Philadelphia Gas Works. From the Southwest

This lithograph from circa 1852 shows an exterior view of the first Philadelphia Gas Works. The gas works was expanded in 1850 after the designs of the second chief engineer, John C. Cresson (1806–76). This view, looking northeast, includes the coal stores, retort house, lime and coke sheds, lime kilns and house, purifying houses, gasholders, and railroad tracks situated on the 2200–2300 blocks of Market Street, immediately east of the Market Street Permanent Bridge. The gas works were originally completed in 1834 after the designs of engineer Samuel V. Merrick (1801–70). A second facility, the Point Breeze Gas Works, was built 1851–54 at the intersection of Passyunk and Schuylkill Avenues, designed by Cresson. The printer, John T. Bowen (circa 1801–56), was a prominent Philadelphia lithographer and the most important mid 19th-century American publisher of publication plates. He was born in England circa 1801, immigrated to the United States in 1834, and worked as a colorist and lithographer in New York before relocating to Philadelphia in 1838.

George W. Ridgway, Successor to Samuel P. Griffitts, Jr.

This lithograph from 1841 is an advertisement showing the front and side of the three-and-one-half story storefront located on the 900 block of Chestnut Street in Philadelphia. Text above the image reveals that the building was tenanted by George W. Ridgway, the successor to Samuel P. Griffitts, Jr. At the top of the building, large signage reads “Drugs” and “Chemicals.” The name of the proprietor, “G.W. Ridgway,” adorns the two entranceways. A sign for “Mineral Water” is displayed between the doorways. Jugs, jars, and flasks are displayed in the storefront windows, an awning covers a side door, and balustrades adorn the roof of the building. Ridgway tenanted the address from 1841–42. The lithographer, Thomas S. Sinclair (circa 1805–81), was born in the Orkney Islands of Scotland and was active in Philadelphia by 1833, where he soon had his own business and was one of the first local printmakers to experiment with color lithography. A practical lithographer throughout his career, Sinclair produced all genres of lithographs, including maps, advertisements, city and landscape views, sheet music covers, portraiture, political cartoons, certificates, and book illustrations.

Hoskins, Hieskell and Company. Importers and Jobbers of Fancy and Staple Dry Goods

This chromolithograph from circa 1854 is an advertisement showing a view of a five-story building located at 213 (i.e., 513) Market Street in Philadelphia. The building was completed in 1853 after the designs of the Philadelphia architectural firm Sloan & Stewart, established in 1853 by architect Samuel Sloan and carpenter John Stewart. The Norman-Italian style ornamented, cast-iron fronted building was tenanted by the dry goods establishment Hoskins, Hieskell & Company. In front of the store, a gentleman departs from the entrance. A couple greets a gentleman standing across from another man who is leaning against a column of the building. Another couple strolls past neighboring buildings on the block, and a group of men convene near crates on the sidewalk. In the street, a driver stands with his loaded horse-drawn dray. The image is surrounded by an ornate border, including filigree; cherubic and female allegorical figures representing the mechanical arts, industry, and virtues; and medallions printed with the names of the contractors who worked on the structure. Contractors listed include: William Keay, Granite; Bottom, Tiffany & Co., Iron Front, Trenton, N.J.; James Spenceley, Plasterer; E.& P. Coleman, Bolts &c.; William Butcher & Son, Tin Roofing; George Creely, Brick Layer; Sloan & Stewart, Architects; Brown & Allison, Carpenters & Builders; Wright, Hunter & Company, Plumbing & Gas Fitting; and Hood & Company, Iron Doors & Shutters, Grating &c. Hoskins and Heiskell relocated to the site in 1853. The building was renumbered to 513 Market Street in 1857, following the consolidation of the city. Artists Christian Inger (circa 1814–circa 1895) and Louis (Lewis) Haugg (1827–1903) collaborated to create this print. Both artists were born in Germany, immigrated to the United States, and settled in Philadelphia. Inger worked as a lithographic artist in the city circa 1854–95, and Haugg was active in Philadelphia as a lithographic artist and printer circa 1855–1900. Beginning in the 1850s, Inger worked primarily with the printer of this advertisement, Peter S. Duval. Born circa 1804 or 1805 in France, Duval was one of the most prominent lithographers and printers of his day. He emigrated from France to Philadelphia in the fall of 1831 to accept a job as a lithographer with the printing firm of Childs & Inman. By 1837 he had established his lithographic printing shop and he remained in business until his retirement in 1869.

William D. Rogers' Coach and Light Carriage Manufactory. Corner of 6th and Master Streets, Philadelphia

This hand-colored lithograph from circa 1854 is an advertisement depicting an exterior view of the Rogers’ industrial complex, the “model coach factory of America,” located at the busy corner of Sixth and Master Streets in Philadelphia. A sign on the side of the four-story building reads, “W.D. Rogers Coach and Light Carriage Factory,” and signage at the top of the building reads, “W.D. Rogers Carriage Builder” and “Carriages of Every Description Built by W.D. Rogers.” Outside the building, a clerk shows a carriage to a couple, while inside, laborers are seen working in the windows of the upper stories. Drays, surreys, “Rogers” delivery carts, and a young African American man with a white horse traverse the intersection in front of the building. On Sixth Street, a passenger disembarks from a horse-drawn omnibus near the factory entrance. On the left side of the image, a second omnibus rests at a corner; the omnibus driver unhappily receives a citation from a constable while his young passenger watches. Text at the bottom of the image reads, in part: “Carriages of every description built to order, which for style, durability & elegance of finish, shall not be surpassed by any in the country. The work is conducted under the immidiate superintendance [sic] of the proprietor, who is himself a practical Coach maker. N.B. orders from any part of the world, promptly executed. Southern & Western merchants will find it to their advantage to call at this establishment. The Sixth Street line of omnibuses run from the Exchange to the Factory every few minutes.” Rogers (the business established in 1846, and the factory erected in 1853) absorbed rival manufactory George W. Watson in 1870. The business operated for more than sixty years. The creator of this print is listed as the firm of Rease & Schell, a partnership formed in the 1850s by William H. Rease and Francis H. Schell. Born in Pennsylvania circa 1818, Rease was a prominent mid-19th century Philadelphia trade card lithographer. He was known to highlight details of human interest in his advertisements. Schell was born in Philadelphia in 1834 and is best known for his work during the Civil War as an illustrator for Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper. The printer was Wagner & McGuigan, a firm specializing in the production of advertising prints.

Keystone Marble Works. S. F. Jacoby and Company, Market Street between 20th and 21st, Philadelphia

This lithograph from 1856 is an advertisement containing a montage of five views of the marble works established in 1855 at 2025 Market Street in Philadelphia. The images are separated by borders comprised of filigree, mantles, and sculpture. The upper image shows the exterior of the three-story L-shaped marble works factory. The factory is adorned with a balcony lined with statues, the figure of William Penn on the roof, and signage reading “Keystone Marble Works” and “S.F. Jacoby & Co.” Marble works, predominately monuments, fill the courtyard. Nearby, laborers work with a pile of marble slabs next to a horse-drawn cart. This image also shows street and pedestrian traffic, including a horse-drawn dray parked near the sidewalk, a couple on horseback, a horse-drawn carriage, a horse-drawn cart, and a laborer pushing a hand-cart in the street. A small inset image contains a vignette depicting the Philadelphia coat of arms. The lower images show interior views of the marble works: the “Cutting Room,” “Saw Room,” “Polishing Room,” and “Show Room.” The interior images show laborers at work cutting, polishing, and transporting slabs of marble under the presence of factory managers. Most of the laborers toil at work tables lining the walls. In the “Show Room” image, an elegantly-attired couple is seen reviewing finished mantelpieces. This print was produced by Herline & Company. A lithographer since 1850, Edward Otto Herline (1825–1902) began operating under this firm name by 1856. Herline was born in Hesse-Darmstadt, Germany and, with his brother Gustavus, immigrated to the United States in 1848.

The Sanitary Fair Grand March

This chromolithograph from circa 1864 is a cover illustration to the sheet music “The Sanitary Fair Grand March,” composed by Edward Mack (1826–82) and dedicated to Mrs. Elizabeth R. Biddle. The bird's-eye view shows the exhibition grounds at Logan Square during the Great Central Fair, which took place in Philadelphia in June 1864. The purpose of the fair, which featured art, craft, and historical exhibits, was to raise funds for the United States Sanitary Commission. This was a private organization that operated during the American Civil War under the authority of the federal government to provide relief to soldiers and assistance to the Union Army in matters relating to health and hygiene. The print shows the square and the surrounding cityscape from the northwest, including the Cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul. Trees line the streets and the outside of the square, where throngs of people walk the sidewalk and crowd the fair entrances. Horse-drawn vehicles, including carriages and omnibuses, travel the streets and park along the grounds. American flags labeled “U.S.S.C.” adorn all of the buildings. Most of the fair buildings were designed by Henry E. Wrigley, who served in the war in the Independent Company of Acting Engineers and the Corps of Topographical Engineers. The central exhibition gallery was designed by Strickland Kneass, chief engineer and surveyor of the city of Philadelphia. This print is a variant of the lithograph created by Philadelphia lithographer and pioneer chromolithographer James Fuller Queen (circa 1820–86), and was printed and offered for sale daily at the fair by the establishment of P.S. Duval and Son. Peter S. Duval, one of the most prominent lithographers and printers of his day, was born circa 1804 or 1805 in France. Duval emigrated from France to Philadelphia in the fall of 1831 to accept a job as a lithographer with the printing firm of Childs & Inman. By 1837 he had established his lithographic printing shop and he remained in business until his retirement in 1869.

The Ledger Polka

This lithograph from circa 1849 is the cover illustration to the sheet music “The Ledger Polka,” composed by Ja’s [James] Bellak and dedicated to the readers of the Public Ledger, a Philadelphia daily newspaper. The print shows a group of comically-portrayed men dressed in top hats and suits surrounding a man reading the Public Ledger. The group stands on the corner in front of the office of the newspaper, located at 300 Chestnut Street in Philadelphia. (Newspaper operations were based out of this Chestnut Street office from 1840 to 1867.) Some of the audience look aghast, with mouths open in shock. Two boys, one a newsboy carrying the City Item, also listen with interest. In the doorway of the newspaper office are two gentlemen, probably representing two of the proprietors of the newspaper (William Swaim and Arunah S. Abell), who look on contentedly. The printer of this lithograph, Thomas S. Sinclair (circa 1805–81), was born in the Orkney Islands of Scotland and was active in Philadelphia by 1833, where he soon had his own business and was one of the first local printmakers to experiment with color lithography. A practical lithographer throughout his career, Sinclair produced all genres of lithographs, including maps, advertisements, city and landscape views, sheet music covers, portraiture, political cartoons, certificates, and book illustrations.

The Philadelphia Firemen's Anniversary Parade March

This lithograph from circa 1842 is the cover illustration to the sheet music for “The Philadelphia Firemen’s Anniversary Parade March,” composed by Francis Johnson for his brass band and dedicated to the Philadelphia Fire Department. The print depicts a uniformed volunteer fireman leaning on his trumpet and standing next to a fire hydrant. The hydrant is connected to a hose carriage in use by firemen fighting a blaze at a building. Another band of firemen pull a hand-pumper past a row of residences and up behind the hose carriage. The volunteer fire companies celebrated the 22nd anniversary of the Philadelphia Fire Department with a parade held on March 27, 1843. The artist of this image was James Fuller Queen (circa 1820–86), a Philadelphia lithographer and pioneer chromolithographer known for his attention to detail and composition, and himself a volunteer fireman. The printer was Peter S. Duval, one of the most prominent lithographers and printers of his day. Born circa 1804 or 1805 in France, Duval emigrated from France to Philadelphia in the fall of 1831 to accept a job as a lithographer with the printing firm of Childs & Inman. By 1837 he had established his lithographic printing shop and he remained in business until his retirement in 1869.

The New Moravian Church of 1856. Southwest Corner of Wood and Franklin Streets

This hand-colored lithograph from 1857 shows an exterior view of a church and side courtyard, completed in 1856 after the designs of J.A.C. Trautwine, and located at the southwest corner of Wood and Franklin Streets in Philadelphia. This was the third church building built for the Moravian congregation, which was established in 1742. Trees and an iron-work fence surround the Norman-style building. Neighboring buildings are also visible. This print was produced by the firm of Herline & Hensel of Philadelphia, a partnership operated by lithographers Edward Otto Herline (1825–1902) and Daniel Hensel (1830–1919) from 1857 until around 1866. The firm produced chromolithographs and bird's-eye-view prints, advertisements, sheet music covers, maps, portraiture, political cartoons, certificates, and illustrations. Herline & Hensel also issued lithographs for the German American community and produced prints for government reports. Herline was born in Hesse-Darmstadt, Germany and, with his brother Gustavus, immigrated to the United States in 1848. Hensel was the son of German immigrants and was born in Philadelphia.

The Original Moravian Church of 1820. Southeast Corner of Moravian Alley (Now Bread Street) and Race Street

This lithograph from 1857 shows the new church building, built in 1819 after the designs of master builder Joseph Worrel, that was located at the southeast corner of Moravian Alley (now Bread Street) and Race Street in Philadelphia. This new church, built for the Moravian congregation, which was established in 1742, was near the original parsonage on the 200 block of Race Street. Part of the front facade is visible behind a gate and courtyard extending between two dwellings situated in front of the church. Two men converse in front of one of the residences. The right side of the image also shows Moravian Alley (i.e., North Bread Street), and a partial view of a neighboring building. This church building was sold in 1854 when the church relocated to a new building built in 1855–56 at Wood and Franklin Streets. This print was produced by the firm of Herline & Hensel of Philadelphia, a partnership operated by lithographers Edward Otto Herline (1825–1902) and Daniel Hensel (1830–1919) from 1857 until around 1866. The firm produced chromolithographs and bird's-eye-view prints, advertisements, sheet music covers, maps, portraiture, political cartoons, certificates, and illustrations. Herline & Hensel also issued lithographs for the German American community and produced prints for government reports. Herline was born in Hesse-Darmstadt, Germany and, with his brother Gustavus, immigrated to the United States in 1848. Hensel was the son of German immigrants and was born in Philadelphia.