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The Generations of the Nations, or the Descendants of Humanity
Ṭabaqāt al-umam aw Al-salāʼil al-basharīyah (The generations of the nations, or The descendants of humanity) is an ambitious work of ethnography and anthropology, aimed at describing human societies in both their historical development and contemporary features. The book was published in 1912 by the Hilāl printing house of Cairo. Its author, Jirjī Zaydān, was born in Beirut in 1861 and studied medicine at the local American University. He later completed his literary and philosophical education in Cairo, before returning to Lebanon, where he studied Hebrew and Syriac. Zaydān worked as ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Topographical Map of the Road from Missouri to Oregon, Commencing at the Mouth of the Kansas in the Missouri River and Ending at the Mouth of the Walla-Wallah in the Columbia
This map, produced in 1846 in seven sections, was compiled by order of the U.S. Senate from the field notes and journal of Captain John C. Frémont (1813−90) and associated sketches and notes of his assistant, Charles Preuss (1803−54). It traces the route to the Pacific paralleling the large river systems traversing the North American continent. Frémont was an experienced frontiersman who led four expeditions into the western regions of the United States. Popularly known in his day as “The Pathfinder,” Frémont worked with the frontiersman Kit ...
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Indian Reservations West of the Mississippi River
As the United States expanded westward in the 19th century, white settlers invariably clashed with Native Americans. Possessing entirely different concepts of land use and ownership, whites and Native Americans increasingly came into a conflict. Compounding the problem was the fact that the U.S. Army was the de facto authority in most parts of the American West at this time, especially after the Civil War, and often resolved issues through force. The United States had long regarded most Indian tribes as sovereign entities, with which it negotiated treaties in ...
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Map of the Trans-Mississippi Territory of the United States During the Period of the American Fur Trade as Conducted from St. Louis between the Years 1807 and 1843
This map, published in 1902 in H.M. Chittenden’s History of the Fur Trade of the Far West, shows major cartographic features of the American West in the early 19th century, including the location of key Native American populations, forts, trading posts, and physical features, such as mountains and rivers. French voyageurs pioneered fur trading and trapping in Canada and the American West before the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, but the basic geography of this vast region was poorly understood before the Lewis and Clark expedition of 1804–6 ...
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Map Showing the Lands Assigned to Emigrant Indians West of Arkansas and Missouri
Following passage of the Indian Removal Act in 1830, President Andrew Jackson implemented a policy of land exchanges and forced expulsion of the eastern Native Americans to regions west of the Mississippi River. Epitomized by the “Trail of Tears” followed by the Cherokee in their forced journey from their ancestral homes to lands in what is now Oklahoma, Jackson’s policy set the stage for decades of native resettlement and for the widespread establishment of reservations. This map shows the approximate boundaries of the lands assigned to the relocated tribes ...
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A Grant of Indian Territory from the Upper Creek Indians as also the Lower Creeks and Seminoles to Colonel Thomas Brown Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Southern District of North America
This document is an enclosure originally submitted by Henry Lee IV to Florida territorial judge Augustus Brevoort Woodward in September 1824. Lee sought Woodward’s assistance in securing claim to property purchased by his father, General Henry Lee, from Thomas Brown in 1817. On March 1, 1783, several “Kings and Warriors” representing Upper Creek, Lower Creek, and Seminole towns affixed their names and family marks to a document granting Thomas Brown, a British superintendent of Indian affairs, substantial territory west of Saint Augustine in what was then British East Florida ...
Seminoles with Irons During Round-up and Branding at the Big Cypress Seminole Indian Reservation
The cattle industry in Florida began soon after the nation’s oldest city, Saint Augustine, was established in 1565. Spaniards imported livestock to meet the needs of the small but critical colony. By the dawn of the 18th century, Spanish, African, and Native American cattlemen worked cows on the vast wet prairies and scrublands found throughout northern and central Florida. La Chula, the largest ranch in Spanish Florida, boasted thousands of head of cattle in the late 1600s. Seminole migrants took up cattle herding in northern Florida following the destruction ...
Portrait of Seminole Indian Cowboy Charlie Micco at the Brighton Indian Reservation
Seminole Indians dominated Florida’s cattle industry during the early 19th century. The Seminoles themselves, not originally cattle people, inherited abandoned Spanish livestock in the 18th century and adopted herding into their own culture. Seminole cattle all but vanished as a result of fighting during the Seminole Wars (1817−18, 1835−42, and 1855−58). Following the removal of the vast majority of the Seminoles and the seizure of their cattle, the remaining Florida Indians adapted their herding culture to the abundant supply of wild hogs found in central and ...
Course of the Rivers and Streams Flowing to the West from the North of Lake Superior
Shown here is a manuscript map depicting the “course of the rivers and streams flowing westward from the north of Lake Superior.” The anonymous author of the map composed it “following a chart made by the Indian Ochagac and others.” Ochagac’s description of an “undrinkable body of water” with “ebb and flow” led the anonymous French mapmaker to draw conclusions about a great “Western River” that discharged itself into the “South Sea” (Pacific Ocean). The map shows different Native American nations, including the Sioux and the Assiniboine. The scale ...
Map of the New Discovery Made by the Jesuit Fathers in 1672 and Continued by Father Jacques Marquette, from the Same Group, Accompanied by a Few Frenchmen in the Year 1673, Named “Manitounie”
In May−July 1673 the French cartographer and explorer Louis Jolliet (1645−1700) and the Jesuit priest Father Jacques Marquette (1637−75) were the first Europeans to descend the Mississippi River from the region of the Great Lakes to its confluence with the Arkansas River. Their goal was to locate a passage to the Pacific Ocean. They soon noticed, however, that the Mississippi ran south in the direction of the Gulf of Mexico rather than west to the Pacific. They suspended their journey in present-day Arkansas, after the Quapaw Indians ...
Map of Louisiana, View of New Orleans
The French royal engineer, de Beauvilliers, drew this 1720 map of the entire hydrographic network of the Mississippi River, from the Illinois Country to New Orleans and the Gulf of Mexico, and the regions west of the Mississippi, stretching through present-day Texas and into New Mexico. The map was made in Paris, based on the journal of Jean-Baptiste Bénard de la Harpe (1683–1765), “commander on the Red River.” De la Harpe was a French officer, trader, and explorer who explored much of present-day Texas, Arkansas, and Oklahoma. He sailed ...
Map of the Village of the Ottawa “Savages,” at the Erie Strait, 1732
Detroit was founded in 1701 by a French trader, Antoine Laumet de Lamothe Cadillac, who built a fort on the Detroit River and named it Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit in honor of Louis Phélypeaux, Comte de Pontchartrain, the French navy minister. The British later shortened the name to Detroit (“strait”). Fort Pontchartrain was located near three Indian villages, one of which was the Ottawa village depicted here. The map shows the grid-like pattern in which communal houses known as wigwams were arranged. At the top of the map two houses ...
View of the Mission of Sault-Saint-Louis
This drawing depicts the French mission to the Iroquois at Sault-Saint-Louis (present-day Caughnawaga or Kahnawake, near Montreal, Canada). Founded on the banks of the Saint Lawrence River in 1680, the mission was where the Jesuit Joseph-François Lafitau lived among the Iroquois for five years, from 1712 to 1717. Lafitau was educated in rhetoric and philosophy and steeped in theology and the classics. At age 31, he went to Canada as a missionary, where, with the help of Father Julien Garnier, he studied the language and culture of the Iroquois. He ...
Trade between the Indians of Mexico and the French at the Port of Mississippi
In the 18th century, French Louisiana covered territory comprising some 20 present-day U.S. states. Explored and named by Robert Cavelier de La Salle in 1682, it was colonized beginning in 1699. In that year, King Louis XIV and his minister, Pontchartrain, ordered Pierre Le Moyne d’Iberville, assisted by his brother, Jean Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, to form a permanent settlement at the mouth of the Mississippi in order to counter possible British encroachments. A fort was raised at Biloxi in 1699, then a post at Mobile in ...
Nipissing Indian in Canada, 1717
This hand-colored print dating from 1717 shows a Nipissing warrior, armed with bow and arrows, wearing moccasins, clothed in a tunic and cape obtained from the Europeans, and covered in tattoos. The French in Canada, priests in particular, found native tattoos repellent for religious reasons having to do with the sanctity of the human body. The Nipissing are an Algonquin people, first encountered by the French in 1613. Beginning in the early 1600s, the French formed alliances and developed friendships with a number of Indian tribes, including the Montagnais, Algonquin ...
Tattooed Fox Warrior
This drawing, executed at Quebec around 1730, shows a Fox warrior, tattooed and armed with a bow and arrow. An Algonquin people from the region of the Great Lakes, the Fox were decimated by wars with the French-backed Hurons and in the Fox Wars with the French that began at Detroit in 1712 and continued intermittently until 1738. The Fox Wars pitted the French and their Indian allies against the Fox, who had the support of the Sauk, Winnebago, and Kickapoo. The wars showed the inability of the French to ...
Canadian Indian
This hand-colored drawing portrays a Canadian Indian, most likely a Nipissing, who was part of a settled community on the Île aux Tourtesnear Montreal. An explanatory manuscript on a separate folio states: “these natives, who are good warriors, used to live by a Canadian lake named after them, and were attracted to the colony in 1704 in order to make it their home. They currently live on the Île aux Tourtes, which is southwest of the Island of Montreal on the Saint Lawrence River. The idea was to have ...
Taking Possession of Louisiana and the Mississippi River, in the Name of Louis XIVth, by Cavelier de La Salle [From Rouen] on April 9, 1682
This lithograph from the 1870s by Jean-Adolphe Bocquin illustrates the claiming of Louisiana for France by René Robert Cavelier de La Salle, an event that helped to make La Salle one of the heroes of France’s first colonial empire. La Salle was born in Rouen in 1643. Educated at a Jesuit college, he originally intended to enter the priesthood, but in 1666 he left France for Canada, seeking to make his fortune. He obtained a grant of land and worked for a time as a farmer and landlord. With ...
New Travels to the West Indies. Including an Account on the Peoples who Live by the Great Saint Louis River, also Known as the Mississippi River, 1768
Jean-Bernard Bossu (1720–92) was a French soldier and adventurer who in the late 18th century explored large parts of the French colony of Louisiana. He made three extended trips to the New World, in 1751, 1757, and 1760. In 1751 he traveled up the Mississippi River to the lands of the Arkansas Indians, also known as the Quapaw. Bossu wrote extensive letters to the Marquis de l’Estrade about his adventures among the native peoples of the Mississippi Valley, who included not only the Quapaw but also the Illinois ...
New Voyages to North America by the Baron de Lahontan
Louis-Armand de Lom d’Arce, baron de Lahontan (1666‒1716), was a French soldier who was sent to North America in 1683. He participated in the French campaign against the Iroquois on Lake Ontario in 1684 and was put in command of Fort Saint-Joseph (present-day Niles, Michigan) in 1687. In 1688‒89 he explored along the Fox and Wisconsin Rivers and the region around present-day Green Bay, Wisconsin. He returned to France in 1692, but fled to Portugal the following year in a dispute with Jacques-François de Monbeton de Brouillan ...
Relation, or True Chronicle of what Occurred in the Country of Louisiana for Twenty-two Consecutive Years from the Start of the French Settlement in the Region
André Pénicaut, born around 1680 in La Rochelle, France, was a “carpenter in the construction of royal ships” and an interpreter. This manuscript is his account of the 22 years he spent in Louisiana between 1699 and 1721. Pénicaut first sailed for Louisiana in September 1698 on Le Marin, captained by the Count of Surgères, as part of the expedition led by Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville (1661‒1706), founder of the French colony of Louisiana. Based on his daily notes, Pénicaut’s account is extremely rich, describing in turn ...
Second Voyage by the Commander on Behalf of the Very Pious King Francis, by Jacques Cartier, in the Year Fifteen Hundred and Thirty-six
During his first voyage to the New World, in 1534, Jacques Cartier explored the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and made contact with the Iroquois. Thanks to their accounts of a fabulously rich Kingdom of Saguenay, a second voyage was rapidly decided upon. Cartier’s second voyage to New France (present-day Canada), in 1535‒36, resulted in the discovery of the Saint Lawrence River, the most important route into the interior of the continent. This discovery for a long time would raise hopes of a passage to China. Cartier ascended the ...
Algonquin Grammar or on the Natives of North America, with the Description of the Country, Journals of Voyages, Memoirs, Remarks on Natural History, Et Cetera, Et Cetera
Louis Nicolas (active 1667‒75) was a French Jesuit who in 1664 was sent to Canada as a missionary, where he remained until 1675. He traveled widely and developed a keen interest in the people, languages, flora, and fauna of New France. He wrote three major works, none of which was published in his lifetime but which survived in manuscript form: Histoire naturelle des Indes occidentales (Natural history of the West Indies); the pictorial manuscript known as the Codex Canadensis; and the work presented here, Grammaire algonquine ou des sauvages ...
Narrative of Le Moyne, an Artist who Accompanied the French Expedition to Florida Under Laudonnière, 1564
Great collections of travel narratives were published in Europe in the second half of the 16th century, reflecting more than a century of European effort to take possession of the New World, both materially and intellectually. A series of travel narratives, known today as “Great and Small Voyages,” was published in Frankfurt from 1590 to 1634 by the print shop of Theodor de Bry. This collection was distinguished by the importance and the quality of its intaglio illustrations, engraved in copper plate, and produced for the most part using authentic ...
The Special Features of Antarctic France, Otherwise Called America, and of Several Lands and Islands Discovered in Our Time
André Thevet (1516‒92) was a Franciscan friar who traveled widely and, through his writings, helped to establish cosmographie—as geography was called at the timeas a science in 16th-century France. After making trips to Africa and the Middle East in the 1540s, he was appointed chaplain to the expedition of Nicolas Durand de Villegagnon, which set out from Le Havre in May 1555 to establish a colony in Brazil. The expedition landed near present-day Rio de Janeiro in November of the same year. In January 1556, Thevet fell ...
History and General Description of New France with the Historical Journal of a Voyage in North America Made by Order of the King
Histoire et description générale de la Nouvelle France avec le Journal historique d'un voyage fait par ordre du roi dans l'Amérique septentrionnale (History and general description of New France with the historical journal of a voyage in North America made by order of the king) is the first general account of French settlements in North America, written by Jesuit priest Pierre-François-Xavier de Charlevoix (1682−1761) and published in Paris in 1744. Charlevoix’s account relies in part on his own knowledge, which he gained while staying in New ...
Historical Memoirs on Louisiana, Including the Most Interesting Events from 1687 to the Present
Mémoires historiques sur la Louisiane: contenant ce qui y est arrivé de plus mémorable depuis l'année 1687 jusqu'à présent (Historical memoirs on Louisiana, including the most interesting events from 1687 to the present) is based on a manuscript text by soldier Jean-François-Benjamin Dumont de Montigny (born 1696) that was completed in France in 1747. The work was compiled and edited by the Abbé Jean-Baptiste Le Mascrier and published in Paris in 1753. Dumont’s original manuscript is preserved in the Newberry Library in Chicago. It narrates the events ...
Natural History of the West Indies
Louis Nicolas (active 1667‒75) was a French Jesuit who in 1664 was sent to Canada as a missionary, where he remained until 1675. He traveled widely and developed a keen interest in the people, languages, flora, and fauna of New France. He wrote three major works, none of which was published in his lifetime but which survived in manuscript form: Histoire naturelle ou la fidelle recherche de tout ce qu'il y a de rare dans les Indes Occidantalles (Natural history, or the faithful research on all that is ...
Relation of what Occurred in New France in the Year 1634
Relation de ce qui s’est passé en la Nouvelle France en l'année 1634 (Relation of what occurred in New France in the year 1634) is without doubt the finest of the Jesuit Relations published in Paris between 1632 and 1673. Written by the French missionary Paul Le Jeune (1592−1664), the work is known for its literary quality as well as its observations on the Montagnais Indians. Born near the city of Châlons-sur-Marne, in the region of Champagne, Le Jeune spent two years, between 1613 and 1615, as ...
The Long Journey to the Land of the Hurons, Located in America, near the Mer douce to the Far Borders of New France, Called Canada
Gabriel Sagard (circa 1590‒circa 1640) was a Recollet brother who in 1623‒24 lived among the Hurons, France’s main Indian allies at the time. Accompanied by Father Nicolas Viel, Sagard left his monastery in Paris in March 1623 and arrived in Quebec some three months later. In August Sagard, Viel, and one other Recollet missionary, Father Joseph Le Caron, set out for the Huron country with a party of Hurons returning from their annual exchange of furs with the French. Sagard lived among the Hurons until May 1624 ...
Journal of an Expedition against the Iroquois in 1687
Louis-Henri de Baugy (died 1720), known as Chevalier de Baugy, was from a noble family in the French province of Berry. He arrived in Canada in October 1682. He served as aide-de-camp to the Marquis de Denonville in his 1687 campaign against the Senecas, one of the Iroquois nations hostile to the French. Baugy left a detailed account of this expedition, during which the French and their Indian allies ransacked four enemy villages, including their cornfields. Presented here is an 1883 edition of Baugy’s Journal d'une expédition contre ...
Original Account of the Voyage of Jacques Cartier to Canada in 1534
In the 16th century, exploration and settlement of the New World was not a high priority of the French monarchy, which was primarily concerned about rivalry on the European continent with the powerful Habsburg Empire. Moreover, France was weakened by the Wars of Religion (1562‒98). The first official voyage of exploration sponsored by France was undertaken in 1524 by an experienced Italian navigator, Giovanni da Verrazano (1485‒1528), whom King Francis I (reigned 1515‒47) commissioned to discover a new route to Cathay (China). Financed by Italian bankers established ...
Relation of the Voyage to Port Royal in Acadia, or New France
Diéreville was a French surgeon and poet who in 1699‒1700 made a voyage to New France, which he recounted in his Relation du voyage du Port-Royal de l'Acadie, ou de la Nouvelle France (Relation of the voyage to Port Royal in Acadia or New France), published in 1708 in Rouen. His full name is unknown, as is information about his life beyond the few autobiographical details offered in his account. He appears to have studied surgery in Paris and published a number of poems in a French literary ...
Noteworthy History of Florida, Located in the West Indies, Including the Three Voyages Made There by Certain Captains and French Pilots
Before the establishment of colonies in Canada early in the 16th century, France made several unsuccessful attempts to found settlements in Canada, Brazil, and Florida. The second voyage of exploration by Jacques Cartier (1491‒1557), in 1535‒36, gave birth to the idea of a colonial settlement across the Atlantic. In 1541 King Francis I named Jean-François de la Roque de Roberval (circa 1501‒circa 1560), from the western province of Saintonge, lieutenant general of Canada. Guided by Cartier, Roberval established a small fort on the Saint Lawrence River, but ...
Relation of what Occurred that was Most Remarkable in the Missions of the Fathers of the Society of Jesus in New France in the Years 1671 and 1672
The Jesuit priest Claude Dablon (circa 1619‒97) came to Canada in the late summer of 1655, where he remained until his death. In addition to his work as a missionary, Dablon developed a keen interest in the geography of the interior of North America, still largely unknown to Europeans at that time. In 1669 he and Father Claude Allouez (1622‒89) undertook a journey around Lake Superior, which contributed to the earliest European mapping of the lake. Dablon was appointed superior of the Jesuit missions in New France 1671 ...
Cherokee Phoenix, Volume 1, Number 3, March 6, 1828
The Cherokee Phoenix was the first Native American newspaper. The Cherokee syllabary, or alphabet, was invented by Cherokee silversmith Sequoyah (circa 1770−1843) and adopted by the tribal government in 1821. Four years later, the tribal government allocated $1,500 to produce a bilingual newspaper. The Cherokee Phoenix began publication at New Echota (near present-day Calhoun, Georgia) on February 21, 1828. Texts in Cherokee and English were printed side by side. The paper was edited by Cherokee schoolteacher Elias Boudinot (died 1839) with the assistance of missionary Samuel Worcester (1798 ...
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Tlingit Indian Boats at Sitka, Alaska
This image is from the album of photographs compiled by Albert K. Fisher (1856−1948) to document the Harriman Expedition that explored the coast of Alaska in June and July of 1899. Fisher was an ornithologist and vertebrate zoologist who participated in many important scientific expeditions to the American West, including the Death Valley expedition of 1891 and biological surveys in California, Nevada, the Arizona Territory (including New Mexico), Utah, and portions of other western states in 1892. Fisher was also a member of the Harriman Expedition. The photograph is ...
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Seal Skins Drying at Tlingit Seal Hunters' Camp, Yakutat Bay, Alaska
This image is from the album of photographs compiled by Albert K. Fisher (1856−1948) to document the Harriman Expedition that explored the coast of Alaska in June and July of 1899. Fisher was an ornithologist and vertebrate zoologist who participated in many important scientific expeditions to the American West, including the Death Valley expedition of 1891 and biological surveys in California, Nevada, the Arizona Territory (including New Mexico), Utah, and portions of other western states in 1892. Fisher was also a member of the Harriman Expedition. The photograph is ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Totems at Fort Wrangell, Alaska. June 5, 1899
This image is from the album of photographs compiled by Albert K. Fisher (1856−1948) to document the Harriman Expedition that explored the coast of Alaska in June and July of 1899. Fisher was an ornithologist and vertebrate zoologist who participated in many important scientific expeditions to the American West, including the Death Valley expedition of 1891 and biological surveys in California, Nevada, the Arizona Territory (including New Mexico), Utah, and portions of other western states in 1892. Fisher was also a member of the Harriman Expedition. The photograph is ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Totems at Fort Wrangell, Alaska. June 5, 1899
This image is from the album of photographs compiled by Albert K. Fisher (1856−1948) to document the Harriman Expedition that explored the coast of Alaska in June and July of 1899. Fisher was an ornithologist and vertebrate zoologist who participated in many important scientific expeditions to the American West, including the Death Valley expedition of 1891 and biological surveys in California, Nevada, the Arizona Territory (including New Mexico), Utah, and portions of other western states in 1892. Fisher was also a member of the Harriman Expedition. The photograph is ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Deserted Tlingit Village, Cape Fox, Alaska
This image is from the album of photographs compiled by Albert K. Fisher (1856−1948) to document the Harriman Expedition that explored the coast of Alaska in June and July of 1899. Fisher was an ornithologist and vertebrate zoologist who participated in many important scientific expeditions to the American West, including the Death Valley expedition of 1891 and biological surveys in California, Nevada, the Arizona Territory (including New Mexico), Utah, and portions of other western states in 1892. Fisher was also a member of the Harriman Expedition. The photograph is ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Deserted Tlingit Village, Cape Fox, Alaska
This image is from the album of photographs compiled by Albert K. Fisher (1856−1948) to document the Harriman Expedition that explored the coast of Alaska in June and July of 1899. Fisher was an ornithologist and vertebrate zoologist who participated in many important scientific expeditions to the American West, including the Death Valley expedition of 1891 and biological surveys in California, Nevada, the Arizona Territory (including New Mexico), Utah, and portions of other western states in 1892. Fisher was also a member of the Harriman Expedition. The photograph is ...
Contributed by Library of Congress