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Map Showing the Different Routes Surveyed for the Union Pacific Rail Road Between the Missouri River and the Platte Valley
President Abraham Lincoln signed the Pacific Railroad Act into law on July 1, 1862. The act gave two companies, the Union Pacific Railroad and the Central Pacific Railroad, responsibility for completing the transcontinental railroad. The Union Pacific was to lay track westward from a point near Omaha, Nebraska toward Ogden, Utah; the Central Pacific was to build eastward from Sacramento, California. The Union Pacific began construction on December 2, 1863. This map, submitted to Secretary of Interior James Harlan on September 18, 1865, by Lieutenant Colonel J.H. Simpson of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
General Map of the Swedish Kingdom
In 1683 Swedish cartographer Carl Gripenhielm (1655–94) was appointed the first director of the Swedish Land Survey. Much of Sweden was at that time sparsely populated and not well surveyed. Gripenhielm undertook an ambitious program of mapping and surveying, extending over several decades. The completion of detailed maps of Sweden’s agricultural land, forests, and surrounding seas coincided with the country’s economic development and its rise to great power status under the rule of strong monarchs and a centralized state bureaucracy. By the 18th century, Sweden’s cartographical ...
Overview Map of Arabia. Based on C. Ritter's Geography Book III, West Asia, Parts XII−XIII
German geographer and cartographer Heinrich Kiepert (1818–99) is generally regarded as one of the most important scholarly cartographers of the second half of the 19th century. He was head of the Geographical Institute in Weimar between 1845 and 1852 and professor at the University of Berlin from 1852 until his death. Shown here is Kiepert’s 1852 map of Arabia. As indicated in the title, it is based on “C. Ritter’s geography book.” The latter refers to Die Erdkunde im Verhältnis zur Natur und zur Geschichte des Menschen ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Northeast Africa and Arabia Drawn to the Scale of 1:12,500,000
This map of North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula is from the sixth edition (1875) of Stieler's Hand-Atlas über alle Theile der Erde (Stieler’s portable atlas of all parts of the Earth), edited by August Heinrich Petermann (1822−78) and published by the firm of Justus Perthes. The map reflects the high quality of German cartography in the latter part of the 19th century and the advances made by German mapmakers in incorporating into their work findings from geology, hydrography, ethnography, and other scientific fields. The map uses ...
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The Grand Monuments of the Ancients in the Nile Valley
Kitāb al-athar al-jalīl li-qudamāʼ Wādī al-Nīl (The grand monuments of the ancients in the Nile Valley) is a history of ancient Egyptian civilization by Ahmad Najib, an official of the Egyptian antiquities service under the direction of Jacques de Morgan (1857−1924). Najib published the work as a textbook on orders from education minister Ya’qub Artin (1842−1919) and claimed that it was the first effort by an Egyptian to instruct his countrymen on the historical wonders of their country. The book begins with general remarks on the Nile ...
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Bukhara, Afghanistan, Baluchistan, Etcetera
This mid-19th century British map shows Bukhara (an independent khanate located in what is today Uzbekistan), Afghanistan, Baluchistan (in present-day Iran and Pakistan), and the eastern part of Persia (present-day Iran). Five different geographic scales are provided on the left and right margins of the map: Indian cos (i.e., kos, a measure of distance dating from ancient India and still used in the 19th century), Persian farsangs (or parasangs; one farsang was equal to approximately 5.56 kilometers), French leagues, English miles, and “Hours of a Karavan of Camels ...
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Map Illustrative of the March of the Indian Section of the Boundary Commission from Quetta to Olerat and Badkis; of the Frontier as Proposed and Actually Demarcated, and of the Author's Return Journey from Herat to the Caspian
In the early 1880s, Great Britain (which at that time effectively controlled the foreign policy of Afghanistan) and the Russian Empire opened negotiations to define the northern border of Afghanistan. The two sides formed a Joint Boundary Commission, which began work in the fall of 1885. By January 1888, the commission had set up 79 boundary markers along the 630-kilometer frontier from the Du’l-Feqar Pass to the Amudar’ya River. This annotated map of the western half of Afghanistan shows the route taken by the British (i.e., Indian ...
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Map of the Territory of the United States from the Mississippi to the Pacific Ocean
The United States gained vast territories in the West through the Mexican War of 1846−48 and the 1846 Oregon Treaty with Great Britain. By the early 1850s, government and commercial interests were debating the possibilities of building a transcontinental railroad to the Pacific. The Army Appropriations Act of 1853 provided for the completion of railroad surveys to determine possible routes. This map, issued in 1858 by Secretary of War Jefferson Davis, depicts the United States west of the Mississippi on the eve of the Civil War. California and Texas ...
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Topographical Map of the Road from Missouri to Oregon, Commencing at the Mouth of the Kansas in the Missouri River and Ending at the Mouth of the Walla-Wallah in the Columbia
This map, produced in 1846 in seven sections, was compiled by order of the U.S. Senate from the field notes and journal of Captain John C. Frémont (1813−90) and associated sketches and notes of his assistant, Charles Preuss (1803−54). It traces the route to the Pacific paralleling the large river systems traversing the North American continent. Frémont was an experienced frontiersman who led four expeditions into the western regions of the United States. Popularly known in his day as “The Pathfinder,” Frémont worked with the frontiersman Kit ...
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Map of the Trans-Mississippi Territory of the United States During the Period of the American Fur Trade as Conducted from St. Louis between the Years 1807 and 1843
This map, published in 1902 in H.M. Chittenden’s History of the Fur Trade of the Far West, shows major cartographic features of the American West in the early 19th century, including the location of key Native American populations, forts, trading posts, and physical features, such as mountains and rivers. French voyageurs pioneered fur trading and trapping in Canada and the American West before the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, but the basic geography of this vast region was poorly understood before the Lewis and Clark expedition of 1804–6 ...
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The Uganda Journal, Volume 23, Number 2, September 1959
The Uganda Literary and Scientific Society was established at Entebbe, Uganda Protectorate, in 1923. Its main activity consisted of the reading of papers and the delivery of lectures on topics relating to Uganda. In 1933 the society moved its headquarters to Kampala and decided to issue a regular publication, The Uganda Journal. The journal’s declared aim was “to collect and publish information which may add to our knowledge of Uganda and to record that which in the course of time might be lost.” Four issues per year were published ...
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Exploratory Expedition through Indochina
Voyage d’exploration en Indo-Chine (Exploratory expedition through Indochina) is an edited and annotated reprint of the account of the Mekong expedition of 1867−68, first published in 1870 in the French geographic weekly Le Tour du Monde. The book is by Francis Garnier (1839−73), the young naval officer who is credited with proposing and being the driving force behind the expedition, which was commanded by a more senior naval officer, Captain Ernest Doudart De Lagrée (1823−68). Garnier was responsible for mapping the river and reporting on its ...
Cabool: A Personal Narrative of a Journey to, and Residence in that City, in the Years 1836, 7, and 8
Cabool: A Personal Narrative of a Journey to, and Residence in that City, in the Years 1836, 7, and 8 is an account of an 18-month voyage undertaken by Sir Alexander Burnes and three companions by order of the governor-general of India. The purpose of the journey was to survey the Indus River and the territories adjoining it, with the aim of opening up the river to commerce. Following a route that took them up the Indus from its mouth in present-day Pakistan, Burnes and his party visited Shikarpur, Peshawar ...
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Preliminary Map of the Routes Followed by the Members of the Afghan Boundary Commission
In the early 1880s, Great Britain (which at that time effectively controlled the foreign policy of Afghanistan) and the Russian Empire opened negotiations to define the northern border of Afghanistan. The two sides formed a joint Afghan Boundary Commission, which began work in the fall of 1885. This map shows the routes taken by the members of the commission in the Badghis area (present-day Badghis Province) in the northwestern part of the country, on the border with present-day Turkmenistan, which at that time was part of the Russian Empire. The ...
Skeleton Map of the Afghanistan and Punjab Frontier
The Survey of India was founded in 1767 in order to map the vast holdings of the British East India Company. It remained in operation following Indian independence and is currently the national mapping organization of the government of India, under the Department of Science and Technology. The map shows portions of Afghanistan and present-day Pakistan (then part of British India). It is dated July 1891, although it is a reissue of an earlier map of November 1886, with updated information on political boundaries and railways. The border between Afghanistan ...
The Heri-Rud and Murghab Rivers and Intermediate Territory from Merv to Herat
The city of Herat and the adjoining region of Badghis were part of the territory to which the Qajar dynasty of Persia was forced to relinquish its claims following the Anglo–Persian War of 1856–57. Under the terms of 1857 Treaty of Paris, the Persians were compelled to withdraw from Herat, leaving the city under Afghan control. Britain’s interest in Herat was linked to the intense rivalry between it and Russia in what has come to be known as the Great Game. The object of this rivalry was ...
Seat of War in Asia. Map of Afghanistan from Surveys Made by British and Russian Officers up to 1875
This 1878 map depicts Afghanistan and portions of Central Asia, Persia, and British India based on surveys carried out by British and Russian officers up to 1875. An inset map shows the wider Asian context and notes distances from London of the most important places. The year 1878 is significant in the history of Afghanistan in that it marked the beginning of the Second Anglo-Afghan War, launched by a British invasion on November 21, 1878. The pretext for military action was the refusal of the Afghan government to admit the ...
Military Map of Afghanistan Compiled from the Latest Russian and British Official Surveys with Reference to the Anglo-Russian Dispute
This map shows the borders of Afghanistan in 1885. It reflects the fact that the city of Herat and its environs were ceded by the Qajar dynasty of Persia to Afghanistan under the Treaty of Paris in 1857. The precise delimitation of the Afghanistan-Persian frontier was an ongoing process, however, one that was not completed until 1935. As a result of these changes, the present-day border between Afghanistan and Iran (the successor state to the Persian Empire) lies considerably to the west of the frontier as it appears on the ...
Skeleton Map of the Baluchistan and Sind Frontier
The Survey of India was founded in 1767 in order to map the vast holdings of the British East India Company. It remained in operation following Indian independence and is currently the national mapping organization of the government of India, under the Department of Science and Technology. The present map shows portions of Baluchistan, Sind, Punjab, and neighboring regions. It was originally produced in July 1886. The version shown here is a reprint from 1891, with updated information on political boundaries and railroads. The map was reproduced by photozincography, a ...
Map of Southern Turkestan
The name Turkestan means “Land of the Turks” in Persian. Turkestan has never corresponded to a national entity but has been used in the Persianate world and elsewhere to signify the domain of Turkic peoples in Central Asia. During the second half of the 19th century these lands were the setting for the intense political rivalry between Great Britain and Imperial Russia known as the Great Game. During this period, the Russian Empire conquered vast regions in Central Asia. It assigned much of its newly acquired territory to the newly ...
Sketch Map of the Country between the Hari Rud and Murghab River. The Tejend Oasis and Roads to Merv
The year 1883 falls between two critical events in the Russian conquest of Central Asia: The sack of Geok Tepe (present-day Gökdepe) in 1881, and the conquest of Merv (present-day Mary) in 1884. This 1883 map depicts roads, rivers, and topographic information relating to the region adjacent to the Tejend (or Tejen) oasis as well as the Merv oasis, some 130 kilometers to the east. Geok Tepe and the nearby city of Ashgabat do not fall within the confines of the map (lying approximately 325 kilometers to the east of ...
Sketch Map of a Part of Russian Central Asia to Illustrate a Paper by W. Rickmer Rickmers
This 1907 map of Russian Central Asia covers a region falling within the boundaries of present-day Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Afghanistan. At the time the map was made, most of this vast territory was part of the Russian Empire. Willi Rickmer Rickmers (1873–1965) was a German mountaineer and explorer who undertook several expeditions in Central Asia and the Caucasus before journeying to the foothills of the Pamir range in eastern Tajikistan in 1906. This expedition, on which Rickmers was accompanied by his wife and fellow mountaineer C. Mabel Duff Rickmers ...
Part of Central Asia, Showing the Territory Between Zarafshan and Amu Darya Rivers, Chiefly Compiled from the Latest Russian Documents to Illustrate Mr. Delmar Morgan’s Paper
The map depicts parts of northern Afghanistan and the protectorate of Bukhara (corresponding to portions of modern-day Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Kyrgyzstan). It was meant to accompany an article written by Edward Delmar Morgan (1840–1909) as a supplementary paper published by the Royal Geographical Society. Entitled “Notes on the Recent Geography of Central Asia from Russian Sources,” the paper was published in 1884. Morgan was an English explorer and author. As a young man, he lived in Saint Petersburg, where his father was a merchant, and he was fluent in ...
Northern Arabia
This highly detailed map was produced by the British War Office for the Royal Geographical Society with the permission of the controller of His Majesty’s Stationery Office in March 1922. It shows the physical features of northern Arabia, i.e., the steppe from Arabian Hasa (often seen as Ahsa) in the southeast to Jerusalem in the northwest. Physical features include altitude contours, lakes, rivers, and seasonal stream courses (wadis). The map presumably was intended as a guide to travelers in this wilderness region. Among its interesting features are the ...
A Map of North Western Arabia and Nejd
This map shows portions of present-day Jordan and Saudi Arabia. It was drawn by British traveler Charles Montagu Doughty (1843−1926) and published in 1884. A similar map accompanied the first edition of Doughty’s famous Travels in Arabia Deserta, published in 1888. The map shows northwestern Arabia and Nejd (Najd), the remote uplands of central Saudi Arabia. It shows significant topographic detail and human habitation as well as the routes Doughty took as he zigzagged with caravans and guides from Damascus to the outskirts of Mecca. The map fills ...
Travel Routes of Northern Arabia
Shown here is a rough map of the Bedouin grazing routes in the Arabian Desert from Palmyra, Syria, in the north to Hijaz (in present-day Saudi Arabia) in the south. The map was published by the Société de Géographie (Geographical Society) of France in 1884. It provides little precise topographic detail, but significant features such as “basalt plateau” or “year-round water flow” are noted. Approximate boundaries of some tribal subdivisions of the widely dispersed Shammar confederation are shown with indication of their traditional pasturage. Also marked are oases and pre-Islamic ...
Central Arabia: Route from the Persian Gulf to the Red Sea
This map sheet displays three views of the central Arabian Peninsula. It was created by the legendary Harry Saint John Bridger Philby (1885−1960), a British adventurer, political counsellor, author, spy, and the most celebrated early modern traveler in Arabia, about which he published several books. The map focuses on the topographic features along the routes of Philby’s travels. The central map shows the route across the Arabian Peninsula from Riyadh to Jeddah (Jiddah) taken in 1917 in connection with a diplomatic mission to Ibn Saʻud, the future king ...
Aden Protectorate
Shown here is a map of Aden, at the southern tip of the Arabian Peninsula, published in 1914 from data collected in 1891−94 and 1901−4. It shows details such as mountains, wadis, settlements, and tribal boundaries, transportation and communications links, and topographic features. The survey work for the map was directed by Lieutenant Colonel F.B. Longe, then surveyor general of India. It was published under his successor, Colonel Sir Sidney Burrard, by the Survey of India. The map has a number of curious features and many of ...
Australia in 142 Photographic Illustrations after a Decade of Experiences
William Blandowski (1822−78) was a pioneer in many ways. Born in Gleiwitz, Upper Silesia (present-day Gliwice, Poland), he went to Australia in 1849 to compile "a natural history, a botanical classification, and a geological arrangement of this country." He joined an early gold rush in Victoria, where he invented a powerful water pump. Blandowski went on several expeditions, on which he collected numerous specimens and attempted to compile the first checklist of the mammals and birds of Victoria. His drawings are notable for their accuracy and artistic value. Largely ...
Relation, or True Chronicle of what Occurred in the Country of Louisiana for Twenty-two Consecutive Years from the Start of the French Settlement in the Region
André Pénicaut, born around 1680 in La Rochelle, France, was a “carpenter in the construction of royal ships” and an interpreter. This manuscript is his account of the 22 years he spent in Louisiana between 1699 and 1721. Pénicaut first sailed for Louisiana in September 1698 on Le Marin, captained by the Count of Surgères, as part of the expedition led by Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville (1661‒1706), founder of the French colony of Louisiana. Based on his daily notes, Pénicaut’s account is extremely rich, describing in turn ...
Narrative of Le Moyne, an Artist who Accompanied the French Expedition to Florida Under Laudonnière, 1564
Great collections of travel narratives were published in Europe in the second half of the 16th century, reflecting more than a century of European effort to take possession of the New World, both materially and intellectually. A series of travel narratives, known today as “Great and Small Voyages,” was published in Frankfurt from 1590 to 1634 by the print shop of Theodor de Bry. This collection was distinguished by the importance and the quality of its intaglio illustrations, engraved in copper plate, and produced for the most part using authentic ...
Authorization Granted to Jacques Hertel de Cournoyer, to Travel to the Pays-d’En-Haut for the Purpose of Trading Furs
With this document dated April 30, 1721, and signed in Montreal, Philippe de Rigaud Vaudreuil (1643–1725), governor of New France, permitted Jacques Hertel de Cournoyer (1667–1748) to go to the Pays d'en Haut (a vast territory to the west of Montreal) with two canoes and eight men. Cournoyer was to serve Father Pierre-François-Xavier de Charlevoix (1682–1761), a priest who was traveling to the region ostensibly to visit missions, but who had been ordered by Philippe, duc d’Orléans, to find the western sea, thought to provide ...
View of Muir Glacier, Alaska
This image is from the album of photographs compiled by Albert K. Fisher (1856−1948) to document the Harriman Expedition that explored the coast of Alaska in June and July of 1899. Fisher was an ornithologist and vertebrate zoologist who participated in many important scientific expeditions to the American West, including the Death Valley expedition of 1891 and biological surveys in California, Nevada, the Arizona Territory (including New Mexico), Utah, and portions of other western states in 1892. Fisher was also a member of the Harriman Expedition. The photograph is ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
View of Juneau, Alaska
This image is from the album of photographs compiled by Albert K. Fisher (1856−1948) to document the Harriman Expedition that explored the coast of Alaska in June and July of 1899. Fisher was an ornithologist and vertebrate zoologist who participated in many important scientific expeditions to the American West, including the Death Valley expedition of 1891 and biological surveys in California, Nevada, the Arizona Territory (including New Mexico), Utah, and portions of other western states in 1892. Fisher was also a member of the Harriman Expedition. The photograph is ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Davidson Glacier, Alaska
This image is from the album of photographs compiled by Albert K. Fisher (1856−1948) to document the Harriman Expedition that explored the coast of Alaska in June and July of 1899. Fisher was an ornithologist and vertebrate zoologist who participated in many important scientific expeditions to the American West, including the Death Valley expedition of 1891 and biological surveys in California, Nevada, the Arizona Territory (including New Mexico), Utah, and portions of other western states in 1892. Fisher was also a member of the Harriman Expedition. The photograph is ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Mountains near Lynn Canal, Alaska. June 6, 1899
This image is from the album of photographs compiled by Albert K. Fisher (1856−1948) to document the Harriman Expedition that explored the coast of Alaska in June and July of 1899. Fisher was an ornithologist and vertebrate zoologist who participated in many important scientific expeditions to the American West, including the Death Valley expedition of 1891 and biological surveys in California, Nevada, the Arizona Territory (including New Mexico), Utah, and portions of other western states in 1892. Fisher was also a member of the Harriman Expedition. The photograph is ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
View of Muir Glacier, Alaska
This image is from the album of photographs compiled by Albert K. Fisher (1856−1948) to document the Harriman Expedition that explored the coast of Alaska in June and July of 1899. Fisher was an ornithologist and vertebrate zoologist who participated in many important scientific expeditions to the American West, including the Death Valley expedition of 1891 and biological surveys in California, Nevada, the Arizona Territory (including New Mexico), Utah, and portions of other western states in 1892. Fisher was also a member of the Harriman Expedition. The photograph is ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Hanging Glacier near Lynn Canal, Alaska
This image is from the album of photographs compiled by Albert K. Fisher (1856−1948) to document the Harriman Expedition that explored the coast of Alaska in June and July of 1899. Fisher was an ornithologist and vertebrate zoologist who participated in many important scientific expeditions to the American West, including the Death Valley expedition of 1891 and biological surveys in California, Nevada, the Arizona Territory (including New Mexico), Utah, and portions of other western states in 1892. Fisher was also a member of the Harriman Expedition. The photograph is ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Grove Gilbert and Party Leaving the Steamer George W. Elder, Columbia Glacier, Alaska
This image is from the album of photographs compiled by Albert K. Fisher (1856−1948) to document the Harriman Expedition that explored the coast of Alaska in June and July of 1899. Fisher was an ornithologist and vertebrate zoologist who participated in many important scientific expeditions to the American West, including the Death Valley expedition of 1891 and biological surveys in California, Nevada, the Arizona Territory (including New Mexico), Utah, and portions of other western states in 1892. Fisher was also a member of the Harriman Expedition. The photograph is ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Path along the Indian River, near Sitka, Alaska
This image is from the album of photographs compiled by Albert K. Fisher (1856−1948) to document the Harriman Expedition that explored the coast of Alaska in June and July of 1899. Fisher was an ornithologist and vertebrate zoologist who participated in many important scientific expeditions to the American West, including the Death Valley expedition of 1891 and biological surveys in California, Nevada, the Arizona Territory (including New Mexico), Utah, and portions of other western states in 1892. Fisher was also a member of the Harriman Expedition. The photograph is ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Albert Fischer, Robert Ridgway, and Daniel Elliot in the Forest Bordering the Indian River, Sitka, Alaska. June 17, 1899
This image is from the album of photographs compiled by Albert K. Fisher (1856−1948) to document the Harriman Expedition that explored the coast of Alaska in June and July of 1899. Fisher was an ornithologist and vertebrate zoologist who participated in many important scientific expeditions to the American West, including the Death Valley expedition of 1891 and biological surveys in California, Nevada, the Arizona Territory (including New Mexico), Utah, and portions of other western states in 1892. Fisher was also a member of the Harriman Expedition. The photograph is ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Tlingit Indian Boats at Sitka, Alaska
This image is from the album of photographs compiled by Albert K. Fisher (1856−1948) to document the Harriman Expedition that explored the coast of Alaska in June and July of 1899. Fisher was an ornithologist and vertebrate zoologist who participated in many important scientific expeditions to the American West, including the Death Valley expedition of 1891 and biological surveys in California, Nevada, the Arizona Territory (including New Mexico), Utah, and portions of other western states in 1892. Fisher was also a member of the Harriman Expedition. The photograph is ...
Contributed by Library of Congress