83 results in English
Military Map, Island of Puerto Rico
This military map of Puerto Rico was published in 1898, the year in which the United States, in the course of the Spanish-American War, seized the island from Spain. Hostilities began on May 12 with a blockade and bombardment of the city of San Juan by the U.S. Navy. This was followed with the landing off the coast of Guánica on July 12 of a force of 1,300 U.S. soldiers. In the peace treaty that was signed in Paris on December 10, 1898, the United States formally ...
West Indies Showing Sovereignty of the Various Islands
This undated map of the West Indies from the first half of the 20th century was produced by the Military Intelligence Division of the General Staff of the U.S. Department of the Army. It shows U.S., British, French, and Dutch possessions in the region, along with principal trade routes, undersea telegraph cables owned by Britain and the United States, and the location of government and privately owned radio stations. Defense of the Caribbean against possible incursions by hostile European powers was a major concern of U.S. military ...
Illustrated Atlas of Shanhai, Yongping, Jizhou, Miyun, Gubeikou, Huanghua Zhen and Other Areas
This work is an illustrated military map dating from the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) of the northeastern part of Jingshi (present-day Beijing), along the Great Wall. It is formatted in accordion pleat-like leaves, and is large, measuring 58.8 centimeters high by 21 centimeters wide. The edges of the atlas are broken and frayed. The original collector tied the atlas on a hard board and placed it in a case, taking great care. The map depicts Shanhaiguan (Shanhai Pass) from Bohai Sea in the east, winding westward through Funing Xian ...
Contributed by National Central Library
The Administrative Maps of the Ming Dynasty (Incomplete Copy)
The author of this work was Chen Zushou (died 1637), a late-Ming literary author. A native of Yanling (present-day Changzhou, Jiangsu Province), Chen Zushou received his jin shi degree in 1634 and became, in the following year, an official at the Bureau of Operations, one of the four bureaus in the Ministry of War. In 1636, while working at the ministry, he wrote this book, based on a large number of earlier works and contemporary local records, including maps. The original edition, very rich in content, had three juan in ...
Contributed by National Central Library
War Map of Egypt, Palestine, and Arabia
This German-language military map, published some time in the late-19th century, depicts Egypt, Palestine, and the Arabian Peninsula. It also includes parts of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (present-day Sudan), Ethiopia, and Eritrea. Railroads, caravan routes, telegraph lines, pyramids, fortifications, and ruins are indicated by symbols shown in the key at the lower left. The German equivalents of some Arabic topographic terms are given. An inset map in the upper right shows the Nile Delta and the Sinai Peninsula. Relief is shown by shading, and the heights of important mountains and passes are ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Southeast Europe and the Mediterranean Sea
This map of southeastern Europe and the eastern Mediterranean was made early in World War II by Fremde Heere Ost (Foreign Armies East), a unit of the German army general staff responsible for intelligence about the armies of the Soviet Union, Scandinavia, certain Balkan countries, Africa, and the Far East. The map shows country boundaries in bold, dark purple. Also shown are oil pipelines, wells and other sources of water, and important roads, railroads, and canals. Many of the countries of this region were involved in the war. Italian and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Empire and Expeditions of Alexander the Great
This 1833 map in Latin shows the conquests of Alexander the Great (356–323 BC), whose empire stretched from present-day Greece through Turkey and the Middle East to Afghanistan. In 326 BC Alexander set out to conquer India, but he was stymied when his exhausted armies mutinied on the banks of the Hyphasis River (now known as the Beas River) in northern India. The map shows the cities that Alexander founded and named after himself, including Alexandria Arachosia (Kandahar, Afghanistan), Alexandria Ariana (Herat, Afghanistan), Alexandria, Egypt, and many others. Place-names ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Seat of the War in Asia. Map of Afghanistan
This map was published in November 1878 by the Office of the Chief of Engineers, U.S. Army, for “the information of the Officers of the U.S. Army.” The title, “Seat of the War in Asia, Map of Afghanistan,” refers to the Second Anglo-Afghan War of 1878−80, which began that month when Great Britain invaded Afghanistan from British India, for the purpose of checking what it perceived as the growth of Russian influence in the country. The map is based on surveys by British and Russian officers, “up ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Afghanistan: A Map
This map, published in New York in 1879, appears to have been made to inform American audiences about the war then underway in Afghanistan. The conflict, which became known as the Second Anglo-Afghan War, began in November 1878, when Great Britain invaded Afghanistan from British India in order to check what it perceived as the growth of Russian influence in the country. The map was compiled, drawn, and published by Captains Jackson and Wyndham, who are identified only as “Late, H.B.M. Service,” meaning recently in the service of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Afghanistan
This map of Afghanistan was produced by the Geographical Section of the General Staff of the British Army and issued by the War Office in London in January 1912. It gives the names and locations of districts, mountains, passes, and sources of water. Relief is shown by contours and heights are given in feet. Colors, as explained in the key on the right side of the map, are used to indicate altitude, with the heights shown ranging from sea level to 25,000 feet (7,620 meters) and higher. The ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Iran and Afghanistan
Published in 1941 during the early part of World War II, this Japanese map of Iran and Afghanistan is based on a map issued the previous year by the Main Administration of Geodesy and Cartography of the Soviet Union. Unlike the British and the Russians, the Japanese did not have extensive knowledge of, or experience in, this part of Asia, which nonetheless became an important strategic interest for them during the war. The Axis powers—Germany, Japan, and Italy—believed that ultimate victory would require that they gain control of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Maps of the Middle East and the Near East
Shown here is a large folding map produced by the General Staff of the German Army during World War II. Notes on the map indicate that it was solely for use within the army and that reproduction was prohibited. One side is a large map of the region stretching from the Balkan Peninsula to the eastern part of Iran. Shown are towns and cities by population size, international borders, the borders of republics and provinces within the Soviet Union, major and secondary roads, roads under construction, oil pipelines, mountain passes ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the Middle East
This map of the Middle East was made by the Führungsstab der Luftwaffe (the operations staff of the German air force) in 1943. The map is labeled “Secret.” Covering the region from the eastern Mediterranean to the border of Afghanistan with British India (present-day Pakistan), it shows the locations of first- and second-class air bases, operational bases, landing strips, and airfields under construction, as of March 15, 1943. Six inset maps—of Aden, Mosul, Cyprus, Baghdad, Gaza-Haifa, and Damascus-Aleppo—provide additional detail about locations with more well-developed aviation infrastructure. Railroad ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of Upper & Lower California Showing the Military Stations and Distribution of Troops
During the Mexican-American War of 1846–48, U.S. troops occupied parts of the Mexican territory of Alta (Upper) California in an arc from present-day Sacramento to San Diego. This hand-drawn map of 1847 shows the locations in Alta California where U.S. forces were stationed. The notation on the lower left-hand side gives the distances between sites and the numbers of men deployed. Longitude and latitude are marked but there is no exact scale. The map shows the extent of U.S. control, later to be formalized in the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Bululu, Uganda
This map of Bululu in northeastern Uganda was issued in 1941 by the Land and Survey Office of the Uganda Protectorate (present-day Uganda). It was drawn and compiled by the Land and Survey Office, based on surveys carried out by the protectorate’s directorate of surveys in 1938−39. Shown on the map are towns; roads of different classes; schools and mission stations; and lakes, rivers, forests, swampland, water holes and springs and other natural features. Elevations are given in feet above sea level. The scale of the map is ...
Masindi Port, Uganda, East Africa
This map of Masindi Port in Uganda was drawn by the Geographical Section of the General Staff of the British Army, based on a survey carried out in 1909 by the Uganda Topographical Survey, and printed at the War Office in London in 1911. Shown are international, kingdom or provincial, and county or district boundaries; railways (operational and projected); rivers and streams; swamps; wells, springs, and water holes; and other natural features. The map is extremely detailed and preserves much of the data captured in the survey, including trigonometrical points ...
Ankole District, Uganda
This map of Ankole District, Uganda Protectorate (present-day Uganda) was issued in 1945 by the Survey, Land and Mines Department of the protectorate, based on surveys carried out by the director of surveys. Located in southwestern Uganda, the district extended eastward from the shores of Lake Edward. To the south it was bordered by Tanganyika Territory (present-day Tanzania) and the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda (present-day Rwanda). Shown are international, inter-colonial, provincial, district, and county boundaries; roads of different classes; telegraph lines; telephone, postal, and telegraph offices; towns and administrative ...
Garvin Papers. Bound Notebook
In April 1915 Second Lieutenant Roland Gerard Garvin of the British Army enrolled in a course of instruction at Staff College in Camberley, Surrey, England. There he attended lectures on tactical instruction, topography, field engineering, administration, organization, military law, and hygiene. One of his lecturers was Major Hubert Conway Rees, who had commanded a battalion during the retreat from Mons in 1914. These notes and drawings by Garvin are from a tour of field works that he made as part of the course and that was led by Major Rees ...
Contributed by The British Library
Map Showing Wet Areas on Passchendaele Front
Overprinted in color in the field, this World War I map shows the Allied front line at the Ypres Salient on December 2, 1917. The notorious Battle of Passchendaele (also seen as Passendale) began in July 1917 and culminated in the capture by British and Canadian forces of the village of Passchendaele (West Flanders, Belgium) on November 6. Even though the battle had ended some weeks earlier, an action took place on the night of December 1−2 in the areas to the north and east of Passchendaele village shown ...
Contributed by The British Library
British Battles During 1918 (8th August to 11th November 1918)
This colorful map was produced by the Geographical Section of the General Staff of the UK War Office, printed by Waterlow & Sons, and made available for public sale shortly after the end of World War I. It provides a summary of the Hundred Days offensive by British, American, and British Empire troops that led to the German surrender on November 11, 1918. It shows the Allied advance as distinctly ordered phases, colored first yellow, then green, red, and blue. Diagonal stripes in these same colors show German withdrawals. The numbers ...
Contributed by The British Library
Plan of Battle at Uzynagash on the 19th, 20th and 21st of October, 1860
This topographic map of the battle plan used by the Russians fighting the Kokandians at Uzynagash (present-day Uzun-Agach, Kazakhstan) on October 19–21, 1860, is from the historical part of the Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Plan of Siege and Assault on the Fortresses of Ak-Mechet from July 5–28, 1853
This drawing shows a topical map of the battle plan used by the Russians at Ak-Mechet (present-day Kzyl-Orda, Kazakhstan), on the Syr Darya River, drawn and illustrated by Ranked Topographer Province Secretary Petrov. It is from the historical part of the Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Assault and Siege of the Fortified City of Chimkent from September 19–25, 1864
This topographic map shows the Russian battle plan for the siege of Chimkent (also seen as Shymkent, in present-day southern Kazakhstan) in September 1864, when Russian forces under General Cherniaev captured the city by defeating the forces of the Kokand khanate. The map is from the historical part of the Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Blockade and Siege of the Fortified City of Tashkent from May 9 to June 15, 1865
This topographic map shows the battle plan used by Russian forces in the blockade and siege of the ancient city of Tashkent in May-June 1865. The Russians under the command of General Cherniaev captured the city by overcoming the forces of the Kokand khanate commanded by ʻAlimqul, who died in the battle. The map is from the historical part of the Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Assault and Siege of the Fortified City, Ura Tiube, from September 27 to October 2, 1866
This topographic map was prepared for use by the Russian forces commanded by General Kryzhanovskii when they overcame Ura Tyube (also called Istaravshan, in the northwest of present-day Tajikistan) in the fall of 1866. The map is from the historical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Assault and Siege of the Fortress of Dzhizak from October 12-18, 1866
This topographical map shows the battle plan for the Russian assault on the fortress of Dzhizak (also seen as Jizzakh and Jizzax, in present-day eastern Uzbekistan) in October 1866. The old center of the city was largely destroyed in the ensuing battle. The map is from the historical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Siege of Samarkand Summit on May 1, 1868
This topographical map shows the Russian siege of Samarkand (in present-day Uzbekistan), which fell to Russia on May 1, 1868. This map is from the historical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Defense of the Samarkand Citadel from June 1-8, 1868
Samarkand (in present-day Uzbekistan) fell to Russian forces on May 1, 1868.  A month later, the city rose against the Russian garrison and, with great numbers of Samarkandians, other Bukharans, and Kazakhs, overwhelmed the citadel. General K.P. von Kaufman quickly marched his army to relieve the garrison at Samarkand and overcame the siege on June 8. The topographical map presented here shows the citadel at Samarkand and the area around it at the time of the local uprising against the Russian forces. The map is from the historical part ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Battle Plan of Zyrabulak of June 2, 1868
In May 1868, the emir of Bukhara ignored a peace offer from Russia and with his army attacked Russian forces at Zerabulak (also seen as Zyrabulak), northwest of Samarkand (in present-day Uzbekistan). Despite outnumbering the Russians almost two to one, the emir’s forces suffered a crushing defeat. Shown here is the topographical map of the Russian battle plan for Zerabulak. The map is from the historical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Turkestan Album, Historical Part
In the mid-to-late 19th century, the Russian Empire expanded into Central Asia, annexing territories located in present-day Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan. Tsar Alexander II approved the establishment of the governor-generalship of Russian Turkestan in 1867. General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general, commissioned the Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of the region that includes some 1,200 photographs, along with architectural plans, watercolor drawings, and maps. The work is in four parts, spanning six large, leather-bound volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Assault of the Kitab Fortress August 13-14, 1870
Kitab was a mountainous province of Bukhara (in present-day Uzbekistan) that in 1868 aided in a rebellion against Russian rule in the region. General A.K. Abramov led an expedition against Kitab in August 1870. This topographical map shows battle plans of the Russian assault on the fortress at Kitab. After the Russians retook Kitab, the emir of Bukhara resumed his government of the area and acknowledged Russian supremacy. The map is from the historical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Battle over Chin-cha-go-zi and Siege of the City. June 18, 1871
This topographical map shows battle plans for the Russian assault on Chin-cha-go-zi, located in the northwestern part of Xinjiang province, China. The battle was part of the Russian invasion of the Ili River region. During the Dungan Revolt of 1864, this region had come under the control of the Muslim Dungans and Taranchis, who had overthrown the Qing authority and established the Taranchi Sultanate. The Russians captured the town of Chin-cha-go-zi with a quick artillery offensive on June 18, 1871, and a few days later entered Ghulja, capital of the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Battle over Suidun. June 19, 1871
This topographical map shows battle plans for the Russian assault on the citadel at Suidun (present-day Shuiding), located in the northwestern part of Xinjiang province, China. The capture of Suidun took place on June 19, 1871, and was part of the Russian invasion of the Ili River region. During the Dungan Revolt of 1864, this region had come under the control of the Muslim Dungans and Tarachis, who had overthrown the Qing authority and established the Taranchi Sultanate. Following their victories at Chin-cha-go-zi and Suidun, the Russians temporarily assumed control ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Seat of War in Asia. Map of Afghanistan from Surveys Made by British and Russian Officers up to 1875
This 1878 map depicts Afghanistan and portions of Central Asia, Persia, and British India based on surveys carried out by British and Russian officers up to 1875. An inset map shows the wider Asian context and notes distances from London of the most important places. The year 1878 is significant in the history of Afghanistan in that it marked the beginning of the Second Anglo-Afghan War, launched by a British invasion on November 21, 1878. The pretext for military action was the refusal of the Afghan government to admit the ...
Military Map of Afghanistan Compiled from the Latest Russian and British Official Surveys with Reference to the Anglo-Russian Dispute
This map shows the borders of Afghanistan in 1885. It reflects the fact that the city of Herat and its environs were ceded by the Qajar dynasty of Persia to Afghanistan under the Treaty of Paris in 1857. The precise delimitation of the Afghanistan-Persian frontier was an ongoing process, however, one that was not completed until 1935. As a result of these changes, the present-day border between Afghanistan and Iran (the successor state to the Persian Empire) lies considerably to the west of the frontier as it appears on the ...
Wyld's Military Staff Map of Central Asia and Afghanistan
This impressively detailed map of Central Asia, dated 1879, was published during the Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878–80) by the British mapmaker James Wyld the younger (1812–87). The map shows the vast domains acquired by the Russian Empire in Central Asia (present-day Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan) in the late 19th century, as well as Afghanistan, eastern Persia, and parts of Baluchistan (present-day Pakistan), India, and China. The political boundaries shown on the map delineate the khanates of Bukhara, Khiva, and Afghanistan, as well as the borders the Russian ...
Map of the Khanate of Khiva and the Lower Reaches of the Amu Darya River
The permanent military presence of imperial Russia in the Aral Sea region dates to 1847, when the Russians founded Fort Aralsk near the mouth of the Syr Darya (Jaxartes) River on the northern shore of the sea. At the time Russia was locked with Great Britain in the intense rivalry for influence in Central Asia and Afghanistan that became known as the Great Game. This detailed and beautifully rendered Russian map shows the southern shores of the Aral Sea and the other great river of Central Asia, the Amu Darya ...
Map of the Two Natchez Forts Captured in February 1730 by the French, Choctaw, Tunica, Acolapissa, and Houma
This plan shows the site of the two forts captured by the French in February 1730 as part of their response to a massacre by the Natchez late the previous year. The conflict between the French and the Natchez had its origins in disputes over land. The Compagnie d’Occident (later the Compagnie des Indes) had established several tobacco plantations in the environs of Fort Rosalie (close to present-day Natchez, Mississippi), near several Indian villages. On November 28, 1729, the Natchez staged an uprising, the principal cause of which was ...
Sketch 2. French Concentration, 1914. Schlieffen Plan
This map is a simplified illustration of the plan devised by Alfred, Graf von Schlieffen (1833–1913), Chief of the German Imperial General Staff, for winning a quick German victory in what became World War I. As a military strategist, Schlieffen was principally concerned with Germany’s vulnerable geographic position. Situated between France and Russia, which were allied under a treaty concluded in 1894, Germany was certain to face a war on two fronts should trouble arise with either power. Schlieffen concluded that Germany should first fight France, the more ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Order of Battle on Western Front. 11 a.m., November 11, 1918
World War I ended with the entering into effect of the armistice at 11 a.m. on November 11, 1918. This map, drawn up at the headquarters of the General John J. Pershing, commander of the American Expeditionary Forces, shows the order of battle at the time the fighting stopped. Allied forces are arrayed in a wide arc stretching from the Swiss border to the North Sea, with the Belgians and British on the left, the French in the center and on the right, and the Americans occupying a central ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Presumed Enemy Order of Battle. October 7, 1918
This U.S. Army map from World War I shows the U.S. and opposing German lines and presumed enemy order of battle in the vicinity of Sommerance, France, on October 7, 1918. German forces are classified by their quality of fighting skill; the best units are ranked as first class and poorest as fourth class. Units are broken down into division and then regiment. The length of time a unit had spent on the front line is noted as such information could help planners determine the combat effectiveness or ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Allied and Enemy Positions in the Sommerance Region. October 2, 1918
This U.S. Army map shows the situation in the Sommerance region of the Western front on October 2, 1918, a little more than a month before the end of World War I. The map, which identifies German positions, was distributed to officers down to the company commander level. A notice reads: “Information from captured German maps, prisoner’s statements and recent aeroplane photographs.” Behind the German trench line sits the Kriemhilde Stellung, the eastern end of the larger Hindenburg Line comprising a vast system of defenses in northeastern France ...
Contributed by Library of Congress