51 results in English
View and Map of the Affair at Ratan, of August 20, 1809
This watercolor by the Swedish artist and draftsman Carl Gustaf Gillberg (1774–1855) depicts the fighting at Ratan on August 20, 1809 between the armies of Sweden and Russia. Contemporaneously with the Napoleonic wars, at the beginning of the 19th century Sweden and Russia fought what became known as the Finnish War, which had the effect of radically altering the political topography of the Baltic. Sweden’s defeat put an end to its domination in the region. Finland, previously a province of Sweden, became a grand duchy under the rule ...
History of Nadir Shah Afshar
Waqiat-i Nadiri (literally “Events of Nadir”) is a historical manuscript that chronicles the political and military career of Nādir Shāh, who was born in 1688 and rose to power in Iran during the 1720s; he became shah in 1736. He is known as a military warrior famous for his campaigns in Iran, Afghanistan, northern India, and Central Asia. He was assassinated by his officers in June 1747. The name of the author of this work, Mohammad Mahdi Munshi ibn Mohammad Nasir (also seen as Mahdī Khān Astarābādī), appears on page ...
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History of Afghanistan, from the Earliest Period to the Outbreak of the War of 1878
History of Afghanistan from the Earliest Period to the Outbreak of the War of 1878 is a political and military history of Afghanistan that was published in London in 1879, shortly after the outbreak of the Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878−80). The author, George Bruce Malleson, was a British army officer and military historian who had served in India and who wrote prolifically on the history of India and Afghanistan. The central theme of the book is the strategic importance to the British Empire of Afghanistan as a buffer against ...
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History of Nadir Shah
Tārīkh-i Nādirī (The history of Nadir) is a historical work that chronicles the political and military career of Nadir Shah, who was born in 1688 and rose to power in Iran during the 1720s; he became shah in 1736. (This work is also known as Jahāngushāy-i Nādirī in reference to the celebrated history of Genghis Khan, whom Nadir Shah admired.) Nadir Shah is known as a military warrior famous for his campaigns in Iran, Afghanistan, northern India, and Central Asia. He was assassinated by his officers in June 1747. The ...
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The Biographical Account of Timur
Kulliyat-e Farsi Taymurnamah (literally, The biographical account of Timur) is a biography of Timur or Tamerlane (1336−1405), the Turkic-Mongolian founder of the Timurid dynasty and lineage. It chronicles in detail his personal, political, and military life, including campaigns and conquests, and events in the regions of present-day Central Asia, Afghanistan, and Iran. Many biographies of Timur were produced during his lifetime and after. This lithographed version was published in Tashkent by Matba-e Ghulam Hasan in 1912. The last page of the introduction (pages 2−7) states that this book ...
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Scenes and Adventures in Affghanistan
Scenes and Adventures in Affghanistan is a personal account, by a soldier in the army of the British East India Company, of his experiences during the First Anglo-Afghan War (1838−42). The author, Sergeant-Major William Taylor, tells of the march of his regiment from the vicinity of Bombay (present-day Mumbai) in India to the borders of Afghanistan. In the preface he states: “Mine is a simple, straightforward narrative of a soldier, more accustomed to wielding the sword than the pen…” The action takes place in 1838 and 1839. In Taylor ...
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The Afghan War, 1838−1842, from the Journal and Correspondence of the Late Major-General Augustus Abbott
Augustus Abbott (1804−67) was the eldest of five brothers, all of whom distinguished themselves as British soldiers. He joined the army at age 15 and served until his retirement in 1859 with the rank of major-general. During the First Anglo-Afghan War (1838−42), Abbott saw much action as commander of an artillery battery. This book is an account of the war, based on Abbott’s journals and correspondence, published during the Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878−80), when reader interest in Afghanistan was high. The book was edited, with an ...
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The First Afghan War and Its Causes
Sir Henry Marion Durand (1812−71) was a British army officer and colonial administrator who took part in the early stages of, and later wrote a history of, the First Afghan War (1838−42). He was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Bengal Engineers at age 15 and sailed for India in October 1829. In 1839, he was part of the column of British and Indian soldiers that invaded Afghanistan under Sir John Keane. On July 23, 1839, with a British sergeant and a small number of Indian sappers ...
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The Afghan Frontier
George Campbell (1824−92) had a long career as an administrator in India, where he first went in 1843 in the service of the East India Company. He eventually rose to become lieutenant-governor of Bengal (1871−74). Campbell wrote several books about India, where he established a reputation as an administrator who, while paternalistic and authoritarian, was genuinely interested in the welfare of the Indian people. Campbell left India in 1874 to return permanently to England. He joined the Liberal Party and in 1875 was elected to Parliament as the ...
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Sale’s Brigade in Afghanistan, with an Account of the Seisure and Defence of Jellalabad
This book is a laudatory account of the actions of the First Bengal Brigade, commanded by Colonel Robert Henry Sale (1782−1845), in the First Anglo-Afghan War (1838−42). The war began in June 1838 when the British launched an invasion of Afghanistan from India with the aim of overthrowing its ruler, the amir, Dōst Moḥammad Khān, and replacing him with the supposedly pro-British former ruler Shah Shujāʻ. Sale’s brigade fought its way into the country and helped to install Shah Shujāʻ as ruler in Jalalabad. Dōst Moḥammad fled ...
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The Paradisal Epistle
This manuscript is an anthology of works in prose by the Persian poet Tughra-yi Mashhadi (died before 1667−68). Risālah-ʼi Firdawsīya (The paradisal epistle) is the name of the first item in the anthology. It is both an evocation of the beauties of Kashmir and a panegyric to the Mughal ruler Shah Jahan (1592–1666). Nothing is known of Tughra’s childhood and youth, other than that he probably was born in Mashad (although Tabriz also has been proposed as his native town). Tughra moved to India and the court ...
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Campaign of the Indus: In a Series of Letters from an Officer of the Bombay Division
Campaign of the Indus: In a Series of Letters from an Officer of the Bombay Division is a privately published collection of letters, written by Lieutenant T.W. Holdsworth between November 27, 1838, and April 21, 1840. Holdsworth’s division was part of the Anglo-Indian force that invaded Afghanistan during the First Anglo-Afghan War of 1839–42. Most of the letters are addressed to Holdsworth’s father, A.H. Holdsworth, who wrote the introduction and edited and published the book. The introduction sketches some of the history of Afghanistan, from ...
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Plan of Battle at Uzynagash on the 19th, 20th and 21st of October, 1860
This topographic map of the battle plan used by the Russians fighting the Kokandians at Uzynagash (present-day Uzun-Agach, Kazakhstan) on October 19–21, 1860, is from the historical part of the Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical ...
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Plan of Siege and Assault on the Fortresses of Ak-Mechet from July 5–28, 1853
This drawing shows a topical map of the battle plan used by the Russians at Ak-Mechet (present-day Kzyl-Orda, Kazakhstan), on the Syr Darya River, drawn and illustrated by Ranked Topographer Province Secretary Petrov. It is from the historical part of the Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes ...
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Assault and Siege of the Fortified City of Chimkent from September 19–25, 1864
This topographic map shows the Russian battle plan for the siege of Chimkent (also seen as Shymkent, in present-day southern Kazakhstan) in September 1864, when Russian forces under General Cherniaev captured the city by defeating the forces of the Kokand khanate. The map is from the historical part of the Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in ...
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Blockade and Siege of the Fortified City of Tashkent from May 9 to June 15, 1865
This topographic map shows the battle plan used by Russian forces in the blockade and siege of the ancient city of Tashkent in May-June 1865. The Russians under the command of General Cherniaev captured the city by overcoming the forces of the Kokand khanate commanded by ʻAlimqul, who died in the battle. The map is from the historical part of the Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818 ...
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Battle Plan of Zyrabulak of June 2, 1868
In May 1868, the emir of Bukhara ignored a peace offer from Russia and with his army attacked Russian forces at Zerabulak (also seen as Zyrabulak), northwest of Samarkand (in present-day Uzbekistan). Despite outnumbering the Russians almost two to one, the emir’s forces suffered a crushing defeat. Shown here is the topographical map of the Russian battle plan for Zerabulak. The map is from the historical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s ...
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Turkestan Album, Historical Part
In the mid-to-late 19th century, the Russian Empire expanded into Central Asia, annexing territories located in present-day Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan. Tsar Alexander II approved the establishment of the governor-generalship of Russian Turkestan in 1867. General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general, commissioned the Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of the region that includes some 1,200 photographs, along with architectural plans, watercolor drawings, and maps. The work is in four parts, spanning six large, leather-bound volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two ...
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Assault of the Kitab Fortress August 13-14, 1870
Kitab was a mountainous province of Bukhara (in present-day Uzbekistan) that in 1868 aided in a rebellion against Russian rule in the region. General A.K. Abramov led an expedition against Kitab in August 1870. This topographical map shows battle plans of the Russian assault on the fortress at Kitab. After the Russians retook Kitab, the emir of Bukhara resumed his government of the area and acknowledged Russian supremacy. The map is from the historical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia ...
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Battle over Chin-cha-go-zi and Siege of the City. June 18, 1871
This topographical map shows battle plans for the Russian assault on Chin-cha-go-zi, located in the northwestern part of Xinjiang province, China. The battle was part of the Russian invasion of the Ili River region. During the Dungan Revolt of 1864, this region had come under the control of the Muslim Dungans and Taranchis, who had overthrown the Qing authority and established the Taranchi Sultanate. The Russians captured the town of Chin-cha-go-zi with a quick artillery offensive on June 18, 1871, and a few days later entered Ghulja, capital of the ...
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Battle over Suidun. June 19, 1871
This topographical map shows battle plans for the Russian assault on the citadel at Suidun (present-day Shuiding), located in the northwestern part of Xinjiang province, China. The capture of Suidun took place on June 19, 1871, and was part of the Russian invasion of the Ili River region. During the Dungan Revolt of 1864, this region had come under the control of the Muslim Dungans and Tarachis, who had overthrown the Qing authority and established the Taranchi Sultanate. Following their victories at Chin-cha-go-zi and Suidun, the Russians temporarily assumed control ...
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Journal of an Expedition against the Iroquois in 1687
Louis-Henri de Baugy (died 1720), known as Chevalier de Baugy, was from a noble family in the French province of Berry. He arrived in Canada in October 1682. He served as aide-de-camp to the Marquis de Denonville in his 1687 campaign against the Senecas, one of the Iroquois nations hostile to the French. Baugy left a detailed account of this expedition, during which the French and their Indian allies ransacked four enemy villages, including their cornfields. Presented here is an 1883 edition of Baugy’s Journal d'une expédition contre ...
Sketch 2. French Concentration, 1914. Schlieffen Plan
This map is a simplified illustration of the plan devised by Alfred, Graf von Schlieffen (1833–1913), Chief of the German Imperial General Staff, for winning a quick German victory in what became World War I. As a military strategist, Schlieffen was principally concerned with Germany’s vulnerable geographic position. Situated between France and Russia, which were allied under a treaty concluded in 1894, Germany was certain to face a war on two fronts should trouble arise with either power. Schlieffen concluded that Germany should first fight France, the more ...
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Order of Battle on Western Front. 11 a.m., November 11, 1918
World War I ended with the entering into effect of the armistice at 11 a.m. on November 11, 1918. This map, drawn up at the headquarters of the General John J. Pershing, commander of the American Expeditionary Forces, shows the order of battle at the time the fighting stopped. Allied forces are arrayed in a wide arc stretching from the Swiss border to the North Sea, with the Belgians and British on the left, the French in the center and on the right, and the Americans occupying a central ...
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Presumed Enemy Order of Battle. October 7, 1918
This U.S. Army map from World War I shows the U.S. and opposing German lines and presumed enemy order of battle in the vicinity of Sommerance, France, on October 7, 1918. German forces are classified by their quality of fighting skill; the best units are ranked as first class and poorest as fourth class. Units are broken down into division and then regiment. The length of time a unit had spent on the front line is noted as such information could help planners determine the combat effectiveness or ...
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Allied and Enemy Positions in the Sommerance Region. October 2, 1918
This U.S. Army map shows the situation in the Sommerance region of the Western front on October 2, 1918, a little more than a month before the end of World War I. The map, which identifies German positions, was distributed to officers down to the company commander level. A notice reads: “Information from captured German maps, prisoner’s statements and recent aeroplane photographs.” Behind the German trench line sits the Kriemhilde Stellung, the eastern end of the larger Hindenburg Line comprising a vast system of defenses in northeastern France ...
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Meuse-Argonne Offensive. Map Showing Daily Position of Front Line
World War I ended with the entering into effect of the armistice at 11 a.m. on November 11, 1918. The final chapter of the war began on September 26, when the British, French, Belgian, and American armies attacked along a wide front with 123 divisions, with 57 divisions in reserve. Defending were 197 German divisions, of which only 51 were classed by allied intelligence as fully battle worthy. The main American attack was carried out by the First Army under General John J. Pershing in the approximately 35-kilometer wide ...
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Map of Portsmouth Harbor Drawn by Sight
This pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map made by engineers of the French Army shows the city and harbor of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, as they appeared in the early 1780s. The map shows part of the fleet of Admiral Charles Louis de Ternay, which brought General Rochambeau and 6,000 troops from France to fight with the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War in the United States. The fleet reached Portsmouth on July 10, 1780. The map centers on the Piscataqua River that flows through Portsmouth to the Atlantic Ocean. It ...
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Portsmouth, New Hampshire
This manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor made by engineers of the French Army shows the city and harbor of Portsmouth, New Hampshire as they appeared in the early 1780s. The map is oriented with north to the right. Relief is represented by hachures and shading. The map indicates three ships from the French fleet of Admiral Charles Louis de Ternay, the Pluton, Auguste, and Bourgogne, anchored to the right of Newcastle Island. The map centers on the Piscataqua River that flows through Portsmouth to the Atlantic Ocean. It charts ...
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Position of the Combined Army at Philipsburg from July 6 to August 19
This pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map is attributed to cartographer Louis-Alexandre Berthier (1753‒1815), who served with the Marquis de Lafayette (1757–1834) and the Comte de Rochambeau during the American Revolution and who later was one of Napoleon’s marshals. Berthier stayed in America from September 30, 1780 until December 24, 1782 and accompanied the combined French-American army on its march from New England to Yorktown, Virginia and its return march to Boston. This map depicts the Philipsburg, New York camp that the two armies occupied from July 6 ...
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Campaign of 1776
This map from around 1780 shows the fighting in New York and New Jersey in 1776, the first full year of the American Revolutionary War. The inset in the upper left shows the campaign in and around Philadelphia in the following year. The main map shows the site of the British landings on Staten Island in preparation for the New York campaign; troop movements and the sites of battles on Long Island, in Westchester County, and on Manhattan Island; and towns and roads in southeastern New York and eastern New ...
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Attack on the Continental Army on Long Island on August 27, 1776. Drawing of New York Island and Adjacent Areas
Attaque de l'armée des provinciaux dans Long Island du 27. aoust 1776 (Attack on the Continental Army on Long Island on August 27, 1776) shows the American and British positions in the Battle of Long Island (the Battle of Brooklyn Heights) on August 27, 1776. The map is hand-colored and is watermarked. Relief is shown by hachures. This was the first major battle in the Revolutionary War after the issuing of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776, as well as the largest engagement of the entire war ...
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Map of New York and its Environs
This manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor, most likely made by a French military cartographer in 1781, shows New York and its environs near the conclusion of the American Revolution. The map extends from Yonkers, New York in the north to Staten Island in the south and from New Rochelle, New York in the east to Totowa, New Jersey in the west. The map identifies roads, fortifications, redoubts, batteries, vegetation, and relief. A legend on the right side of the map is keyed to earthworks, fortifications, and batteries on Manhattan ...
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Northern Part of New York Island
This manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor was probably created in 1781 by a French military cartographer engaged in reconnaissance work during the final stages of the Revolutionary War in the United States. The map is oriented with north to the right. The British captured New York in September 1776. In the summer of 1781, General George Washington, commander of the Continental Army, considered an attack on New York, but he and the Comte de Rochambeau instead feigned preparations for an attack on the city while stealthily moving their troops ...
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Reconnaissance, July 1781
This manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor was probably created in 1781 by a French military cartographer engaged in reconnaissance work during the final stages of the American Revolutionary War. The map is oriented with north to the right. The British captured New York in September 1776. In the summer of 1781, General George Washington, commander of the Continental Army, considered an attack on New York, but he and the Comte de Rochambeau instead feigned preparations for an attack on the city while stealthily moving their troops to Yorktown, Virginia ...
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Reconnaissance, July 1781
This manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor was probably created in 1781 by a French military cartographer engaged in reconnaissance work during the final stages of the American Revolutionary War. The map is oriented with north to the right. The British captured New York in September 1776. In the summer of 1781, General George Washington, commander of the Continental Army, considered an attack on New York, but he and the Comte de Rochambeau instead feigned preparations for an attack on the city while stealthily moving their troops to Yorktown, Virginia ...
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Reconnaissance of the Fortifications on the Northern Part of New York Island for Which Principal Points Were Geometrically Identified on July 22 and 23
This manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor was created in July 1781 by a French military cartographer engaged in reconnaissance work during the final stages of the American Revolutionary War. The map is oriented with north to the right. The British captured New York in September 1776. In the summer of 1781, General George Washington, commander of the Continental Army, considered an attack on New York, but he and the Comte de Rochambeau instead feigned preparations for an attack on the city while stealthily moving their troops to Yorktown, Virginia ...
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Position of the American and French Armies in Kings Ferry, Peak's Hill, Crompond and Hunts Tavern from September 17 to October 20, 1782
This pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map of 1782 is attributed to cartographer Louis-Alexandre Berthier (1753‒1815), who served with the Marquis de Lafayette (1757–1834) and the Comte de Rochambeau during the American Revolution and who later was one of Napoleon’s marshals. Berthier stayed in America from September 30, 1780 until December 24, 1782 and accompanied the combined French-American army on its march from New England to Yorktown, Virginia and its return march to Boston. The map depicts the positions of the French and American armies in New York ...
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Map of Rhode Island and the Position of the French Army in Newport
Plan de Rhodes-Island, et position de l'armée françoise a Newport (Map of Rhode Island and the position of the French Army in Newport) is a manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor dating from 1780. The map is oriented with north to the right. It shows the plan of defense for Newport, Rhode Island, and its environs during the Revolutionary War. It highlights General Rochambeau’s main troop encampments around Newport as well as the position of the fleet of Admiral Charles Louis de Ternay at the entrance to Newport ...
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Map of the City, Port, and Harbor of Newport and Rhode Island. Landing in 1780
Plan de la ville, du port, et de la rade de New-port et Rhode Island. Debarquement en 1780 (Map of the city, port, and harbor of Newport and Rhode Island. Landing in 1780) is a manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor. The map is oriented with north to the right. This was a preliminary draft for other French maps of Newport, Rhode Island. The map shows the defense plan for Newport and its environs during the Revolutionary War. It highlights General Rochambeau’s main troop encampments around the city as ...
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Map of the Position of the French Army around Newport and the Squadron Moored in the Harbor of this City
Plan de la position de l'armée françoise autour de Newport et du mouillage de l'escadre dans la rade de cette ville (Map of the position of the French Army around Newport and the squadron moored in the harbor of this city) is a manuscript map in pen-and-ink and watercolor of Newport, Rhode Island, during the Revolutionary War. The map is oriented with north to the upper left. It includes very detailed information on streets and buildings in Newport. It shows the defense plan for the city and its ...
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Four Positions of the French Fleet and the Positions of the English Fleet
This pen-and-ink and watercolor manuscript map dates from 1780. It shows the positions and movements of French and English ships-of-war during an unnamed naval battle off the coast of Rhode Island during the Revolutionary War. The French vessels are listed by name and associated number on the map; the English vessels are only noted by a generic x. The French ships were part of the fleet commanded by Admiral Charles Louis de Ternay that conveyed the French expeditionary army led by General Rochambeau to North America. Ternay’s fleet departed ...
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