31 results in English
Abridged Copy of the Geographical Map in the Inner Court of the Qing Dynasty
This work is by Liu Yan, also called Dezhi, a middle- and late-Qing dynasty scholar in history, geography, and astronomy. Liu Yan produced and contributed to a number of works in the field of geography, including Ji yuan bian (Dictionary of reign names), Li dai di li yan ge tu (A historical geographical atlas of dynasties), and Li dai di li zhi yun bian jin shi (Dictionary of geographical names with new explanations). Although most of his works appeared under the name of his teacher, the renowned geographer Li Zhaoluo ...
Contributed by National Central Library
Falkland Islands and Kerguelen
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Falkland Islands, Kerguelen is Number 138 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The Falkland Islands are a British-controlled archipelago located in the South Atlantic approximately 480 kilometers off the coast ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Schleswig-Holstein
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Schleswig-Holstein is Number 35 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The duchies of Schleswig and Holstein were ruled by the king of Denmark until 1864 when, as a consequence of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Ottoman Commercial Code: Arabic Translation
This volume contains Arabic translations of four works related to the Ottoman commercial code originally published in Turkish: The Commercial Code, Appendix, Sources of Court Judgments, and Commentary. The Ottoman commercial code and updates of it were based on the French code of 1807. The importance of the code lies in the fact that it represented a break with the tenets of sharia (Islamic law) and prepared the way for promulgation of criminal and civil codes and reorganization of courts. Publication of the translation was a project of the translator ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Commercial Law of Egypt
This volume, Qanun al-Tijarah (Commercial law of Egypt), contains two printed works, the commercial and the maritime codes of Egypt. The two documents are extracted from a more comprehensive but unidentified work, possibly covering civil procedure and the criminal code. Each title is preceded by the order of Egyptian ruler Khedive Muhammad Tawfīq authorizing publication and implementation of the law. The first title, Commercial Code, includes definitions of terms and focuses on debt and bankruptcy. The second title, Maritime Code, covers ships operating under the Ottoman flag and the rights ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Offices for Shipping and Forwarding Companies of Elder
This photograph, taken in 1907, shows the interior of the offices of a British shipping and forwarding company in the port of La Luz, near the northeast tip of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain). La Luz, also known as Las Palmas Port, was built between 1883 and 1903 by the British firm of Swanston and Company. Strategically located some 100 kilometers west of Morocco in the Atlantic Ocean, between the continents of Europe, Africa, and the Americas, the Canary Islands was important as a coaling station for steamships transiting long ...
Decree of Francisco de Borja, Prince of Esquilache, Viceroy of Peru, 1617
Don Francisco de Boria Principe de Esqvilache Conde de Mayalde Gentilhombre dela Camara del Rey Nueʃtro ʃeñor ʃu Vírrey lugar teníente, Gouernador, y Capitan General (Francisco de Borja, prince of Esquilache, count of Mayalde, gentleman of the Our Lord’s royal chamber, his lieutenant viceroy, governor, and captain general) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1617. It is a one-page decree by Francisco de Borja y Aragón, prince of Esquilache (1582−1658), a Spanish nobleman and official who was viceroy of Peru in 1615−21. The first printing press in ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Turkestan Album, Industrial Crafts and Trades Part
In the mid-to-late 19th century, the Russian Empire expanded into Central Asia, annexing territories located in present-day Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan. Tsar Alexander II approved the establishment of the governor-generalship of Russian Turkestan in 1867. General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general, commissioned the Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of the region that includes some 1,200 photographs, along with architectural plans, watercolor drawings, and maps. The work is in four parts, spanning six large, leather-bound volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Maritime Regulations
Libre appellat Consolat de mar (Maritime regulations) is a collection of maritime and commercial ordinances and decrees of medieval origin that once had legal authority. The text comes from the ancient Costumes de la Mar, of Barcelona, written between 1260 and 1270. It integrates Catalan norms as well as those from other sources, including Pisan, Genoese, Venetian, and Marsilian. The definitive writing was done in the 14th century in Barcelona, with the addition of other legal texts. The work was widely circulated. Among the numerous editions printed in Catalan, two ...
Street Plan of the Centre of Kampala
This map shows the center of Kampala, today the capital and largest city of Uganda, as it appeared in 1956 during the late colonial period. Depicted on the map are roads and streets; government and commercial buildings; schools; churches and mosques; the headquarters of the Uganda Society; and other buildings and sites. Kampala lies just north of Mengo, the capital of the Kingdom of Buganda in the 19th century, and it was selected by British colonial administrator Captain Frederick Lugard in 1890 as the headquarters of the Imperial British East ...
Female Shopkeepers Given Aid by the Joint Distribution Committee to Begin Their Businesses
Peddlers’ shops in the war-torn small towns in large swaths of Eastern Europe were ruined by World War I and the Russo-Polish War that followed in 1919‒20. Interest-free small business loans enabled small businesses, such as those of the female merchants in this wire-service photograph, to start over, selling wares along the streets of Brest-Litovsk, Poland (Yiddish, Brisk; present-day Brest, Belarus). The loans were made by the Joint Distribution Committee of American Funds for the Relief of Jewish War Sufferers (later the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, both names ...
Esquimos Selling Their Fur Dolls
This photograph of an Eskimo woman displaying traditional craft items is from the state of Alaska, in the United States. Eskimos are the main indigenous people of the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions of Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and Siberia. They also are known by their own word for themselves, Inuit, which means “people.” The photograph is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States (OAS), which includes 45,000 photographs illustrative of life and culture in the Americas. Many of the photographs were taken by ...
Thousands of Live Alligators on Free Exhibition
This broadside, dating from about 1950, is an advertisement for Osky’s, also known as Osky’s Curio Shop or Osky’s Alligator Store, a Jacksonville mercantile store that sold gift items, rare or bizarre decorative items, and goods made out of alligator skin, including lamps, purses, and wallets. The shop also exhibited live alligators and other reptiles. Jacksonville was home to many of Florida’s earliest tourist attractions, including the Florida Alligator Farm. Operating for several decades on Jacksonville’s historic Bay Street, Osky’s promoted itself through postcards ...
Papers of Joseph Ingraham, 1790-1792: Journal of the Voyage of the Brigantine "Hope" from Boston to the North-West Coast of America
Joseph Ingraham was the master of the brigantine Hope, a 70-ton American ship that was designed and equipped to make the trip around Cape Horn to the west coast of North America, from there to China, and from China back to Boston. In the late 18th century, American fur traders undertook expeditions to the northwestern Pacific, where they obtained furs, which they brought for sale to the Chinese port of Canton (present-day Guangdong). There they acquired tea, silk, porcelain, and other goods for sale in the U.S. market. This ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Philosophical and Political History of the Settlements and Trade of the Europeans in the East and West Indies
A Philosophical and Political History of the Settlements and Trade of the Europeans in the East and West Indies is a six-volume translation, published in London in 1798, of the ten-volume Histoire philosophique et politique des établissemens et du commerce des Européens dans les deux Indes by Guillaume-Thomas-François (1713–96), also known as Abbé Raynal. Educated by the Jesuits and ordained as a priest, Raynal left the clergy and became a journalist. He published the first edition of Histoire des deux Indes in 1770, which he expanded in editions of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Man of Commerce
“The Man of Commerce” is a detailed map that conflates human anatomy with the American transportation system. Published in 1889 by the Land & River Improvement Company of Superior, Wisconsin, the map promotes Superior as a transportation hub and shows the routes of 29 railroads across the United States. The outline map of North America is superimposed by a cutaway diagram of the human body. The map’s metaphor makes West Superior “the center of cardiac or heart circulation.” The railways become major arteries. New York is “the umbilicus through which ...
Brazil
This early map of Brazil is by Jacopo Gastaldi (circa 1500-circa 1565), a Piedmontese cartographer who worked in Venice and rose to the position of cosmographer of the Venetian Republic. Gastaldi produced maps and illustrations for parts of Delle Navigationi et Viaggi (Travels and voyages), a compilation of travel writings by the Venetian diplomat and geographer Giovanni Battista Ramusio (1485-1557). Ramusio’s work contained more than 50 memoirs, including the writings of Marco Polo.
F. Leaming and Company. Hardware, Nail, Steel, Hollow-Ware and Looking Glass Store. Number 215 Market Street
This crudely-printed advertising print is from Philadelphia, circa 1831. It shows the four-story storefront located at 215 Market Street (i.e., the 500 block of Market Street). The building housed F. Leaming & Company, which sold “hardware, nail, steel, hollow-ware & looking glass.” A patron approaches the glass-paned door of the business and a couple strolls past on the sidewalk. The cellar doors of the building are partially visible. Leaming operated at this location from 1831 to 1833. The lithograph was published by Childs & Inman, a partnership between Philadelphia engraver and lithographer ...
William D. Parrish, Book Bindery, Paper and Rag Warehouse, Paper Books and Stationery. Number 4 North Fifth Street, Philadelphia
This advertising print from 1847 shows the busy four-story storefront of William D. Parrish, located on Fifth Street north of Market Street in Philadelphia. Signage displayed on the establishment reads, “book bindery,” “paper & rag warehouse,” and “paper, books, and stationery.” A male patron enters the store through one open entryway; at the other entryway, a clerk prepares sacks on a hoist. Shelves of bound items line a wall of the store. In the central display window are glass bottles and stacks of bound volumes. Employees of the store are visible at work in the upper floor windows, readying hoisting ropes, inspecting rags, and working with and ...
Frederick Fisher, Upholstery, Cheap Bedding and Feather Warehouse. Number 31
This lithograph from 1846 is an advertising proof for an upholstery business operated by Frederick Fisher at the northeast corner of Eighth and Zane streets in Philadelphia. Shown here is the two-and-one-half story warehouse; it has numerous windows and is adorned with signage. Patrons are seen entering through one doorway, passing a sign advertising, "Beds Hair Mattresses Cushions Feathers Moss Ticking Cotts [sic] Cattail." Bedding and bed posts are visible in or hanging out of most of the warehouse windows. A stuffed swan standing among pillows is visible in one ...
Piper and Andrews, Warm Air Furnace Manufactory. Number 82 North Sixth Street, Philadelphia
This advertising print from 1845 shows a four-story storefront located on the 100 block of North Sixth Street in Philadelphia. The building is adorned with signage that reads: “Warm Air Furnace Manufactory,” “Radiator Stoves, Perpetual Ovens, Backs & Jambs, Vault & Hearth Grates. Metalic [sic] Roofing in Tin & Copper,” and “Cooking Ranges. Piper & Andrews.” A patron enters through one of the two open entryways; inside, a wall of shelves holds merchandise. Clerks and employees are visible at the cellar entrance, inside the second entryway (across from the stairs that lead to the second floor), and in the rear of the business. Pipes and stoves are displayed at the entryways. Two other workers toil at the second ...
Francis Field and Francis, Importers and Dealers in Tin Plate and Tinsmans Furniture, Importers and Manufacturers of Saddlery Hardware, Tin Ware, Tin Toys and Japanned Wares. Number 80 North Second Street, Philadelphia
This advertising print from 1846 shows the four-story storefront located between Arch and Race streets on North Second Street in Philadelphia. The building is covered in signage stating the name of the firm, “Francis Field & Francis,” and advertising phrases, including: “Importers & Dealers in Tin Plate and Tinsmans Furniture,” and “Importers & Manufacturers of Saddlery Hardware, Tin Ware, Tin Toys & Japanned Wares.” A male patron enters the building through the open doorway. He walks below a sign illustrated with a pig that hangs above the door, reading, “Lard Lamp Manufactory.” The patron ...
Hartley and Knight's Bedding Warehouse. Number 148 South Second Street, Philadelphia
This advertising print from 1846 shows the cluttered-looking three-story storefront of the bedding warehouse located on the 200 block of South Second Street in Philadelphia. A clerk, possibly one of the proprietors, stands at the main entrance to the store and points to one of many disheveled displays of mattresses. Behind him, a couple enters the wareroom. The couple walks under a framed figure of a goose hanging above the doorway. Shelves of mattresses line the walls and rolled mattresses fill the large open display windows. In the back of ...
J. Mayland, Jr. and Company, Tobacco and Snuff Manufactory. Cigars, Foreign and Domestic. Wholesale Grocers. Northwest Corner of Third and Race Streets, Philadelphia
This lithograph from 1846 is an advertisement showing the five-story manufactory and storefront of the tobacco and grocery business located at 111 Race Street (i.e., the 300 block of Race Street) in Philadelphia. The building is covered in signage reading: “Tobacco & Snuff Manufactory,” “Segars [sic], Foreign & Domestic,” “Wholesale Grocers,” and “J. Mayland Jr. & Co.” On the first floor, a patron enters the store near a wall of shelved goods and a line of boxes on the floor; a clerk organizes canisters in the front display window; and other employees check a list and move a crate. In the upper floor windows, boxes, barrels, and sacks are piled and employees work. A box is seen being hoisted into the air inside one window. In front ...
J. Willis, Shoe Manufactory. Number 241 Arch Street, Philadelphia
This advertising print from 1846 shows the four-story manufactory and storefront for “J. Willis Wholesale & Retale [sic] Ladies Shoe Store,” located on the 600 block of Arch Street in Philadelphia. On the street beneath the store awning, a couple enters the store through the entryway, while a lady looks at a partially visible print hanging in the central display window, possibly depicting the Willis shoe store. Drapery is visible in some of the upper floor windows and a horse-drawn carriage is parked in front of the building. Partial views of ...
John Baird, Steam Marble Works. Ridge Road Northwest of Spring Garden Street, Philadelphia
This tinted lithograph from circa 1848 is an advertisement showing an exterior view of the Ridge Road entrance to the “Spring Garden Marble Mantle Manufactory” and “Steam Marble Works” in Philadelphia owned by John Baird. The factory was erected in 1846, and included a central courtyard, offices, and an adjoining yard, marked here with a sign reading, “Garden Statuary, Vases, Ornamental Sculpture, &c.” A variety of fountains, vases, and statues are displayed on the platform roof covering the yard. Outside the fence enclosing the adjoining yard gravestones are displayed. On ...
William D. Rogers' Coach Manufactory. Sixth and Brown Streets, Philadelphia
This advertising print from 1847 shows a two-story factory on the 800 block of North Sixth Street near Spring Garden in Philadelphia. The building is adorned with signage reading: “Wm. D. Roger’s Coach Manufactory,” and “Rogers’ Coach Factory. 6th & Brown Sts.” A boy pulls a carriage out of one of the two entries to the building on Sixth Street as patrons inspect a different model of coach being pushed out the other door by a factory worker. A family walks between the coaches and other carriages are visible inside the building. Around the corner on Brown Street, two gentlemen converse on the sidewalk and a couple peers into a factory window. Near the rear of the factory, a hackney coach is displayed on top of a one-story addition. A laborer transports a sack on his back and passes near a strolling couple. In the street, a driver tries to reign in his speeding carriage, which is occupied by a couple, and is being chased by a barking dog. Nearby, a boy works on the wheel of a factory carriage. A pedestrian watches the scene from the corner. Hitching posts line the sidewalks, and a smaller factory with several smokestacks can be seen in the right background. William D. Rogers operated this factory at the site from 1846 to 1854. The lithograph was created by Alfred M. Hoffy, who was born circa 1790 in England and immigrated to the United States in the mid-1830s; the printer was Peter S. Duval, one of the most prominent lithographers and printers of his day.
T. Sharpless and Sons, Wholesale Ware Room, Clothes, Cassimeres, Merinoes, Silks and Vestings. Pekin Tea Company and Tea Room. South Second Street and Trotter's Alley, Philadelphia
This 1846 advertising print shows a four-story building located at 30-32 South Second Street, below Market Street in Philadelphia. The double storefronts have signage advertising the “Wholesale Ware Room” of “T. Sharpless & Sons,” as well as the “Tea Store” of the Pekin Tea Company. Massive merchandise displays adorn the windows and front facades of the businesses. At the wareroom, reams of different cloths hang from rods within open windows. Tables are covered in swatches and bolts of cloth. A number of patrons, including women and a couple, admire the displays. Some enter the store; the shadowy figures of female clerks are visible inside. More merchandise is visible in showcase spaces on the second floor, including bolts of cloth and cloth-covered hat boxes. At the tea store, couples exit and enter the business, and a clerk stands within the store. Several boxes of tea are piled between the Chinese figurines displayed in ...
John C. Farr and Company, Importers of Watches, Watchmakers Tools, Silver and Plated Ware, Musical Boxes, Et cetera. Number 112 Chestnut Street between Third and Fourth Streets, Philadelphia
This advertising print from circa 1850 shows street and pedestrian activity in front of the four-story corner storefront of the jewelry and watch store located at 112 ( i.e., 316) Chestnut Street in Philadelphia. A sign illustrated with a watch and reading, “No. 112 John C. Farr & Co. Wholesale and Retail,” adorns the side of the building. The sign is over a window with a shade that advertises watches, jewelry, and silverware. At the store entrance, a clerk greets two ladies and a girl between the display windows filled with silverware, jewelry, and watches. In front of the store, a lady and gentleman converse near the horses of an out-of-view carriage. At the corner, a man (possibly a store clerk) talks with two ladies who are accompanied by a child and dog. A partial view of the neighboring business (Eugene Roussel, perfumer) can be seen, including signage and the display window of the shop. This print also contains a Gothic-style border and pictorial elements that flank the central image. The pictorial elements are a clock sculpture, a pocket watch, and embellished text reading, “Watches” and “Jewelry.” Text at the bottom reads: “John C. Farr & Co. Importers of watches, watchmakers tools. Silver & plated ware, musical boxes, &c.” Farr started his business in the mid-1820s and changed the firm name to John C. Farr & Company in 1850. The business relocated circa 1854. This lithograph was printed by one of the most prominent lithographers and printers of the day, Peter S. Duval. Duval was born circa 1804 or 1805 in France. He emigrated from France to Philadelphia in the fall of 1831 to accept a job as a lithographer with the printing firm of Childs & Inman. By 1837 he had established his lithographic printing shop; he remained in business until his retirement in 1869.
Penn Steam Engine and Boiler Works. Foot of Palmer Street, Kensington, Philadelphia. Reaney, Neafie and Company Engineers, Machinists, Boiler Makers, Black Smiths and Founders
William H. Rease, born in Pennsylvania circa 1818, was the most prolific lithographer of advertising prints in Philadelphia during the 1840s and 1850s. This advertisement shows vessels docked in front of the engine and boiler works complex at the foot of Palmer Street on the busy Delaware River. Teams of several horses haul materials on trucks past the boiler works. Laborers work on the docks, piers, and boats at the complex. Docked vessels include the tugboats, steamboats, paddleboats, and a sailboat. The firm was established as Reaney, Neafie & Smith in ...
Price and Harper's Steam Saw Mill, Fancy Chair Manufactory, and Lumber Yard, Girard Avenue, between Seventh and Eighth, Philadelphia
William H. Rease, born in Pennsylvania circa 1818, was the most prolific lithographer of advertising prints in Philadelphia during the 1840s and 1850s. This advertisement shows the four-story brick building and adjoining lumber yard on Girard Avenue above Seventh Street tenanted by Price & Harper. Signboards on the front facade read, "fancy-chair factory, steam sawmill, turning & scroll sawing, and iron foundry." Large piles of lumber are visible in the yard that extends west to Eighth Street from the factory building. A man leads a horse out of the yard, while horse-drawn ...