78 results in English
West Indies Showing Sovereignty of the Various Islands
This undated map of the West Indies from the first half of the 20th century was produced by the Military Intelligence Division of the General Staff of the U.S. Department of the Army. It shows U.S., British, French, and Dutch possessions in the region, along with principal trade routes, undersea telegraph cables owned by Britain and the United States, and the location of government and privately owned radio stations. Defense of the Caribbean against possible incursions by hostile European powers was a major concern of U.S. military ...
Map of the Whole of Guiana or the Savage Coast, and the Spanish West Indies at the Northern End of South America
This 18th-century Dutch map, produced in Amsterdam by the publisher Isaak Tirion (circa 1705–circa 1769), shows the northern coast of South American and its offshore islands, including Curaçao, Bonaire, and neighboring islands; Trinidad and Tobago; and Grenada. Guiana is divided, from west to east, into Spanish, Dutch, and French sections, corresponding roughly to a part of present-day Venezuela and present-day Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana. The territory to the south of Guiana, in present-day Brazil, is labeled as Portuguese. Three scales are given in the main map: French and ...
British Somaliland and Sokotra
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. British Somaliland and Sokotra is Number 97 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. British Somaliland (the northwest part of present-day Somalia) was a British protectorate, established in 1884−7, after ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Dahomey
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Dahomey is Number 105 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Dahomey (present-day Benin) was an African kingdom that arose most likely in the second quarter of the 17th century. It ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Upper Senegal and Niger
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Upper Senegal and Niger is Number 107 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Upper Senegal and Niger was a French colony, established in 1904 as part of the Government-General of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Introduction to the Guiana Colonies
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Introduction to the Guiana Colonies is Number 134 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The study deals with three territories on the northern coast of South America: French Guiana, Dutch ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
French Somaliland
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. French Somaliland is Number 109 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. British Somaliland and Sokotra is Number 97 in the series; Italian Somaliland is Number 128. French Somaliland (present-day Djibouti ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
French West Africa
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. French West Africa is Number 100 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The study covers the Government-General of West Africa, which was formed in 1895 and reconstituted by a French ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
French Guiana
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. French Guiana is Number 137 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The book covers physical and political geography, political history, social and political conditions, and economic conditions. Situated on the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
French Equatorial Africa
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. French Equatorial Africa is Number 108 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. French Equatorial Africa was an administrative division of the French Empire, established in 1910 under a governor-general responsible ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
French Guinea
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. French Guinea is Number 103 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The colony of French Guinea was established in the latter part of the 19th century as France acquired territories ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
French Possessions in India
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. French Possessions in India is Number 77 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. In 1664 France under King Louis XIV established La Compagnie des Indes Orientales (The East India Company ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
French Indo-China
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. French Indo-China is Number 78 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. French Indochina was comprised of the colony of Cochinchina (the extreme southern part of present-day Vietnam), the protectorates of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
French Possessions in Oceania
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. French Possessions in Oceania is Number 145 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The study covers two groups of territories, New Caledonia and its dependencies and French settlements in Oceania ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Senegal
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Senegal is Number 102 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Senegal was one of the oldest and most important of France’s African colonies. French activity on the African coast ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Saint-Pierre and Miquelon
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Saint-Pierre and Miquelon is Number 131 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Saint-Pierre and Miquelon are two small islands, located approximately 16 kilometers west and southwest of Newfoundland, which, as ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Partition of Africa
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Partition of Africa is Number 89 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The study covers the process by which, by the end of the 19th century, almost the whole of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Nigeria
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Nigeria is Number 94 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria was a British-administered territory, created from the amalgamation of the Colony and Protectorate of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Mauretania
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Mauretania is Number 106 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The book covers physical and political geography, political history, social and political conditions, and economic conditions. France asserted control over ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Togoland
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Togoland is Number 110 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Located on the Gulf of Guinea in West Africa, Togoland was a German protectorate during the late 19th and early ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Thirty-two Years with Islam (1832-1864)
Trente-deux ans a travers l'Islam (1832-1864) (Thirty-two years with Islam [1832-1864]) is a memoir by French soldier and diplomat Léon Roches (1809−1901), covering his career in North Africa and other parts of the Middle East, including a brief sojourn in Mecca. It is based on his diary and on correspondence that he reviewed following his retirement from government service. Beginning with his first arrival in French Algeria in 1832, the author recounts his diplomatic and military assignments in Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, and Arabia. His mastery of Arabic ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
A Campaign in Tonkin
Une campagne au Tonkin (A campaign in Tonkin) is a first-hand account of the military campaign mounted by France in 1883−86 in order to establish a protectorate over Tonkin (northern Vietnam). The author, Charles-Edouard Hocquard (1853−1911), was a military doctor who sailed with a French battalion from Toulon in January 1884. He arrived in the Gulf of Tonkin the following month and immediately proceeded to Hanoi by way of Haiphong. Hocquard’s book recounts important engagements in the campaign, including the capture of Bắc Ninh and the bombardment ...
French Indochina Today. Volume 2: Tonkin-Annam
L’Indo-Chine française contemporaine (French Indochina today) is a comprehensive study of French Indochina, a second edition of which was published in Paris in 1885. The work is in two volumes, each with two parts, covering what at that time were the four regions of French Indochina: Cochinchina (the extreme southern part of present-day Vietnam), Cambodia, Tonkin (the northern part of Vietnam), and Annam (central and southern Vietnam except for the area occupied by Cochinchina). Presented here is volume two, which is devoted to the Protectorate of Tonkin (part III ...
Almanac of Saint-Domingue for the Year 1765, with the Names of the Public Officials in the Colony
This almanac of the French colony of Saint-Domingue (present-day Haiti) for the year 1765 was published by the firm of Antoine Marie, official printers for the colony, in Cap-Français (present-day Cap-Haïtien). The book begins with a listing of the major Catholic religious holidays, predicted eclipses, and other general information, followed by entries for the twelve months of the year. The listing for each month shows the days of the month, the saint or religious feast associated with each day, and the four phases of the moon (full, last quarter, new ...
Laws of the French Colony of Saint-Domingue
Toussaint Louverture (circa 1743−1803) was the leader of the slave revolt and independence movement in the French colony of Saint-Domingue (present-day Haiti) during the French Revolution. He won military victories over the French colonial forces and then negotiated an arrangement under which the colony became self-governing as a French protectorate. Lois de la Colonie française de Saint-Domingue (Laws of the French colony of Saint-Domingue) is a compilation of 19 laws promulgated by Louverture in July and August 1801 in accordance with the constitution of July 7, 1801, also promulgated ...
Proclamation. In the Name of the Republic. We, Léger-Félicité Sonthonax, Civil Officer of the Republic, Delegate in the Islands of the French West Indies to Re-establish Law and Public Order
In August 1791, slaves in the French colony of Saint-Domingue (present-day Haiti) staged a massive revolt, setting in train the chain of events that ultimately led to the founding of independent Haiti in 1804. In 1792, the de facto government of revolutionary France sent Etienne Polverel and Léger-Félicité Sonthonax as civil commissioners to the colony for the purpose of enforcing a decree by the National Assembly, which enfranchised free blacks and mulattoes but did not yet free the colony’s slaves. Presented here is a broadside with the text of ...
Proclamation. In the Name of the Republic. We, Etienne Polverel and Léger-Félicité Sonthonax, Civil Officers of the Republic, Whom the French Nation Sent to this Country to Establish Law and Order
The broadside presented here is a rare copy of the official Creole text, translated from the French, of a proclamation issued in the colony of Saint-Domingue (present-day Haiti) granting freedom to enslaved women and to the children of newly emancipated slaves. The articles describe the procedures by which slaves could be married and the laws that governed the status of women and children after marriage. The document also specifies the value of women and of children of both sexes by age and thereby the amount of indemnity to be paid ...
Map of the Western Ocean and Part of Northern America Drawn up to Record the Travels in 1720 of Father Charlevoix of the Society of Jesus in Canada, Louisiana and Saint-Domingue
Pierre-François-Xavier de Charlevoix was a French Jesuit priest who made a voyage to America in 1720−22. He had already taught in Quebec in 1705−9 and then was recalled to France. He departed Rochefort for New France on July 2, 1720, and arrived in Quebec on September 23 of that year. From there, he traveled to Montreal, Ontario, Niagara Falls, and as far as Lake Michigan. He then went down the Mississippi River to New Orleans, where he arrived on January 10, 1722. His vessel the Adour was shipwrecked ...
An Accurate Depiction of New France, 1657
This 1657 map, entitled Novae Franciae Accurata Delineatio (An accurate depiction of New France), is attributed to the Jesuit Francesco Bressani (1612−72), who was sent as a missionary to the Huron Indians in 1642. In 1653 he published in his native Italy an account of his stay in New France in which he announced the impending publication of a map, also based on his time in North America. The map shown here, from the National Library of France, is one of only two known copies of Bressani’s map ...
Map of the City of New Orleans as it was on May 30, 1725
New Orleans was founded in 1718 by Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville and named in honor of the regent of France, Philippe d’Orléans (1674–1723), who awarded the monopoly to exploit the adjacent colony to John Law and the Compagnie d’Occident (Company of the West). Located on the Mississippi River, near where it flows into the Gulf of Mexico, the town became the capital of Louisiana in 1722. This map by an unknown cartographer shows how it appeared in 1725. Built on a uniform, rectangular grid system, the ...
Plan of the Natchez Fort, Blockaded by the French on January 20, 1731, and Destroyed on the 25th of Said Month
This plan by an unknown author shows the site of the Natchez siege of January 1731, which had its origins in disputes between the Natchez and the French colonists over land. The Compagnie d’Occident (Company of the West) had established several tobacco plantations in the environs of Fort Rosalie (close to present-day Natchez, Mississippi), near several Indian villages. On November 28, 1729, the Natchez staged an uprising, the principal cause of which was the attempt by a French commander to relocate an Indian village in order to establish a ...
Map of the Two Natchez Forts Captured in February 1730 by the French, Choctaw, Tunica, Acolapissa, and Houma
This plan shows the site of the two forts captured by the French in February 1730 as part of their response to a massacre by the Natchez late the previous year. The conflict between the French and the Natchez had its origins in disputes over land. The Compagnie d’Occident (later the Compagnie des Indes) had established several tobacco plantations in the environs of Fort Rosalie (close to present-day Natchez, Mississippi), near several Indian villages. On November 28, 1729, the Natchez staged an uprising, the principal cause of which was ...
Map for the Clarification of Land Titles in New France, 1678
This large and beautiful map by Jean-Baptiste Franquelin (1651–after 1712), later the royal hydrographer in Quebec, shows the French presence in the Saint Lawrence valley and Atlantic Canada in 1678. For 20 years from the early 1670s, maps by Franquelin accompanied reports to France sent by the highest officials in its American territories. This map was dedicated to Jean-Baptise Colbert (1619−83), minister of finance under King Louis XIV, who was interested in the colonization of New France. The map includes illustrations of the animals, plants, and people of ...
Trade between the Indians of Mexico and the French at the Port of Mississippi
In the 18th century, French Louisiana covered territory comprising some 20 present-day U.S. states. Explored and named by Robert Cavelier de La Salle in 1682, it was colonized beginning in 1699. In that year, King Louis XIV and his minister, Pontchartrain, ordered Pierre Le Moyne d’Iberville, assisted by his brother, Jean Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, to form a permanent settlement at the mouth of the Mississippi in order to counter possible British encroachments. A fort was raised at Biloxi in 1699, then a post at Mobile in ...
Samuel de Champlain. Governor-General of Canada (New France)
There are no surviving portraits of Samuel de Champlain made during his lifetime. This lithograph is a counterfeit produced in circa 1854. It is based on the portrait of a contemporary of Champlain’s, Michel Particelli d’Emery (superintendent of finances under King Louis XIII), which was engraved by Balthasar Montcornet in Paris in 1654. At the bottom of the portrait, the forger signed the name “Ducornet,” an altered version of Montcornet. Soon after, the work was attributed to Louis-César-Joseph Ducornet, a handicapped artist who painted using his mouth and ...
Departure for the Islands
When Canada, also called New France, became a royal province in 1663, there were at least six male colonists of marriageable age for every European-born female. With a view to reducing this imbalance and to ensuring the settlement of the colony, King Louis XIV subsidized the cost of passage to New France for nearly 770 young women between 1663 and 1673. When finances permitted, he granted each a dowry of 50 livres intended to facilitate their marriage and settlement. Contrary to persistent legend, these girls were not prostitutes, but more ...
Map of Fort Pontchartrain in Canada, on the Strait of Lake Erie
Fort Pontchartrain, located at the straits of Lake Erie and Lake Saint-Clair in what is today the city of Detroit, Michigan, was established in 1701 by Antoine Laumet de Lamothe Cadillac, a French military officer. It was named in honor of France’s navy minister, the Comte de Pontchartrain. Lamothe Cadillac was something of a visionary megalomaniac who hoped to make the post “the Paris of New France.” The interior of the fort was arranged according to a grid plan, similar to a small town. During the 18th century, Detroit ...
Louisiana Squirrel
This hand-colored drawing of 1727 depicts what is said to be a flying squirrel, which is perched on a branch eating a nut. The squirrel was brought to Paris from New Orleans by a Capuchin priest who, after three days, gave it to the queen. According to the note written in pencil at the top of the illustration, the small animal aroused much curiosity and amusement at the French court, where “its favorite thing was to jump onto the ladies’ necks and hide.” The note explains: “He would fly from ...
Taking Possession of Louisiana and the Mississippi River, in the Name of Louis XIVth, by Cavelier de La Salle [From Rouen] on April 9, 1682
This lithograph from the 1870s by Jean-Adolphe Bocquin illustrates the claiming of Louisiana for France by René Robert Cavelier de La Salle, an event that helped to make La Salle one of the heroes of France’s first colonial empire. La Salle was born in Rouen in 1643. Educated at a Jesuit college, he originally intended to enter the priesthood, but in 1666 he left France for Canada, seeking to make his fortune. He obtained a grant of land and worked for a time as a farmer and landlord. With ...
New Travels to the West Indies. Including an Account on the Peoples who Live by the Great Saint Louis River, also Known as the Mississippi River, 1768
Jean-Bernard Bossu (1720–92) was a French soldier and adventurer who in the late 18th century explored large parts of the French colony of Louisiana. He made three extended trips to the New World, in 1751, 1757, and 1760. In 1751 he traveled up the Mississippi River to the lands of the Arkansas Indians, also known as the Quapaw. Bossu wrote extensive letters to the Marquis de l’Estrade about his adventures among the native peoples of the Mississippi Valley, who included not only the Quapaw but also the Illinois ...
New Voyages to North America by the Baron de Lahontan
Louis-Armand de Lom d’Arce, baron de Lahontan (1666‒1716), was a French soldier who was sent to North America in 1683. He participated in the French campaign against the Iroquois on Lake Ontario in 1684 and was put in command of Fort Saint-Joseph (present-day Niles, Michigan) in 1687. In 1688‒89 he explored along the Fox and Wisconsin Rivers and the region around present-day Green Bay, Wisconsin. He returned to France in 1692, but fled to Portugal the following year in a dispute with Jacques-François de Monbeton de Brouillan ...
Compilation of Rules, Edicts, Declarations and Decisions on Trade, the Justice System and the Police in America’s French Colonies. Including the “Code Noir”
In 1717, French finance minister John Law decided to introduce the importation of slaves into the colony of Louisiana, with the goal of developing the plantation economy in Lower Louisiana. The Compagnie des Indes (Company of the Indies) subsequently obtained the monopoly on economic activity in the region and between 1719 and 1743 imported approximately 6,000 slaves to the colony. To regulate relations between slaves and colonists, the Louisiana Code noir, or slave code, was introduced in 1724. Based largely on the code compiled in 1685 for the French ...