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Negotiating Table of the Locarno Treaties
The Locarno Conference of October 1925, named for the small city in southern Switzerland where it was held, is remembered for the agreement known as the Locarno Pact. Signed by France, Germany, Belgium, Great Britain, and Italy, the treaty guaranteed Germany’s western frontier, which the bordering states of France, Germany, and Belgium pledged to treat as inviolable. Britain and Italy promised to help in repelling any armed aggression across the frontier. The Rhineland, a part of Germany occupied by the victorious Allied Powers after World War I, was permanently ...
Locarno Treaties: Treaty between Germany, Belgium, France, Great Britain and Italy
The document presented here is the archival copy of the treaty concluded by the governments of Germany, Belgium, France, Great Britain, and Italy in the city of Locarno, Switzerland, on October 16, 1925. The final page contains the diplomatic seals and the signatures of the representatives of the five signatory powers, who included Foreign Minister Gustav Stresemann of Germany, Foreign Minister Aristide Briand of France, and Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin of Great Britain. The text is in French. Also known as the Locarno Pact, the treaty guaranteed Germany’s western ...
Map Illustrative of the March of the Indian Section of the Boundary Commission from Quetta to Olerat and Badkis; of the Frontier as Proposed and Actually Demarcated, and of the Author's Return Journey from Herat to the Caspian
In the early 1880s, Great Britain (which at that time effectively controlled the foreign policy of Afghanistan) and the Russian Empire opened negotiations to define the northern border of Afghanistan. The two sides formed a Joint Boundary Commission, which began work in the fall of 1885. By January 1888, the commission had set up 79 boundary markers along the 630-kilometer frontier from the Du’l-Feqar Pass to the Amudar’ya River. This annotated map of the western half of Afghanistan shows the route taken by the British (i.e., Indian ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Uganda Journal, Volume 23, Number 1, March 1959
The Uganda Literary and Scientific Society was established at Entebbe, Uganda Protectorate, in 1923. Its main activity consisted of the reading of papers and the delivery of lectures on topics relating to Uganda. In 1933 the society moved its headquarters to Kampala and decided to issue a regular publication, The Uganda Journal. The journal’s declared aim was “to collect and publish information which may add to our knowledge of Uganda and to record that which in the course of time might be lost.” Four issues per year were published ...
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Map of Central America, 1856
This 1856 map of Central America was created by the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, based on information provided by the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee, and edited and printed by the New York mapmaker and publisher Adolphus Ranney (1824‒74). It shows the extreme southern part of Mexico and the six countries of Central America: Guatemala, Honduras, San Salvador (El Salvador), Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and the Mosquito Coast (later British Honduras, today Belize). Panama is still part of Colombia, which at this time is called New Granada ...
Tsar's Ratification of the Alaska Purchase Treaty
The original treaty for the purchase of Alaska by the United States from the Russian Empire, written in parallel columns in French and English, is presented here with the signatures of U.S. secretary of state William H. Seward and the Russian minister to the United States, Eduard de Stoeckl. The diplomatic language of the Russian imperial court was French, so there was no official Russian version of the treaty. The Russian tsar, Alexander II, affixed his signature at the end of this copy of the treaty following a short ...
Original of Treaty with Russia for Cession of Alaska
The original treaty for the purchase of Alaska by the United States, written in parallel columns in English and French, is presented here with the signatures of the U.S. secretary of state William H. Seward and the Russian minister to the United States, Eduard de Stoeckl. The diplomatic language of the Russian imperial court was French, so there was no official Russian version of the treaty. Following consent by the U.S. Senate, President Andrew Johnson affixed his signature to the end of this copy of the treaty on ...
Map of Europe Showing Countries as Established by the Peace Conference at Paris
This map, published by National Geographic in 1920, shows the territorial changes in Europe brought about by World War I and agreed at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. As indicated in the key on the lower left of the map, different colored lines are used to show new political boundaries as definitely decided, new political boundaries as yet undecided, territories subject to plebiscite, international territories, and the boundaries of countries as they existed before the war. The war and the subsequent peacemaking process resulted in the return to France ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Map of the British and French Dominions in North America with the Roads, Distances, Limits, and Extent of the Settlements
This landmark map of North America published in 1755 shows British sovereignty over large parts of the continent at the outset of the French and Indian War (1754–63). It is perhaps the most well-known 18th-century map of North America. Created by John Mitchell, a native Virginian who moved to London in his mid-thirties, the map was compiled using information provided by governors of the British colonies. Although territories of other European powers are shown, the map is biased toward British interests. French claims in the Mississippi and Ohio valleys ...
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The Province of New Jersey, Divided into East and West, Commonly Called the Jerseys
William Faden, a noted English publisher who specialized in maps and prints, published The Province of New Jersey, Divided into East and West, Commonly Called the Jerseys in 1777. The map is often considered a revolutionary map, both for its detailed depiction of topography in the northern part of the state and its indication of the boundary lines made in 1743 demarcating “West Jersey” and “East Jersey.” The hand-colored map features an extraordinary number of city and town names throughout the colony. County boundaries, rivers, and roads are indicated, and ...
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The United States According to the Definitive Treaty of Peace Signed at Paris, September 3, 1783
On August 9, 1783, Philadelphia mapmaker William McMurray placed an advertisement in the Pennsylvania Packet, a Philadelphia newspaper, for a map entitled The United States According to the Definitive Treaty of Peace. McMurray solicited money for the publication of his map by issuing subscriptions. Once a sufficient number of subscriptions were sold, McMurray planned to have his map engraved and printed. The subscriptions were for three-and-a-half dollars: one-and-a-half dollars paid up front, with the remaining two dollars due upon delivery of the map. Unfortunately, orders came slowly and the map ...
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Report of the Commission Entrusted by the Council with the Study of the Frontier between Syria and Iraq
After World War I, the victorious Allied and Associated Powers agreed to place various territories that had been detached from the defeated German and Ottoman empires under League of Nations mandates. Palestine, Iraq, and Transjordan were assigned to Britain, Syria and Lebanon to France. The Franco-British Convention of December 23, 1920 established the border between Syria and Iraq in general terms, but called for a definitive demarcation of the frontier to be carried out by an Anglo-French Boundary Commission. Under these agreements, a Commission Entrusted with the Study of the ...
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Boundary Between Turkey and Armenia: As Determined by Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States of America
The disintegration of the Ottoman and Russian empires at the end of World War I gave birth to a number of new states. In May 1918, Eastern Armenia, formerly part of the Russian Empire, declared itself an independent republic. In April 1920, the victorious Allied Powers, dismantling the Ottoman Empire, directed that Western Armenia be attached to the new republic and appointed U.S. President Woodrow Wilson to arbitrate the boundary between Turkey (successor to the Ottoman Empire) and Armenia. In November 1920, Wilson set a boundary based on a ...
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Boundary between Moscow and Smolensk Provinces. Borodino Battlefield
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
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A Plan of the West Line or Parallel of Latitude
This map shows the original Mason-Dixon Line, traditionally thought of as the divide between North and South in the United States and, before the Civil War, between the slaveholding and non-slaveholding states. In the 1700s, a boundary dispute arose between the British colonies of Maryland and Pennsylvania. They agreed to resolve the dispute by having two English astronomers, Charles Mason (1728–86) and Jeremiah Dixon (1733–79), survey the border. Mason and Dixon completed their survey in 1767 and set up milestones to mark the line. This map was made ...
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