June 30, 2016

Keystone Marble Works. S. F. Jacoby and Company, Market Street between 20th and 21st, Philadelphia

This lithograph from 1856 is an advertisement containing a montage of five views of the marble works established in 1855 at 2025 Market Street in Philadelphia. The images are separated by borders comprised of filigree, mantles, and sculpture. The upper image shows the exterior of the three-story L-shaped marble works factory. The factory is adorned with a balcony lined with statues, the figure of William Penn on the roof, and signage reading “Keystone Marble Works” and “S.F. Jacoby & Co.” Marble works, predominately monuments, fill the courtyard. Nearby, laborers work with a pile of marble slabs next to a horse-drawn cart. This image also shows street and pedestrian traffic, including a horse-drawn dray parked near the sidewalk, a couple on horseback, a horse-drawn carriage, a horse-drawn cart, and a laborer pushing a hand-cart in the street. A small inset image contains a vignette depicting the Philadelphia coat of arms. The lower images show interior views of the marble works: the “Cutting Room,” “Saw Room,” “Polishing Room,” and “Show Room.” The interior images show laborers at work cutting, polishing, and transporting slabs of marble under the presence of factory managers. Most of the laborers toil at work tables lining the walls. In the “Show Room” image, an elegantly-attired couple is seen reviewing finished mantelpieces. This print was produced by Herline & Company. A lithographer since 1850, Edward Otto Herline (1825–1902) began operating under this firm name by 1856. Herline was born in Hesse-Darmstadt, Germany and, with his brother Gustavus, immigrated to the United States in 1848.

The Sanitary Fair Grand March

This chromolithograph from circa 1864 is a cover illustration to the sheet music “The Sanitary Fair Grand March,” composed by Edward Mack (1826–82) and dedicated to Mrs. Elizabeth R. Biddle. The bird's-eye view shows the exhibition grounds at Logan Square during the Great Central Fair, which took place in Philadelphia in June 1864. The purpose of the fair, which featured art, craft, and historical exhibits, was to raise funds for the United States Sanitary Commission. This was a private organization that operated during the American Civil War under the authority of the federal government to provide relief to soldiers and assistance to the Union Army in matters relating to health and hygiene. The print shows the square and the surrounding cityscape from the northwest, including the Cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul. Trees line the streets and the outside of the square, where throngs of people walk the sidewalk and crowd the fair entrances. Horse-drawn vehicles, including carriages and omnibuses, travel the streets and park along the grounds. American flags labeled “U.S.S.C.” adorn all of the buildings. Most of the fair buildings were designed by Henry E. Wrigley, who served in the war in the Independent Company of Acting Engineers and the Corps of Topographical Engineers. The central exhibition gallery was designed by Strickland Kneass, chief engineer and surveyor of the city of Philadelphia. This print is a variant of the lithograph created by Philadelphia lithographer and pioneer chromolithographer James Fuller Queen (circa 1820–86), and was printed and offered for sale daily at the fair by the establishment of P.S. Duval and Son. Peter S. Duval, one of the most prominent lithographers and printers of his day, was born circa 1804 or 1805 in France. Duval emigrated from France to Philadelphia in the fall of 1831 to accept a job as a lithographer with the printing firm of Childs & Inman. By 1837 he had established his lithographic printing shop and he remained in business until his retirement in 1869.

The Ledger Polka

This lithograph from circa 1849 is the cover illustration to the sheet music “The Ledger Polka,” composed by Ja’s [James] Bellak and dedicated to the readers of the Public Ledger, a Philadelphia daily newspaper. The print shows a group of comically-portrayed men dressed in top hats and suits surrounding a man reading the Public Ledger. The group stands on the corner in front of the office of the newspaper, located at 300 Chestnut Street in Philadelphia. (Newspaper operations were based out of this Chestnut Street office from 1840 to 1867.) Some of the audience look aghast, with mouths open in shock. Two boys, one a newsboy carrying the City Item, also listen with interest. In the doorway of the newspaper office are two gentlemen, probably representing two of the proprietors of the newspaper (William Swaim and Arunah S. Abell), who look on contentedly. The printer of this lithograph, Thomas S. Sinclair (circa 1805–81), was born in the Orkney Islands of Scotland and was active in Philadelphia by 1833, where he soon had his own business and was one of the first local printmakers to experiment with color lithography. A practical lithographer throughout his career, Sinclair produced all genres of lithographs, including maps, advertisements, city and landscape views, sheet music covers, portraiture, political cartoons, certificates, and book illustrations.

The Philadelphia Firemen's Anniversary Parade March

This lithograph from circa 1842 is the cover illustration to the sheet music for “The Philadelphia Firemen’s Anniversary Parade March,” composed by Francis Johnson for his brass band and dedicated to the Philadelphia Fire Department. The print depicts a uniformed volunteer fireman leaning on his trumpet and standing next to a fire hydrant. The hydrant is connected to a hose carriage in use by firemen fighting a blaze at a building. Another band of firemen pull a hand-pumper past a row of residences and up behind the hose carriage. The volunteer fire companies celebrated the 22nd anniversary of the Philadelphia Fire Department with a parade held on March 27, 1843. The artist of this image was James Fuller Queen (circa 1820–86), a Philadelphia lithographer and pioneer chromolithographer known for his attention to detail and composition, and himself a volunteer fireman. The printer was Peter S. Duval, one of the most prominent lithographers and printers of his day. Born circa 1804 or 1805 in France, Duval emigrated from France to Philadelphia in the fall of 1831 to accept a job as a lithographer with the printing firm of Childs & Inman. By 1837 he had established his lithographic printing shop and he remained in business until his retirement in 1869.

The New Moravian Church of 1856. Southwest Corner of Wood and Franklin Streets

This hand-colored lithograph from 1857 shows an exterior view of a church and side courtyard, completed in 1856 after the designs of J.A.C. Trautwine, and located at the southwest corner of Wood and Franklin Streets in Philadelphia. This was the third church building built for the Moravian congregation, which was established in 1742. Trees and an iron-work fence surround the Norman-style building. Neighboring buildings are also visible. This print was produced by the firm of Herline & Hensel of Philadelphia, a partnership operated by lithographers Edward Otto Herline (1825–1902) and Daniel Hensel (1830–1919) from 1857 until around 1866. The firm produced chromolithographs and bird's-eye-view prints, advertisements, sheet music covers, maps, portraiture, political cartoons, certificates, and illustrations. Herline & Hensel also issued lithographs for the German American community and produced prints for government reports. Herline was born in Hesse-Darmstadt, Germany and, with his brother Gustavus, immigrated to the United States in 1848. Hensel was the son of German immigrants and was born in Philadelphia.

The Original Moravian Church of 1820. Southeast Corner of Moravian Alley (Now Bread Street) and Race Street

This lithograph from 1857 shows the new church building, built in 1819 after the designs of master builder Joseph Worrel, that was located at the southeast corner of Moravian Alley (now Bread Street) and Race Street in Philadelphia. This new church, built for the Moravian congregation, which was established in 1742, was near the original parsonage on the 200 block of Race Street. Part of the front facade is visible behind a gate and courtyard extending between two dwellings situated in front of the church. Two men converse in front of one of the residences. The right side of the image also shows Moravian Alley (i.e., North Bread Street), and a partial view of a neighboring building. This church building was sold in 1854 when the church relocated to a new building built in 1855–56 at Wood and Franklin Streets. This print was produced by the firm of Herline & Hensel of Philadelphia, a partnership operated by lithographers Edward Otto Herline (1825–1902) and Daniel Hensel (1830–1919) from 1857 until around 1866. The firm produced chromolithographs and bird's-eye-view prints, advertisements, sheet music covers, maps, portraiture, political cartoons, certificates, and illustrations. Herline & Hensel also issued lithographs for the German American community and produced prints for government reports. Herline was born in Hesse-Darmstadt, Germany and, with his brother Gustavus, immigrated to the United States in 1848. Hensel was the son of German immigrants and was born in Philadelphia.