June 30, 2016

Philadelphia Gas Works. From the Southwest

This lithograph from circa 1852 shows an exterior view of the first Philadelphia Gas Works. The gas works was expanded in 1850 after the designs of the second chief engineer, John C. Cresson (1806–76). This view, looking northeast, includes the coal stores, retort house, lime and coke sheds, lime kilns and house, purifying houses, gasholders, and railroad tracks situated on the 2200–2300 blocks of Market Street, immediately east of the Market Street Permanent Bridge. The gas works were originally completed in 1834 after the designs of engineer Samuel V. Merrick (1801–70). A second facility, the Point Breeze Gas Works, was built 1851–54 at the intersection of Passyunk and Schuylkill Avenues, designed by Cresson. The printer, John T. Bowen (circa 1801–56), was a prominent Philadelphia lithographer and the most important mid 19th-century American publisher of publication plates. He was born in England circa 1801, immigrated to the United States in 1834, and worked as a colorist and lithographer in New York before relocating to Philadelphia in 1838.

George W. Ridgway, Successor to Samuel P. Griffitts, Jr.

This lithograph from 1841 is an advertisement showing the front and side of the three-and-one-half story storefront located on the 900 block of Chestnut Street in Philadelphia. Text above the image reveals that the building was tenanted by George W. Ridgway, the successor to Samuel P. Griffitts, Jr. At the top of the building, large signage reads “Drugs” and “Chemicals.” The name of the proprietor, “G.W. Ridgway,” adorns the two entranceways. A sign for “Mineral Water” is displayed between the doorways. Jugs, jars, and flasks are displayed in the storefront windows, an awning covers a side door, and balustrades adorn the roof of the building. Ridgway tenanted the address from 1841–42. The lithographer, Thomas S. Sinclair (circa 1805–81), was born in the Orkney Islands of Scotland and was active in Philadelphia by 1833, where he soon had his own business and was one of the first local printmakers to experiment with color lithography. A practical lithographer throughout his career, Sinclair produced all genres of lithographs, including maps, advertisements, city and landscape views, sheet music covers, portraiture, political cartoons, certificates, and book illustrations.

Hoskins, Hieskell and Company. Importers and Jobbers of Fancy and Staple Dry Goods

This chromolithograph from circa 1854 is an advertisement showing a view of a five-story building located at 213 (i.e., 513) Market Street in Philadelphia. The building was completed in 1853 after the designs of the Philadelphia architectural firm Sloan & Stewart, established in 1853 by architect Samuel Sloan and carpenter John Stewart. The Norman-Italian style ornamented, cast-iron fronted building was tenanted by the dry goods establishment Hoskins, Hieskell & Company. In front of the store, a gentleman departs from the entrance. A couple greets a gentleman standing across from another man who is leaning against a column of the building. Another couple strolls past neighboring buildings on the block, and a group of men convene near crates on the sidewalk. In the street, a driver stands with his loaded horse-drawn dray. The image is surrounded by an ornate border, including filigree; cherubic and female allegorical figures representing the mechanical arts, industry, and virtues; and medallions printed with the names of the contractors who worked on the structure. Contractors listed include: William Keay, Granite; Bottom, Tiffany & Co., Iron Front, Trenton, N.J.; James Spenceley, Plasterer; E.& P. Coleman, Bolts &c.; William Butcher & Son, Tin Roofing; George Creely, Brick Layer; Sloan & Stewart, Architects; Brown & Allison, Carpenters & Builders; Wright, Hunter & Company, Plumbing & Gas Fitting; and Hood & Company, Iron Doors & Shutters, Grating &c. Hoskins and Heiskell relocated to the site in 1853. The building was renumbered to 513 Market Street in 1857, following the consolidation of the city. Artists Christian Inger (circa 1814–circa 1895) and Louis (Lewis) Haugg (1827–1903) collaborated to create this print. Both artists were born in Germany, immigrated to the United States, and settled in Philadelphia. Inger worked as a lithographic artist in the city circa 1854–95, and Haugg was active in Philadelphia as a lithographic artist and printer circa 1855–1900. Beginning in the 1850s, Inger worked primarily with the printer of this advertisement, Peter S. Duval. Born circa 1804 or 1805 in France, Duval was one of the most prominent lithographers and printers of his day. He emigrated from France to Philadelphia in the fall of 1831 to accept a job as a lithographer with the printing firm of Childs & Inman. By 1837 he had established his lithographic printing shop and he remained in business until his retirement in 1869.

William D. Rogers' Coach and Light Carriage Manufactory. Corner of 6th and Master Streets, Philadelphia

This hand-colored lithograph from circa 1854 is an advertisement depicting an exterior view of the Rogers’ industrial complex, the “model coach factory of America,” located at the busy corner of Sixth and Master Streets in Philadelphia. A sign on the side of the four-story building reads, “W.D. Rogers Coach and Light Carriage Factory,” and signage at the top of the building reads, “W.D. Rogers Carriage Builder” and “Carriages of Every Description Built by W.D. Rogers.” Outside the building, a clerk shows a carriage to a couple, while inside, laborers are seen working in the windows of the upper stories. Drays, surreys, “Rogers” delivery carts, and a young African American man with a white horse traverse the intersection in front of the building. On Sixth Street, a passenger disembarks from a horse-drawn omnibus near the factory entrance. On the left side of the image, a second omnibus rests at a corner; the omnibus driver unhappily receives a citation from a constable while his young passenger watches. Text at the bottom of the image reads, in part: “Carriages of every description built to order, which for style, durability & elegance of finish, shall not be surpassed by any in the country. The work is conducted under the immidiate superintendance [sic] of the proprietor, who is himself a practical Coach maker. N.B. orders from any part of the world, promptly executed. Southern & Western merchants will find it to their advantage to call at this establishment. The Sixth Street line of omnibuses run from the Exchange to the Factory every few minutes.” Rogers (the business established in 1846, and the factory erected in 1853) absorbed rival manufactory George W. Watson in 1870. The business operated for more than sixty years. The creator of this print is listed as the firm of Rease & Schell, a partnership formed in the 1850s by William H. Rease and Francis H. Schell. Born in Pennsylvania circa 1818, Rease was a prominent mid-19th century Philadelphia trade card lithographer. He was known to highlight details of human interest in his advertisements. Schell was born in Philadelphia in 1834 and is best known for his work during the Civil War as an illustrator for Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper. The printer was Wagner & McGuigan, a firm specializing in the production of advertising prints.

The Offering of the Carriers of the Press to Their Patrons

This lithograph from 1862 contains a montage of seven titled vignette views of historic sites in Philadelphia. Independence Hall, the building used by the Continental Congresses in 1774 and 1776, is predominately featured. The vignettes include front and rear views of Independence Hall, showing the Chestnut Street elevation and the rear elevation with Independence Square. The largest vignette, located in the middle of the image, is titled, “Signing of the Declaration of Independence,” and is based on a painting by John Trumbull (1756–1843). “Hall of Independence – Interior” shows the interior Assembly Room utilized as an exhibit gallery. The final vignettes are exterior and interior views of Carpenters’ Hall, and a view of the house in which the Declaration of Independence was written, located at the southwest corner of Market and Seventh Streets. The house, which was owned at the time by bricklayer Jacob Graff Jr., was later used as a storefront. In this view, it is adorned with signage reading, “W. Brown & Co.,” “Book & Job Printing Office,” and “Birth Place of Liberty.” Most of the vignette views include pedestrian or visitor traffic. The group of vignettes is surrounded by a border of vinery containing an American eagle and a shield. The montage was printed by Bowen & Company, which was active until circa 1870.

Eagle Hotel. Number 139 North 3rd Street, Philadelphia

This lithograph from circa 1855 is an advertisement showing the multi-storied hotel at 139 (i.e., 227–229) North Third Street in Philadelphia. The hotel is identified as the Eagle Hotel, and the proprietors as Allmond & Stem. An awning over the second floor balcony prominently displays these names. On the second floor balcony, guests sit, stand, and converse. On the street below, a woman approaches the “Private Entrance” and figures stand under the balcony. Dogs walk near an omnibus parked in front of the hotel. Two adjacent businesses, that of merchants Worman & Ely, and that of Eckel & Robinson, providing “Brooms, Cedar & Willow Ware,” can also be seen. Merchandise (including a hobby horse, brooms, pram, basin, and baskets) lines the sidewalk and is visible in the windows and doorways at 137 North Third Street, the Eckel & Robinson business. Two men converse near an entrance to the store. The address of the hotel became 227 North Third Street in 1857, following the consolidation of the city. This print was produced by Thomas S. Sinclair (circa 1805–81). Sinclair was born in the Orkney Islands of Scotland and was active in Philadelphia by 1833, where he soon had his own business and was one of the first local printmakers to experiment with color lithography. A practical lithographer throughout his career, Sinclair produced all genres of lithographs, including maps, advertisements, city and landscape views, sheet music covers, portraiture, political cartoons, certificates, and book illustrations.