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In the middle of the 15th century, a number of manuscripts by the third-century BC Greek mathematician Archimedes began to circulate in the humanistic centers in the courts of Italy. Piero della Francesca (circa 1416–92), the Renaissance artist best known for the frescos he painted for the Vatican and for the chapels in Arezzo, transcribed a copy of a Latin translation of Archimedes’s geometry (a compilation of seven surviving treatises) and illustrated it with more than 200 drawings representing the mathematical theorems in the texts. This manuscript, long ...

This work is a printed edition of *Kita**̄b taḥri**̄r uṣu**̄l li-Uqli**̄dus* (The recension of Euclid's *Elements*) by one of the intellectual luminaries of the Islamic world, the Persian polymath Nasir al-Din Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Tusi (1201–74). After his death al-Tusi was referred to as *al-muʿallim al-thalith* (the third teacher, with Aristotle and Farabi referred to as the first and second teachers, respectively). An extraordinarily prolific author, al-Tusi made notable contributions to most of the intellectual fields of his era, writing on theology, mysticism, logic ...

This manuscript contains three works by ancient Greek authors relating to astronomy and mathematics. The first (folios 2−33) is the famous poem “Phainomena”(Phenomena) by Aratus of Soli (310–245 ВС) describing the sky and the stars. Written in hexameters, this work combines astronomical knowledge, ancient mythology, and Stoic philosophy. The text is accompanied by marginal notes. During the Middle Ages this work by Aratus was used as a manual. Folio 66 verso contains separate inscriptions of a didactic nature that apparently were made later, written in another hand ...

The Arabic mathematical tradition, which flourished during the Middle Ages, transmitted and enriched the knowledge derived from Greek and Indian sources. Arabic mathematicians further developed these studies, seeking to answer theoretical as well as practical problems. Medieval Arabic mathematical treatises were extensively copied, studied, and commented upon in subsequent centuries, as exemplified in this manuscript. This supercommentary (commentary on a commentary) by Aḥmad Muhammad al-Šāfiʻī al-Janājī al-Mālikī elucidates an earlier commentary by Zakarīyā ibn Muḥammad al-Anṣārī (circa 1420–1519) on a work by Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad al-Farāḍī ibn al-Hāʼim (circa ...