tracks bisect the town and several trains are seen traveling on the multiple lines, which are identified as the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railroad and the Rockford, Rock Island & Saint Louis Railroad. A ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Children Eating at Mendele's Kindergarten in Bialystok, Poland
Schools and nurseries were an effective conduit to provide nourishment to children in Poland throughout World War I and the immediate postwar years, a period of rampant hunger. Mendele’s Kindergarten and Community School at the Białystok Jewish Youth Union was most likely part of the Mendele Mokher Seforim Children’s Home and Orphanage, named in honor of the beloved Yiddish-language author. During the interwar period, Białystok had an extensive Jewish primary education system. Many of these schools were funded by overseas Jewish philanthropy. The Joint Distribution Committee of American ...
Orphanage Kindergarten in Brest-Litovsk, Poland
This photograph shows kindergarten teachers and pupils in a yard of the orphanage on Pushkinskaya Street in Brest-Litovsk, Poland (Yiddish, Brisk; present-day Brest, Belarus). After World War I and the Russo-Polish War that followed (1919‒20), there were tens of thousands of Jewish orphans in Poland. The Joint Distribution Committee of American Funds for the Relief of Jewish War Sufferers (later the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, both names abbreviated as JDC) was formed in 1914 to send aid, including food, clothing, medicine, funds, and emergency supplies, to the stricken ...
Students and Faculty Outside the Jewish Community School in Warsaw, Poland
This photograph shows a group of students and faculty standing outside the Jewish Community School of the Workmen’s Home in Warsaw, Poland, in 1921. World War I and its disruptive aftermath threatened the survival of the many religious, educational, and cultural institutions that prior to the war had made Poland one of the most important centers of Jewish scholarship, learning, and culture. In the interwar period, the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC), a humanitarian organization created at the start of World War I, played a vital role in ...
Carpentry Class at a Jewish School in Krakow, Poland
This photograph depicts a carpentry class at a Jewish school in Krakow, Poland, circa 1921‒22. World War I tore a calamitous path through the Jewish communities of Eastern Europe, leaving in its wake widespread famine, disease, and economic hardship. In the immediate postwar years beleaguered Jewish communities faced continued challenges that threatened their existence. New socio-economic realities stripped European Jews of their former livelihoods, leaving them without the means to help themselves. Their communal infrastructure also lay in ruins. To address these conditions, the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee ...
School Band of the Natanson Professional School in Warsaw, Poland
This photograph shows the school band of the Natanson Professional School of the Jewish Community in Warsaw, Poland, in 1921. Students pose with their instruments at the entrance to the school. World War I tore a calamitous path through the Jewish communities of Eastern Europe, leaving in its wake widespread famine, disease, and economic hardship. In the immediate postwar years beleaguered Jewish communities faced continued challenges that threatened their existence. New socio-economic realities stripped European Jews of their former livelihoods, leaving them without the means to help themselves. Their communal ...
Students Learn Carpentry in a Woodworking Shop in Jaroslaw, Poland
This photograph shows students and teachers in a carpentry course in Jaroslaw in 1922, one of many post-World War I vocational training programs in Poland set up in response to economic hardship. The classes were run by the Organization for Rehablitation through Training (ORT) and sponsored by the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC). The JDC was established by American Jewish groups at the start of World War I to help destitute Jews in Europe and Palestine. Since 1914, the JDC has provided food, clothing, medicine, child care, job training ...
Imperial Military Middle School, Ṣanʻāʾ
This photograph from the Abdul-Hamid Collection in the Library of Congress shows the Imperial Military Middle School in Ṣan'ā', Yemen. Sultan Abdul-Hamid II (1842-1918) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1876 to 1909. The Abdul-Hamid Collection consists of 1,819 photographs in 51 large-format albums dating from about 1880 to 1893. An avid collector and promoter of photography, the sultan appears to have conceived the work as a portrait of his empire for a Western audience, intended to highlight the empire's modernization. Well-known Ottoman commercial photographers such as Abdullah ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
High School, Monastir
This photograph from the Abdul-Hamid Collection in the Library of Congress shows a high school in Bitola, Macedonia, a city known in the Ottoman Empire as Monastir. Sultan Abdul-Hamid II (1842-1918) ruled the empire from 1876 to 1909. The Abdul-Hamid Collection consists of 1,819 photographs in 51 large-format albums dating from about 1880 to 1893. An avid collector and promoter of photography, the sultan appears to have conceived the work as a portrait of his empire for a Western audience, intended to highlight the empire's modernization. Well-known Ottoman ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Plan, Imperial Military Middle School, Monastir
This photograph from the Abdul-Hamid Collection in the Library of Congress reproduces an architectural drawing for the Imperial Military Middle School in Bitola, Macedonia, a city known in the Ottoman Empire as Monastir. Sultan Abdul-Hamid II (1842-1918) ruled the empire from 1876 to 1909. The Abdul-Hamid Collection consists of 1,819 photographs in 51 large-format albums dating from about 1880 to 1893. An avid collector and promoter of photography, the sultan appears to have conceived the work as a portrait of his empire for a Western audience, intended to highlight ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Imperial Military Middle School, Monastir
This photograph from the Abdul-Hamid Collection in the Library of Congress shows the Imperial Military Middle School in Bitola, Macedonia, a city known in the Ottoman Empire as Monastir. Sultan Abdul-Hamid II (1842-1918) ruled the empire from 1876 to 1909. The Abdul-Hamid Collection consists of 1,819 photographs in 51 large-format albums dating from about 1880 to 1893. An avid collector and promoter of photography, the sultan appears to have conceived the work as a portrait of his empire for a Western audience, intended to highlight the empire's modernization ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Wills Concerning the School in Gabrovo
The Gabrovo School was the first secular school in Bulgaria. Founded in 1835, it trained Bulgarian teachers and employed such notable Bulgarian scholars as Neofit Rilski. This work contains the wills of several men associated with the Gabrovo School, including one of its co-founders, V. E. Aprilov. The wills appear in Bulgarian with the corresponding Greek translation on opposite pages. Printed at the end of the book are illustrations of the grave monuments of Aprilov and the school's other co-founder, N.S. Palauzov.
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Gabrovo School and Its First Trustees
The Gabrovo School was the first secular school in Bulgaria. Founded in 1835, it trained Bulgarian teachers and employed such notable Bulgarian scholars as Neofit Rilski. The Gabrovo School and Its First Trustees is a history of the school’s early years, edited by Petko Slaveikov, one of Bulgaria’s most renowned 19th-century writers.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Log Grade School (Left Bank) (Early 20th Century), Ustiuzhna, Russia
This photograph of an early 20th-century log grammar school in Ustiuzhna (Vologda Oblast) was taken in 2001 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Located on the Mologa River (a tributary of the Volga River), Ustiuzhna was known already in the mid-13th century for its rich deposits of bog iron. It became one of the earliest Russian centers of metalworking and achieved special prominence in the 16th century. Although the town was decimated ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
School in the Village of Pidma Named after His Imperial Majesty, Sovereign, Heir Apparent, Crown Prince, Grand Duke Aleksei Nikolaevich. Russian Empire
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Leushinskii Women's School. Leushino, Russian Empire
A major component of the Volga-Baltic Waterway (formerly called the Mariinsk Canal System), linking Saint Petersburg with the Volga River basin, is the Sheksna River, which drains the southeastern part of White Lake (Beloe ozero). The original length of the Sheksna was 395 kilometers, from White Lake to the Sheksna’s confluence with the Volga at the town of Rybinsk. Resevoirs created in the mid-20th century submerged much of the land along the river. A notable lost landmark was the John the Baptist Convent at the village of Leushino, located ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
School in the Village of Perguba
The Murmansk Railroad was built by the Russian government during World War I to connect Petrograd (Saint Petersburg) to the ice-free port of Romanov-on-Murman (now Murmansk). Construction lasted from 1914 to the spring of 1917 when the line was completed. Shown here is the basic school at the village of Kappeselga (stated on the sign at left). Such schools were supported by the zemstvo, a form of local self-government established in Russia in 1864 as part of the “Great Reforms” of Alexander II. This school is a one-story log building ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
United States School for Indians at Pine Ridge, South Dakota
This image is from the John C.H. Grabill Collection at the Library of Congress. The 188 photographs that Grabill sent to the Library for copyright protection between 1887 and 1892 are thought to be the largest surviving collection of this gifted early Western photographer’s work. The images document frontier life in Colorado, South Dakota, and Wyoming and include views of hunters, prospectors, cowboys, Chinese immigrants, and U.S. Army personnel, as well as of cattle and sheep ranches, mining operations, towns, natural landmarks, forts, railroads, mills, stagecoaches, and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Luce Ben Aben School of Arab Embroidery I, Algiers, Algeria
This photochrome print of the interior of a school of embroidery in Algiers is part of “Views of People and Sites in Algeria” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). In 1845 the Frenchwoman Eugénie Luce (1804–82) opened a school for Muslim girls in Algiers that was intended to educate local girls along European lines. She included teaching needlework in the curriculum, along with French and other subjects. In 1861 the French Algerian administration withdrew funding from the school. The emphasis of the school shifted from general ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Luce Ben Aben School of Arab Embroidery II, Algiers, Algeria
This photochrome print of the interior of a school of embroidery in Algiers is part of “Views of People and Sites in Algeria” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). In 1845 the Frenchwoman Eugénie Luce (1804–82) opened a school for Muslim girls in Algiers that was intended to educate local girls along European lines. She included teaching needlework in the curriculum, along with French and other subjects. In 1861 the French Algerian administration withdrew funding from the school. The emphasis of the school shifted from general ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Luce Ben Aben, Moorish Women Preparing Couscous, Algiers, Algeria
This photochrome print showing a young girl preparing couscous with two companions under the watchful eye of an older woman in Algiers is part of “Views of People and Sites in Algeria” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). The photograph was taken in the courtyard of the Luce Ben Aben School of Arab Embroidery, an institution founded by a Frenchwoman in 1845 that sought to teach young girls skills and to make crafts that could be sold in international markets. Couscous is Algeria’s national dish and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Institute for Noble Girls
This view of the Institute for Noble Girls is from Souvenir of Kiev, an early 20th-century album showing the main sites of Kiev, the capital of Ukraine and at that time one of the most important cities of the Russian Empire. The institute was founded in Kiev in 1838 as a boarding school for the daughters of impoverished nobles and later also admitted daughters of honorable citizens and merchants of the first guild. Architect V. Beretti began work that year on a huge building in classical style, which was completed ...
Girard College
This lithograph shows a view of Founder's Hall at Girard College in Philadelphia, which was constructed in 1833–47 from designs by Philadelphia architect Thomas Ustick Walters. The hall occupied a site between what became Girard Avenue and Ridge Avenue at Corinthian Avenue. Girard College was established through a bequest from Stephen Girard, a Philadelphia financier and philanthropist, for the creation of a school for poor white male orphans. The illustration is by John Caspar Wild (circa 1804–46), a Swiss-born artist and lithographer, who arrived in Philadelphia from ...
The Girard College, Philadelphia
This lithograph shows an exterior view of Girard College at Girard Avenue, Philadelphia, including Founder's Hall and the eastern and western outbuildings. The school buildings, designed by Philadelphia architect Thomas Ustick Walter in the Greek Revival style, were constructed in 1833–47. Girard College was established through a bequest from Stephen Girard, a Philadelphia financier and philanthropist, for the creation of a school for poor white male orphans. The illustration is by John Caspar Wild (circa 1804–46), a Swiss-born artist and lithographer, who arrived in Philadelphia from Paris ...
American Classical and Military Academy at Mount Airy, Germantown, 8 Miles from Philadelphia
This lithograph shows the American Classical and Military Academy in the Mount Airy section of Germantown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, located some eight miles (13 kilometers) from the center of Philadelphia.  The right wing was built in 1750 as “Mount Airy,” the country seat of Pennsylvania Chief Justice William Allen, and early in the 19th century the area took the building’s name. Founded as Mount Airy Seminary (later Mount Airy College or Collegiate Institute) in 1807, the school served as a military academy in 1826–35 under the superintendence of Augustus ...
Girard College, Main Building, Philadelphia
This print is a view of Founder's Hall, Girard College, Philadelphia, issued in around 1835 as a souvenir of the building while it was under construction. The text at bottom announces: “Girard College. Main Building. Now erecting near Philadelphia under the superintendence of T.U. Walter, Esq.” The building was designed in the Greek Revival style by Philadelphia architect Thomas Ustick Walter and constructed in 1833-47. It occupied a site between what became Girard Avenue and Ridge Avenue at Corinthian Avenue. Small figures are seen in front of the ...
Portico Square
This print is a view of the brick row houses, also known as Portico Row, built in 1833–35 at 900–930 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, also known as Portico Square, after the designs of Philadelphia architect Thomas Ustick Walter (1804−87). Tenants of the row over the years included the Philadelphia High School for Young Ladies (1836–41), Commodore Isaac Hull (1842–43), and author Sarah Josepha Hale (1859–61). The print, which was published as the frontispiece to Philadelphia High School for Young Ladies (Philadelphia, 1837), also shows surrounding ...
Pennsylvania Institution for the Instruction of the Blind
This print is an exterior view of the Pennsylvania Institution for the Instruction of the Blind, located at the corner of at Sassafras (now Race) and Schuylkill Third (20th) Streets in Philadelphia. The school was established in 1832 by Julius Reinhold Friedlander (1803–1839), a young German teacher of blind and visually impaired children, shortly after his arrival in the city. Within a year, the school had a constitution and board of managers. Several years later, it moved into this new building. The view shown here includes pedestrians strolling in ...
Pennsylvania Institution for the Deaf and Dumb
This lithograph is an exterior view of the Pennsylvania Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, located at the northwest corner of Broad and Pine Streets in Philadelphia. Designed by Philadelphia architect John Haviland, the building was constructed in 1824–26, soon after the school's founding. The illustration was created by artist Albert Newsam (1809–64) and was used as the frontispiece for the annual report of the board of directors of the institution for the year 1850. Born deaf and mute in Steubenville, Ohio, Newsam showed artistic promise as ...