Upper Reaches of the Chernaia Berel River, a Tributary of the Bukhtarma River System

This photograph is part of a collection of color postcards made from negatives taken by photographer Sergei Ivanovich Borisov (1859–1935) in the Altay, or Altai, Mountains region of southern Siberia early in the 20th century. Borisov was born into a family of serfs in Simbirsk (present-day Ulyanovsk) and was forced to work from an early age. In the late 1880s he moved to the city of Barnaul in Altayskiy Kray, where in 1894 he opened a photography studio. This studio later became the largest and most popular in the city. In 1907, Borisov began his expedition in the Altay Mountains, which lasted until 1911. He took around 1,500 photographs during this expedition, which, upon his return to Barnaul, he presented to the public through the use of a magic lantern. The photographs depict views of nature in remote corners of the Altay Mountains and the Altay and Kazakh peoples indigenous to this region. Borisov offered the photographs to various European publishers for the production of postcards. The collection includes two series of color postcards. The first series was issued by the Swedish printing company Granberg Society in Stockholm, but it is not known where the second series was published. The postcards are preserved in the Altay State Regional Studies Museum in Barnaul and were digitized for the Meeting of Frontiers digital library project in the early 2000s.

People Relaxing in the Main Alley of Chemal Forest. Beshpek Crest

This photograph is part of a collection of color postcards made from negatives taken by photographer Sergei Ivanovich Borisov (1859–1935) in the Altay, or Altai, Mountains region of southern Siberia early in the 20th century. Borisov was born into a family of serfs in Simbirsk (present-day Ulyanovsk) and was forced to work from an early age. In the late 1880s he moved to the city of Barnaul in Altayskiy Kray, where in 1894 he opened a photography studio. This studio later became the largest and most popular in the city. In 1907, Borisov began his expedition in the Altay Mountains, which lasted until 1911. He took around 1,500 photographs during this expedition, which, upon his return to Barnaul, he presented to the public through the use of a magic lantern. The photographs depict views of nature in remote corners of the Altay Mountains and the Altay and Kazakh peoples indigenous to this region. Borisov offered the photographs to various European publishers for the production of postcards. The collection includes two series of color postcards. The first series was issued by the Swedish printing company Granberg Society in Stockholm, but it is not known where the second series was published. The postcards are preserved in the Altay State Regional Studies Museum in Barnaul and were digitized for the Meeting of Frontiers digital library project in the early 2000s.

People Relaxing in the Main Alley of Chemal Forest. Beshpek Crest

This photograph is part of a collection of color postcards made from negatives taken by photographer Sergei Ivanovich Borisov (1859–1935) in the Altay, or Altai, Mountains region of southern Siberia early in the 20th century. Borisov was born into a family of serfs in Simbirsk (present-day Ulyanovsk) and was forced to work from an early age. In the late 1880s he moved to the city of Barnaul in Altayskiy Kray, where in 1894 he opened a photography studio. This studio later became the largest and most popular in the city. In 1907, Borisov began his expedition in the Altay Mountains, which lasted until 1911. He took around 1,500 photographs during this expedition, which, upon his return to Barnaul, he presented to the public through the use of a magic lantern. The photographs depict views of nature in remote corners of the Altay Mountains and the Altay and Kazakh peoples indigenous to this region. Borisov offered the photographs to various European publishers for the production of postcards. The collection includes two series of color postcards. The first series was issued by the Swedish printing company Granberg Society in Stockholm, but it is not known where the second series was published. The postcards are preserved in the Altay State Regional Studies Museum in Barnaul and were digitized for the Meeting of Frontiers digital library project in the early 2000s.

Summer Residents in the Valley of the Ergol River, a Tributary of the Charysh River

This photograph is part of a collection of color postcards made from negatives taken by photographer Sergei Ivanovich Borisov (1859–1935) in the Altay, or Altai, Mountains region of southern Siberia early in the 20th century. Borisov was born into a family of serfs in Simbirsk (present-day Ulyanovsk) and was forced to work from an early age. In the late 1880s he moved to the city of Barnaul in Altayskiy Kray, where in 1894 he opened a photography studio. This studio later became the largest and most popular in the city. In 1907, Borisov began his expedition in the Altay Mountains, which lasted until 1911. He took around 1,500 photographs during this expedition, which, upon his return to Barnaul, he presented to the public through the use of a magic lantern. The photographs depict views of nature in remote corners of the Altay Mountains and the Altay and Kazakh peoples indigenous to this region. Borisov offered the photographs to various European publishers for the production of postcards. The collection includes two series of color postcards. The first series was issued by the Swedish printing company Granberg Society in Stockholm, but it is not known where the second series was published. The postcards are preserved in the Altay State Regional Studies Museum in Barnaul and were digitized for the Meeting of Frontiers digital library project in the early 2000s.

Summer Residents in the Valley of the Ergol River, a Tributary of the Charysh River

This photograph is part of a collection of color postcards made from negatives taken by photographer Sergei Ivanovich Borisov (1859–1935) in the Altay, or Altai, Mountains region of southern Siberia early in the 20th century. Borisov was born into a family of serfs in Simbirsk (present-day Ulyanovsk) and was forced to work from an early age. In the late 1880s he moved to the city of Barnaul in Altayskiy Kray, where in 1894 he opened a photography studio. This studio later became the largest and most popular in the city. In 1907, Borisov began his expedition in the Altay Mountains, which lasted until 1911. He took around 1,500 photographs during this expedition, which, upon his return to Barnaul, he presented to the public through the use of a magic lantern. The photographs depict views of nature in remote corners of the Altay Mountains and the Altay and Kazakh peoples indigenous to this region. Borisov offered the photographs to various European publishers for the production of postcards. The collection includes two series of color postcards. The first series was issued by the Swedish printing company Granberg Society in Stockholm, but it is not known where the second series was published. The postcards are preserved in the Altay State Regional Studies Museum in Barnaul and were digitized for the Meeting of Frontiers digital library project in the early 2000s.

Summer Residents near a Cave in the Vicinity of the Village of Chernyi Anui on the Karakol River

This photograph is part of a collection of color postcards made from negatives taken by photographer Sergei Ivanovich Borisov (1859–1935) in the Altay, or Altai, Mountains region of southern Siberia early in the 20th century. Borisov was born into a family of serfs in Simbirsk (present-day Ulyanovsk) and was forced to work from an early age. In the late 1880s he moved to the city of Barnaul in Altayskiy Kray, where in 1894 he opened a photography studio. This studio later became the largest and most popular in the city. In 1907, Borisov began his expedition in the Altay Mountains, which lasted until 1911. He took around 1,500 photographs during this expedition, which, upon his return to Barnaul, he presented to the public through the use of a magic lantern. The photographs depict views of nature in remote corners of the Altay Mountains and the Altay and Kazakh peoples indigenous to this region. Borisov offered the photographs to various European publishers for the production of postcards. The collection includes two series of color postcards. The first series was issued by the Swedish printing company Granberg Society in Stockholm, but it is not known where the second series was published. The postcards are preserved in the Altay State Regional Studies Museum in Barnaul and were digitized for the Meeting of Frontiers digital library project in the early 2000s.

At a Construction Site, Farthest to the Right: Efrem Bagdasarovich Grigorian

This item is from a collection of materials related to the Salekhard‒Igarka Railway, an unfinished Soviet railroad sometimes called the “Dead Road.” This railroad was intended to unite European Russia with the northern regions of Siberia and to facilitate the export of minerals from the industrial city of Noril’sk. Construction began in 1949 but was abandoned in 1953 after Stalin’s death. Stalin had ordered the construction of the railroad without heeding the advice of specialists, who knew that a railroad built on permafrost would be difficult to maintain. Stalin considered the railroad strategically necessary to facilitate the defense of Russia’s northern coast; however, actual demand for the railway was low. Construction was divided into two projects, number 501 and number 503, and was carried out by prisoners of the infamous gulag system. According to eyewitness accounts, conditions in the camps of these projects and in Yermakovo, the central settlement of construction project 503, were better than in most parts of the gulag system. This collection consists of photographs, documents, maps, letters, and memoirs housed in the Igarka Museum of Permafrost. Photographs depict daily life in Yermakovo, a settlement near Igarka, abandoned buildings and railroad equipment, and musicians and actors of the projects’ cultural and educational divisions. Many of the photographs were taken by Walter Ruge (1915–2011) and depict his wife Irina Andreevna Alferova. Ruge completed a ten-year sentence as a political prisoner in 1951 before he was released to live as an exile in Yermakovo, where he met Alferova, a fellow exile. The collection’s documents and maps provide information about the planning and construction of the railroad and the administration of the camps, while the memoirs and letters describe the experiences of prisoners, exiles, and civilian residents of Yermakovo and the camps. The collection was digitized in the early 2000s for the Meeting of Frontiers digital library project.

Sasha Grigorian, Son of Efrem Bagdasarovich Grigorian, on a Horse in the Village of Yermakovo

This item is from a collection of materials related to the Salekhard‒Igarka Railway, an unfinished Soviet railroad sometimes called the “Dead Road.” This railroad was intended to unite European Russia with the northern regions of Siberia and to facilitate the export of minerals from the industrial city of Noril’sk. Construction began in 1949 but was abandoned in 1953 after Stalin’s death. Stalin had ordered the construction of the railroad without heeding the advice of specialists, who knew that a railroad built on permafrost would be difficult to maintain. Stalin considered the railroad strategically necessary to facilitate the defense of Russia’s northern coast; however, actual demand for the railway was low. Construction was divided into two projects, number 501 and number 503, and was carried out by prisoners of the infamous gulag system. According to eyewitness accounts, conditions in the camps of these projects and in Yermakovo, the central settlement of construction project 503, were better than in most parts of the gulag system. This collection consists of photographs, documents, maps, letters, and memoirs housed in the Igarka Museum of Permafrost. Photographs depict daily life in Yermakovo, a settlement near Igarka, abandoned buildings and railroad equipment, and musicians and actors of the projects’ cultural and educational divisions. Many of the photographs were taken by Walter Ruge (1915–2011) and depict his wife Irina Andreevna Alferova. Ruge completed a ten-year sentence as a political prisoner in 1951 before he was released to live as an exile in Yermakovo, where he met Alferova, a fellow exile. The collection’s documents and maps provide information about the planning and construction of the railroad and the administration of the camps, while the memoirs and letters describe the experiences of prisoners, exiles, and civilian residents of Yermakovo and the camps. The collection was digitized in the early 2000s for the Meeting of Frontiers digital library project.

Efrem Bagdasarovich Grigorian with His Son on a Cart near a Store

This item is from a collection of materials related to the Salekhard‒Igarka Railway, an unfinished Soviet railroad sometimes called the “Dead Road.” This railroad was intended to unite European Russia with the northern regions of Siberia and to facilitate the export of minerals from the industrial city of Noril’sk. Construction began in 1949 but was abandoned in 1953 after Stalin’s death. Stalin had ordered the construction of the railroad without heeding the advice of specialists, who knew that a railroad built on permafrost would be difficult to maintain. Stalin considered the railroad strategically necessary to facilitate the defense of Russia’s northern coast; however, actual demand for the railway was low. Construction was divided into two projects, number 501 and number 503, and was carried out by prisoners of the infamous gulag system. According to eyewitness accounts, conditions in the camps of these projects and in Yermakovo, the central settlement of construction project 503, were better than in most parts of the gulag system. This collection consists of photographs, documents, maps, letters, and memoirs housed in the Igarka Museum of Permafrost. Photographs depict daily life in Yermakovo, a settlement near Igarka, abandoned buildings and railroad equipment, and musicians and actors of the projects’ cultural and educational divisions. Many of the photographs were taken by Walter Ruge (1915–2011) and depict his wife Irina Andreevna Alferova. Ruge completed a ten-year sentence as a political prisoner in 1951 before he was released to live as an exile in Yermakovo, where he met Alferova, a fellow exile. The collection’s documents and maps provide information about the planning and construction of the railroad and the administration of the camps, while the memoirs and letters describe the experiences of prisoners, exiles, and civilian residents of Yermakovo and the camps. The collection was digitized in the early 2000s for the Meeting of Frontiers digital library project.

Efrem Bagdasarovich Grigorian by the Entrance for Civilian Staff to the Cafeteria of a Corrective Labor Camp

This item is from a collection of materials related to the Salekhard‒Igarka Railway, an unfinished Soviet railroad sometimes called the “Dead Road.” This railroad was intended to unite European Russia with the northern regions of Siberia and to facilitate the export of minerals from the industrial city of Noril’sk. Construction began in 1949 but was abandoned in 1953 after Stalin’s death. Stalin had ordered the construction of the railroad without heeding the advice of specialists, who knew that a railroad built on permafrost would be difficult to maintain. Stalin considered the railroad strategically necessary to facilitate the defense of Russia’s northern coast; however, actual demand for the railway was low. Construction was divided into two projects, number 501 and number 503, and was carried out by prisoners of the infamous gulag system. According to eyewitness accounts, conditions in the camps of these projects and in Yermakovo, the central settlement of construction project 503, were better than in most parts of the gulag system. This collection consists of photographs, documents, maps, letters, and memoirs housed in the Igarka Museum of Permafrost. Photographs depict daily life in Yermakovo, a settlement near Igarka, abandoned buildings and railroad equipment, and musicians and actors of the projects’ cultural and educational divisions. Many of the photographs were taken by Walter Ruge (1915–2011) and depict his wife Irina Andreevna Alferova. Ruge completed a ten-year sentence as a political prisoner in 1951 before he was released to live as an exile in Yermakovo, where he met Alferova, a fellow exile. The collection’s documents and maps provide information about the planning and construction of the railroad and the administration of the camps, while the memoirs and letters describe the experiences of prisoners, exiles, and civilian residents of Yermakovo and the camps. The collection was digitized in the early 2000s for the Meeting of Frontiers digital library project.