30 results in English
Samarkand Bazaar and Its Types of Vendors. Doctor Selling Medicine
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
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The New Chemical Medicine Invented by Paracelsus
Al-Ṭibb al-jadīd al-kīmiyāʼī alladhī ikhtaraʻahu Barākalsūs (The new chemical medicine invented by Paracelsus) is an Arabic compendium of alchemical works from early modern Europe by Salih ibn Nasrallah al-Halabi ibn Sallum (died 1671). Ibn Sallum was a noted physician in Aleppo and subsequently chief physician in the Ottoman capital of Istanbul. Ibn Sallum’s work is on iatrochemistry and consists of translations of Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim, known as Paracelsus (1493‒1541), an alchemist, physician, and medical reformer, and of alchemist and physician Oswald Crollius (circa 1563–1609 ...
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Recovery from Diseases and Remedy for Pains
The full name of the author of Shifāʼ al-asqām wa dawāʼ al-ālām (Recovery from diseases and remedy for pains) is Khidr ibn ʻAli ibn Marwan ibnʿAli ibn Husam al-Din, originally called al-Qunawi, also known as Hajji Pasha al-Aidini and al-Misri, thus identifying his provenance as Konya, Turkey. In his introduction to Shifāʼ al-asqām wa dawāʼ al-ālām,the author describes his extended stay in Egypt where he practiced as a physician at the celebrated Maristan al-Mansuri as well as at other hospitals, thus validating the appellation al-Misri (the Egyptian). He also ...
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Capsula Eburnea: Epistle from Hippocrates's Tomb
This short work consists of a collection of 25 maxims attributed to Hippocrates (circa 460−circa 377 BC). The maxims are exclusively concerned with the prognosis of patients who are terminally ill. The standard form for the maxim consists of a symptom, followed by the time (in days) to the patient's death, followed by a secondary symptom affirming the case. The 14th maxim, for instance, reads as follows: “If there appears behind the left ear a black pustule, then the patient will die in 24 days as counted from ...
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The New Chemical Medicine Invented by Paracelsus
Al-Ṭibb al-jadīd al-kīmiyāʼī alladhī ikhtaraʻahu Barākalsūs (The new chemical medicine invented by Paracelsus) is an Arabic compendium of alchemical works from early modern Europe by Salih ibn Nasrallah al-Halabi ibn Sallum (died 1671). Ibn Sallum was a noted physician in Aleppo and subsequently chief physician in the Ottoman capital of Istanbul. Ibn Sallum’s work is on iatrochemistry and consists of translations of Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim, known as Paracelsus (1493‒1541), an alchemist, physician, and medical reformer, and of alchemist and physician Oswald Crollius (circa 1563–1609 ...
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The Book of Instant Recovery
Kitāb burʼ al-sāʻa (The book of instant recovery) is a short medical tract by the famous Islamic scientist and physician Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariya Razi (died circa 925). The work consists of 24 short sections, which list the remedies for common afflictions. The work includes sections on al-udāʻ (headaches), wajʻ al-asnān (toothache), and al-iʻyā wa al-taʻab (exhaustion). The colophon lists the scribe’s name as Ghulam Muhammad Pursururi and the completion date for the manuscript as Dhu Qa’da 17, 1173 AH (July 1, 1760). Based on ...
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The Canon of Medicine
Abu ʻAli al-Husayn Ibn Sina was born in Bukhara (present-day Uzbekistan) in 980 and died in Hamadan (present-day Iran) in 1037. One of the intellectual luminaries of the medieval world, known in the Latin West as Avicenna, this Persian polymath was often referred to by Muslim authors as al-Shaykh al-Raʼīs (the preeminent scholar), acknowledgment of his status as one of the foremost savants of the Islamic world. A prolific author, Ibn Sina wrote on topics as varied as metaphysics, theology, medicine, psychology, earth sciences, physics, astronomy, astrology, and chemistry. Ibn ...
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The Commentary on the Epitome of Ibn al-Nafis
Sharḥ Mūjiz ibn al-Nafīs (The commentary on the epitome of Ibn al-Nafis), also known as al-Mughnī (The sufficient), written by Sadid al-Din ibn Mas'ud Kazaruni (died 1357), is a well-known medical text of the 14th century. It is, as well, a wonderful illustration of the commentary tradition in the Islamic world: Sharḥ Mūjiz ibn al-Nafīs consists of Sadid al-Din’s commentary on al-Mūjiz by Ibn al-Nafis (circa 1210–88). Al-Mūjiz, in turn, was the epitome or abstract written by Ibn al-Nafis on his own commentary of al-Qānūn fī al-ṭibb ...
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The Canon of Medicine
Abu ʻAli al-Husayn Ibn Sina was born in Bukhara (present-day Uzbekistan) in 980 and died in Hamadan (present-day Iran) in 1037. One of the intellectual luminaries of the medieval world, known in the Latin West as Avicenna, this Persian polymath was often referred to by Muslim authors as al-Shaykh al-Raʼīs (the preeminent scholar), acknowledgment of his status as one of the foremost savants of the Islamic world. A prolific author, Ibn Sina wrote on topics as varied as metaphysics, theology, medicine, psychology, earth sciences, physics, astronomy, astrology, and chemistry. Ibn ...
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The Canon of Medicine
Abu ʻAli al-Husayn Ibn Sina was born in Bukhara (present-day Uzbekistan) in 980 and died in Hamadan (present-day Iran) in 1037. One of the intellectual luminaries of the medieval world, known in the Latin West as Avicenna, this Persian polymath was often referred to by Muslim authors as al-Shaykh al-Raʼīs (the preeminent scholar), acknowledgment of his status as one of the foremost savants of the Islamic world. A prolific author, Ibn Sina wrote on topics as varied as metaphysics, theology, medicine, psychology, earth sciences, physics, astronomy, astrology, and chemistry. Ibn ...
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Galen’s “Therapeutics to Glaucon”
Kitāb Jālinus ’ilā Ghlūqun (Therapeutics to Glaucon) by celebrated translator and scholar Hunayn ibn Ishaq al-ʻIbadi (circa 809–73) consists of two treatises by the Greek physician Galen (Jalinus in Arabic, circa 131–201). Husayn explains that the Greek physicians of the great medical school at Alexandria classified works by Galen into various categories for students. The first category included four books as introductory works to medicine: 1, a treatise on medical sects; 2, a small work on the art of medicine; 3, a book on the pulse ...
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The Canon of Medicine
Abu ʻAli al-Husayn Ibn Sina was born in Bukhara (present-day Uzbekistan) in 980 and died in Hamadan (present-day Iran) in 1037. One of the intellectual luminaries of the medieval world, known in the Latin West as Avicenna, this Persian polymath was often referred to by Muslim authors as al-Shaykh al-Raʼīs (the preeminent scholar), acknowledgment of his status as one of the foremost savants of the Islamic world. A prolific author, Ibn Sina wrote on topics as varied as metaphysics, theology, medicine, psychology, earth sciences, physics, astronomy, astrology, and chemistry. Ibn ...
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An Epistle on Colitis
Abu ʻAli al-Husayn Ibn Sina was born in Bukhara (present-day Uzbekistan) in 980 and died in Hamadan (present-day Iran) in 1037. One of the intellectual luminaries of the medieval world, known in the Latin West as Avicenna, this Persian polymath was often referred to by Muslim authors as al-Shaykh al-Raʼīs (the preeminent scholar), acknowledgment of his status as one of the foremost savants of the Islamic world. A prolific author, Ibn Sina wrote on topics as varied as metaphysics, theology, medicine, psychology, earth sciences, physics, astronomy, astrology, and chemistry ...
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Tabulation of Drugs
The full name of the author of Taqwīm al-adwiyah (Tabulation of drugs) is given in a work by Ismaʻil Basha al-Babani (died 1920), Īḍāḥ al-maknūn (Clarification of the hidden), as Fakhr al-Din Muhammad ibn ʻAli ibn Abu al-Nasr al-Nisaburi, “andsubsequently” as al-Asfara’ini. Almost nothing is known of Fakhr al-Din’s life, although he is thought to have flourished in the 14th century. The attributions to Neyshabur and Esfarayen both indicate that he lived and worked in Khorasan in eastern Persia. Fakhr ...
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Green Emerald and Red Ruby
ʻAbd al-ʻAziz ibn Ahmad Qurashi was a prolific Indian author of the early 19th century. He composed works on Qur’anic exegesis, hadith, and medicine. Zumurrud akhḍar wa yāqūt aḥmar (Green emerald and red ruby) is one of ʻAbd al-ʻAziz’s medical works. The author starts with afflictions of the brain and related therapies. He then proceeds to afflictions of the eyes, the ears, and organs of the body before concluding the work with a discussion of various fevers and of related remedies. In his introduction, ʻAbd al-ʻAziz praises Hippocrates ...
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The Canon of Medicine
Abu ʻAli al-Husayn Ibn Sina was born in Bukhara (present-day Uzbekistan) in 980 and died in Hamadan (present-day Iran) in 1037. One of the intellectual luminaries of the medieval world, known in the Latin West as Avicenna, this Persian polymath was often referred to by Muslim authors as al-Shaykh al-Raʼīs (the preeminent scholar), acknowledgment of his status as one of the foremost savants of the Islamic world. A prolific author, Ibn Sina wrote on topics as varied as metaphysics, theology, medicine, psychology, earth sciences, physics, astronomy, astrology, and chemistry. Ibn ...
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A Complete Collection of Ancient and Present Medical Works: 100 Juan
Gu jin yi tong da quan (A complete collection of ancient and modern medical works)is an encyclopedic medical compilation that includes more than 390 medical works and Confucian classics on philosophy, history, and literature in 100 juan. The compiler was Xu Chunfu (1520−96), courtesy name Ruyuan, style names Donggao, Sihe, and Simin, a native of Xin’an. He studied under Grand Academician Ye Guangshan for the civil service examinations. As he was often in poor health, Xu also began to study medicine with the Ming physician Wang Huan ...
Contributed by National Central Library
Poem on the Causes and Symptoms of Fevers
Although the colophon of this manuscript copy of al-Urjūzah fī asbāb al-ḥumīyāt wa ’alāmātihā (Poem on the causes and symptoms of fevers) attributes the work to Abu ʻAli Husayn Ibn Sina (born in Bukhara in 980, died in Hamadan in 1037; known in the Latin West as Avicenna), the actual authorship of this work remains uncertain. Attribution of Ibn Sina’s medical works is often problematic as many of the works commonly linked to this Persian polymath remain to be studied and authenticated as having been written by him. Ibn ...
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The New Chemical Medicine Invented by Paracelsus
Al-Ṭibb al-jadīd al-kīmiyāʼī alladhī ikhtaraʻahu Barākalsūs (The new chemical medicine invented by Paracelsus) is an Arabic compendium of alchemical works from early modern Europe by Salih ibn Nasrallah al-Halabi ibn Sallum (died 1671). Ibn Sallum was a noted physician in Aleppo and subsequently chief physician in the Ottoman capital of Istanbul. Ibn Sallum’s work is on iatrochemistry and consists of translations of Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim, known as Paracelsus (1493‒1541), an alchemist, physician, and medical reformer, and of alchemist and physician Oswald Crollius (circa 1563–1609 ...
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A Compendium Aiming at Preservation of Health and Repelling of Disease
This work is a manuscript copy of Jāmi‘ al-gharaḍ fī ḥifẓ al-ṣiḥḥah wa-daf‘ al-maraḍ (A compendium aimed at preserving health and repelling disease) by the Syrian physician Abu al-Faraj ibn Ya‘qub Ibn al-Quff (1233–86). The work consists of 60 chapters treating various topics of health and hygiene. The chapter headings include kalām kullī fī ḥifẓ al-ṣiḥḥah (General remarks regarding the preservation of health), fī ḥifẓ ṣiḥḥat al-hublā (On preserving the health of a pregnant woman ...
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Recovery from Diseases and Remedy for Pains
The full name of the author of Shifāʼ al-asqām wa dawāʼ al-ālām (Recovery from diseases and remedy for pains) is Khidr ibn ʻAli ibn Marwan ibnʿAli ibn Husam al-Din, originally called al-Qunawi, also known as Hajji Pasha al-Aidini and al-Misri, thus identifying his provenance as Konya, Turkey. In his introduction to Shifāʼ al-asqām wa dawāʼ al-ālām, the author describes his extended stay in Egypt where he practiced as a physician at the celebrated Maristan al-Mansuri as well as at other hospitals, thus validating the appellation al-Misri (the Egyptian). He also ...
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Collection of Well-tested Medical Remedies
The genre of mujarrabat consists of collections of medical case studies, including tested medical remedies found to be useful in the treatment of the listed ailments. Therapeutic manuals of this type do not describe the nature and the cause of the ailments per se, but focus rather on the symptoms and the remedy—reflecting, perhaps, the nature of the work as a reference manual for the practicing clinician. According to the introduction of Jirāb al-mujarrabāt (Collection of well-tested medical remedies), this work is a ...
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The Book of Hermes the Wise
Kitāb Hirmis al-ḥakīm (The book of Hermes the Wise) is a text on invocations, magical incantations, and medicinal draughts used for the treatment of maladies. The purported author, Hermes Trismegistus (Thrice-great Hermes), was a legendary figure in the classical Greek, Roman, and Islamic worlds, to whom a large corpus of writing was attributed. The book is organized according to the Arabic letters arranged in the abjad system (alifbā’, jīm, dāl and so forth). The discussion for each letter begins with a diagnosis of an adult male who is the ...
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Women of America Proudly Carry Their Holy Cross, and Join Their Italian Sisters in Strengthening the Common Pious Action on the Battlefield
This print shows a parade of American Red Cross nurses marching down an avenue flanked by jubilant crowds. Flags of the Red Cross, the United States, the Kingdom of Italy, the United Kingdom, and the French Republic hang from buildings and lampposts and are waved by the spectators. During World War I, the American Red Cross organized a commission that created a storage facility in Rome provided with large amounts of hospital supplies and fully equipped ambulances, along with blankets and sanitary supplies. The commission also gave funds to purchase ...
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The Book of the New Chemical Medicine
This important text presents a detailed exposition of the harmony-based non-Galenic medicinal system of Paracelsus, i.e., Phillip von Hohenheim (1493-1541), the famous Renaissance author who advocated a new approach to the use of chemicals and minerals in medicine. The treatise, comprising more than 100 folio sheets, is divided into an introduction and several chapters. In the introduction, the author derives the word kīmīyā from the Greek χημεία. He attributes the foundation of the discipline to Hermes, but credits Paracelsus with shifting the discipline toward the art of medicine and ...
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Complete Book on Infant Care
Bao ying quan shu (Complete book on infant care) was compiled by Xue Kai and expanded by Xue Ji, his son. This edition was printed in the 17th year (1589) of the Wanli reign by Zhao Kehuai (died 1603), a circuit inspector in Shaanxi. It has three prefaces: by Wang Ji, dated 1583; by Zhao Kehuai, dated 1582; and by Gong Yiqing, dated 1584. In his preface, Wang Ji indicated that the work had two juan, called internal and external juan. Zhao Kehuai stated in his preface that he acquired ...
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Daguan Classified and Practical Basic Pharmacopeia Based on Historical Classics
Jing shi zheng lei Daguan ben cao (Daguan classified and practical basic pharmacopeia based on historical classics) was compiled by Tang Shenwei, courtesy name Shenyuan, a native of Huayang, Chengdu, and a medical practitioner active in the 11th−12th centuries, who came from a family of physicians. Daguan refers to a reign period (1107−10) of Emperor Huizong of Song. During the reign of Yuanyou (1086−94), Tang’s tutor was the famed physician Li Duanbo. Tang collected and recorded every medical formula and theory from classical and historical works ...
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Doctors. Samarkand
Shown here are two doctors wearing skullcaps and padded robes. Arrayed on the carpet between them are medicinal preparations in stoppered vials, as well as an assortment of powders. The steps lead to the shadowy space of a cavernous entrance arch to a sacred building—perhaps the Gur Emir, mausoleum of the Timurids. The lower walls are covered with carved stone tablets, while fragments of ceramic tiles are dimly visible above. The figure in the background appears to be a mullah in white turban and patterned robe. The image is ...
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The Book of the Interpreter
This 16th-century manuscript is an old copy of the classified Syriac–Garshuni glossary by  Elias of Nisibis (975–1046). Elias was an eastern Syriac scholar and monk, who was later a bishop and from 1008–46 metropolitan of Nisibis in northern Mesopotamia (present-day Nusaybin in southeastern Turkey). He was an important figure in Syriac and Christian Arabic literature and an early grammarian. In addition to this glossary, his literary output included a bilingual (Syriac–Arabic) chronicle, liturgical poetry, and letters. This work is prefaced by Eliya's address to the ...
John Horn, Drugs and Chemical Store. Northeast Corner of Third and Brown Streets, Philadelphia
This advertising print from 1846 shows the drugs and chemical store of John Horn, located at 801 North Third Street in Philadelphia, where he operated from 1829 to 1871. A large banner above the main entrances to the building reads "J. Horn Drugs & Chemical Store. City & county physicians can always be supplied with medicines & chemicals of the purest kind prepared with the greatest care from the latest French, English, German, & American journals." A customer is seen entering the establishment, while another looks at the wares displayed in the window. A ...