June 30, 2016

The First Pariatge of Andorra

The document presented here is known as the Primer pariatge de Andorra (First pariage of Andorra) signed by Pere de Urtx, bishop of La Seu d'Urgell (also seen as Seo de Urgel), and Roger Bernat III, count of Foix and viscount of Castellbò, on September 8, 1278. Written in Latin, the document was drawn up by Arnau de Valle-Llebrera, notary public of the city of Lleida, Catalonia, Spain. The agreement settled the respective rights of the two sovereigns over the valleys of Andorra as well as resolved other matters of dispute. The first pariage was inscribed in the period of peace that followed an earlier agreement concluded in Agramunt, Catalonia. King Pedro III of Aragon (also seen as Pere) played a decisive role as a mediator in ending the longstanding feud between the count of Foix and the bishop of Urgel. The most important of their differences, although not the only one, was the dispute over the feudal state of Andorra. The document, divided into 11 articles, four of which refer exclusively to Andorra, begins by making an allusion to the many and varied discussions that preceded the agreement. Of the many pariages agreed upon between the count of Foix and both ecclesiastic and lay lords from both sides of the Pyrenees, the Andorran pariage, approved by both the crown and Pope Nicholas III, is the most complex and the only one to have survived to the present day, albeit with modifications to its original clauses. The longevity of the document was the result, among other factors, of the geographical situation of Andorra, i.e., its location between what became the separate states of France and Spain and their support for the agreement over the years. Also important was the acceptance by the Andorrans of the pariage system established by the conventions of 1278 and 1288 and their strong desire to maintain it, which was constantly manifested during the Middle Ages and is evident to the present day. Even though they were not directly involved in the negotiation of the pariage, the Andorran people nonetheless welcomed the conclusion of what was in effect a peace treaty that put an end to a long period of armed struggle and violence and that gave them the opportunity to become a neutral and independent country with its own institutions.

Manual Digest

Manual Digest de las Valls neutras de Andorra (Manual digest of the neutral valleys of Andorra), also known as simply the Manual Digest, is a handwritten compilation of the history, government, and customs and traditions of Andorra. It covers the history of Andorra back to the early Middle Ages, as well as government, religion, privileges, the customs of the valleys, exemptions, and prerogatives. The work was compiled by Antoni Fiter i Rossell (born 1706), the chief magistrate of episcopal Andorra, at the request and for the use of the Consejo General (General Council of the Valleys), the elected assembly of the Principality of Andorra. Despite the importance of Fiter i Rossell’s writing and the documents he assembled and the recognition still accorded him in judicial and legislative affairs, this book has never been published in full. The compilation contains the transcribed historical records of Andorra, beginning with documents issued by Charlemagne (742‒814) and his son Louis the Pious (778‒840). It also includes the series of moral rules grouped under the name of the “Principles.” These rules are a continuation of Catalan common law, based on Roman and canon law and embodied in the Usatges (or Usages) of Barcelona, the legal code promulgated by Ramon Berenguer I (circa 1023‒1076), the count of Barcelona, in 1064–68. The documents are in Catalan and Latin.

Sheep Shearers at Cremat de Anyós House

This photograph from the early 20th century shows Andorran sheep shearers at work at a house in the village of Anyós in La Massana parish in the Principality of Andorra. The raising of sheep for high-quality wool was for centuries the mainstay of the Andorran economy, where only about two percent of the land was suitable for raising crops. The Andorrans also raise cattle and mules. Anyós is one of the main villages of La Massana, which is one of seven parishes in the principality, on its west side, and abuts the borders with France and Spain. The area is largely rural and includes the tallest mountain in Andorra, Pic de Coma Pedrosa, at 2,943 meters above sea level. Large flocks of sheep and goats from Spain and France often summer in Andorra.

Politar Andorrà

Politar Andorrà might best be explained by its subtitle, which translates from the original Catalan as: From the origins, government and religion, the privileges, uses, pre-eminences, common law, and prerogatives of the Valleys of Andorra. Owing much to the sublime works of the very illustrious Dr. Anton Fiter i Rossell of Ordino, and to the treasures of the archives of the illustrious Council of the Valleys, in the year 1763 by the Reverend Antoni Puig. Antoni Puig was inspired by the Manual Digest de las Valls neutras de Andorra (Manual digest of the neutral valleys of Andorra), better known as the Manual Digest, written by Fiter i Rossell, chief magistrate of episcopal Andorra, in 1748. The earlier work is a compilation containing the transcribed historical records of Andorra, beginning with documents issued by Charlemagne (742‒814) and his son Louis the Pious (778‒840). It also includes the series of moral rules grouped under the name of the “Principles.” These rules are a continuation of Catalan common law, based on Roman and canon law and embodied in the Usatges (or Usages) of Barcelona, the legal code promulgated by Ramon Berenguer I (circa 1023‒1076), the count of Barcelona, in 1064–68. The documents are in Catalan and Latin. In the book considered here, the Reverend Puig summarizes the contents of the Manual Digest, but he also includes additional information and documentation. The two books are highly valued as among the most important records of Andorran history.

Lewis Fatman and Company. Steam Paste Blacking, Steam Friction Matches. 41 North Front Street, Philadelphia

This lithograph from 1847 is an advertisement showing the three-story building located on Front Street (between Market and Arch Streets) in Philadelphia. The building is covered in signage advertising the polish and match business of Lewis Fatman & Company. A clerk, crates, cans piled on a table, and a rope hoist are visible through the first floor window and entrances. Another worker is visible in a third-floor window. A conestoga wagon passes in the street with the driver astride one of the four horses in the team. Fatman also operated a second factory, located at 412 Coates Street (i.e., Fairmount Avenue).

Lewis Fatman and Company. Steam Paste Blacking, Steam Friction Matches Manufactory. Back of Number 412 Coates Street, Philadelphia

This lithograph from circa 1847 is an advertisement showing the adjoined three- and two-story manufactory buildings for the polish and match business owned by Lewis Fatman, located on the 1000 block of Coates Street (i.e., Fairmount Avenue) in Philadelphia. The buildings are covered in signage advertising the business. Laborers, including one carrying a stack on his shoulder, are visible at a few windows and at an entrance. In the foreground, a gentleman walks. Near some crates and barrels, a boy plays with a hoop on the sidewalk. In the street, a drayman transports planks of wood, and a laborer loads crates on to a dray. The wagon parked near the corner is labeled “Fatman and Co.’s Matches & Blacking.” Fatman operated a factory from this location circa 1844–48, in addition to a second factory on North Front Street.