Kiowa Customs: Counting Coups, or Touching an Enemy in Battle to Display Bravery

The story presented here is from a compilation of Native American tales gathered by Hugh Lenox Scott (1853‒1934), a cavalry officer in the United States Army, who in 1892 was assigned to Fort Sill, Oklahoma, as commander of Troop L of the Seventh Cavalry, an all-Indian unit comprised of Kiowa, Comanche, and Apache. A West Point graduate who served at various posts in the western United States between 1876 and 1897, Scott developed a great interest in the region’s indigenous populations and became an astute practitioner of Plains Indian sign language, a non-verbal method of communicating with hand signals. Familiarity with sign talk enabled Scott to undertake “an intensive study of every phase of the Indian and his customs.” In particular, he set about collecting stories from the Kiowa and other Native Americans who resided in the vicinity of Fort Sill. Many of the stories were gathered firsthand by Scott, while others were brought to him by Indians with whom he worked. Scott credits I-See-O (formerly Tah-bone-mah, died 1927) with actively searching out new stories. He “would sometimes be sent to outlying places where rumor pointed to another story—sometimes as far as 150 miles up the Washita . . . this went on until Isee-o said it was no use to search further for there were no more stories.” A combination of historical accounts, firsthand observations, and traditional fables, these stories, Scott wrote, “were the means by which their history, philosophy, and moral precepts were handed down to the younger generations by tales as old as the Kiowa tribe.” The stories are preserved in the Hugh Lenox Scott papers in the Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress. Scott led an eventful life that included, in addition to his service in the American West, stints as acting governor of Cuba, military governor of the Sulu Archipelago, Philippines, superintendent of West Point, and U.S. Army chief of staff. Upon his retirement from the army, Scott accepted an appointment to the Board of Indian Commissioners from 1919 to 1929. Details of his life can be found in a lengthy autobiography, Some Memories of a Soldier (1928).

Kiowa Insults

The story presented here is from a compilation of Native American tales gathered by Hugh Lenox Scott (1853‒1934), a cavalry officer in the United States Army, who in 1892 was assigned to Fort Sill, Oklahoma, as commander of Troop L of the Seventh Cavalry, an all-Indian unit comprised of Kiowa, Comanche, and Apache. A West Point graduate who served at various posts in the western United States between 1876 and 1897, Scott developed a great interest in the region’s indigenous populations and became an astute practitioner of Plains Indian sign language, a non-verbal method of communicating with hand signals. Familiarity with sign talk enabled Scott to undertake “an intensive study of every phase of the Indian and his customs.” In particular, he set about collecting stories from the Kiowa and other Native Americans who resided in the vicinity of Fort Sill. Many of the stories were gathered firsthand by Scott, while others were brought to him by Indians with whom he worked. Scott credits I-See-O (formerly Tah-bone-mah, died 1927) with actively searching out new stories. He “would sometimes be sent to outlying places where rumor pointed to another story—sometimes as far as 150 miles up the Washita . . . this went on until Isee-o said it was no use to search further for there were no more stories.” A combination of historical accounts, firsthand observations, and traditional fables, these stories, Scott wrote, “were the means by which their history, philosophy, and moral precepts were handed down to the younger generations by tales as old as the Kiowa tribe.” The stories are preserved in the Hugh Lenox Scott papers in the Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress. Scott led an eventful life that included, in addition to his service in the American West, stints as acting governor of Cuba, military governor of the Sulu Archipelago, Philippines, superintendent of West Point, and U.S. Army chief of staff. Upon his retirement from the army, Scott accepted an appointment to the Board of Indian Commissioners from 1919 to 1929. Details of his life can be found in a lengthy autobiography, Some Memories of a Soldier (1928).

A Battle between the Kiowa and Cheyenne, 1837

The story presented here is from a compilation of Native American tales gathered by Hugh Lenox Scott (1853‒1934), a cavalry officer in the United States Army, who in 1892 was assigned to Fort Sill, Oklahoma, as commander of Troop L of the Seventh Cavalry, an all-Indian unit comprised of Kiowa, Comanche, and Apache. A West Point graduate who served at various posts in the western United States between 1876 and 1897, Scott developed a great interest in the region’s indigenous populations and became an astute practitioner of Plains Indian sign language, a non-verbal method of communicating with hand signals. Familiarity with sign talk enabled Scott to undertake “an intensive study of every phase of the Indian and his customs.” In particular, he set about collecting stories from the Kiowa and other Native Americans who resided in the vicinity of Fort Sill. Many of the stories were gathered firsthand by Scott, while others were brought to him by Indians with whom he worked. Scott credits I-See-O (formerly Tah-bone-mah, died 1927) with actively searching out new stories. He “would sometimes be sent to outlying places where rumor pointed to another story—sometimes as far as 150 miles up the Washita . . . this went on until Isee-o said it was no use to search further for there were no more stories.” A combination of historical accounts, firsthand observations, and traditional fables, these stories, Scott wrote, “were the means by which their history, philosophy, and moral precepts were handed down to the younger generations by tales as old as the Kiowa tribe.” The stories are preserved in the Hugh Lenox Scott papers in the Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress. Scott led an eventful life that included, in addition to his service in the American West, stints as acting governor of Cuba, military governor of the Sulu Archipelago, Philippines, superintendent of West Point, and U.S. Army chief of staff. Upon his retirement from the army, Scott accepted an appointment to the Board of Indian Commissioners from 1919 to 1929. Details of his life can be found in a lengthy autobiography, Some Memories of a Soldier (1928).

Kiowa Hunting Practices: Surrounds

The story presented here is from a compilation of Native American tales gathered by Hugh Lenox Scott (1853‒1934), a cavalry officer in the United States Army, who in 1892 was assigned to Fort Sill, Oklahoma, as commander of Troop L of the Seventh Cavalry, an all-Indian unit comprised of Kiowa, Comanche, and Apache. A West Point graduate who served at various posts in the western United States between 1876 and 1897, Scott developed a great interest in the region’s indigenous populations and became an astute practitioner of Plains Indian sign language, a non-verbal method of communicating with hand signals. Familiarity with sign talk enabled Scott to undertake “an intensive study of every phase of the Indian and his customs.” In particular, he set about collecting stories from the Kiowa and other Native Americans who resided in the vicinity of Fort Sill. Many of the stories were gathered firsthand by Scott, while others were brought to him by Indians with whom he worked. Scott credits I-See-O (formerly Tah-bone-mah, died 1927) with actively searching out new stories. He “would sometimes be sent to outlying places where rumor pointed to another story—sometimes as far as 150 miles up the Washita . . . this went on until Isee-o said it was no use to search further for there were no more stories.” A combination of historical accounts, firsthand observations, and traditional fables, these stories, Scott wrote, “were the means by which their history, philosophy, and moral precepts were handed down to the younger generations by tales as old as the Kiowa tribe.” The stories are preserved in the Hugh Lenox Scott papers in the Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress. Scott led an eventful life that included, in addition to his service in the American West, stints as acting governor of Cuba, military governor of the Sulu Archipelago, Philippines, superintendent of West Point, and U.S. Army chief of staff. Upon his retirement from the army, Scott accepted an appointment to the Board of Indian Commissioners from 1919 to 1929. Details of his life can be found in a lengthy autobiography, Some Memories of a Soldier (1928).

Kiowa Hunting Practices: How Chief Lone Wolf Killed Buffalo

The story presented here is from a compilation of Native American tales gathered by Hugh Lenox Scott (1853‒1934), a cavalry officer in the United States Army, who in 1892 was assigned to Fort Sill, Oklahoma, as commander of Troop L of the Seventh Cavalry, an all-Indian unit comprised of Kiowa, Comanche, and Apache. A West Point graduate who served at various posts in the western United States between 1876 and 1897, Scott developed a great interest in the region’s indigenous populations and became an astute practitioner of Plains Indian sign language, a non-verbal method of communicating with hand signals. Familiarity with sign talk enabled Scott to undertake “an intensive study of every phase of the Indian and his customs.” In particular, he set about collecting stories from the Kiowa and other Native Americans who resided in the vicinity of Fort Sill. Many of the stories were gathered firsthand by Scott, while others were brought to him by Indians with whom he worked. Scott credits I-See-O (formerly Tah-bone-mah, died 1927) with actively searching out new stories. He “would sometimes be sent to outlying places where rumor pointed to another story—sometimes as far as 150 miles up the Washita . . . this went on until Isee-o said it was no use to search further for there were no more stories.” A combination of historical accounts, firsthand observations, and traditional fables, these stories, Scott wrote, “were the means by which their history, philosophy, and moral precepts were handed down to the younger generations by tales as old as the Kiowa tribe.” The stories are preserved in the Hugh Lenox Scott papers in the Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress. Scott led an eventful life that included, in addition to his service in the American West, stints as acting governor of Cuba, military governor of the Sulu Archipelago, Philippines, superintendent of West Point, and U.S. Army chief of staff. Upon his retirement from the army, Scott accepted an appointment to the Board of Indian Commissioners from 1919 to 1929. Details of his life can be found in a lengthy autobiography, Some Memories of a Soldier (1928).

Kiowa Customs: Burials

The story presented here is from a compilation of Native American tales gathered by Hugh Lenox Scott (1853‒1934), a cavalry officer in the United States Army, who in 1892 was assigned to Fort Sill, Oklahoma, as commander of Troop L of the Seventh Cavalry, an all-Indian unit comprised of Kiowa, Comanche, and Apache. A West Point graduate who served at various posts in the western United States between 1876 and 1897, Scott developed a great interest in the region’s indigenous populations and became an astute practitioner of Plains Indian sign language, a non-verbal method of communicating with hand signals. Familiarity with sign talk enabled Scott to undertake “an intensive study of every phase of the Indian and his customs.” In particular, he set about collecting stories from the Kiowa and other Native Americans who resided in the vicinity of Fort Sill. Many of the stories were gathered firsthand by Scott, while others were brought to him by Indians with whom he worked. Scott credits I-See-O (formerly Tah-bone-mah, died 1927) with actively searching out new stories. He “would sometimes be sent to outlying places where rumor pointed to another story—sometimes as far as 150 miles up the Washita . . . this went on until Isee-o said it was no use to search further for there were no more stories.” A combination of historical accounts, firsthand observations, and traditional fables, these stories, Scott wrote, “were the means by which their history, philosophy, and moral precepts were handed down to the younger generations by tales as old as the Kiowa tribe.” The stories are preserved in the Hugh Lenox Scott papers in the Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress. Scott led an eventful life that included, in addition to his service in the American West, stints as acting governor of Cuba, military governor of the Sulu Archipelago, Philippines, superintendent of West Point, and U.S. Army chief of staff. Upon his retirement from the army, Scott accepted an appointment to the Board of Indian Commissioners from 1919 to 1929. Details of his life can be found in a lengthy autobiography, Some Memories of a Soldier (1928).

Kiowa Hunting Practices: White Buffalo

The story presented here is from a compilation of Native American tales gathered by Hugh Lenox Scott (1853‒1934), a cavalry officer in the United States Army, who in 1892 was assigned to Fort Sill, Oklahoma, as commander of Troop L of the Seventh Cavalry, an all-Indian unit comprised of Kiowa, Comanche, and Apache. A West Point graduate who served at various posts in the western United States between 1876 and 1897, Scott developed a great interest in the region’s indigenous populations and became an astute practitioner of Plains Indian sign language, a non-verbal method of communicating with hand signals. Familiarity with sign talk enabled Scott to undertake “an intensive study of every phase of the Indian and his customs.” In particular, he set about collecting stories from the Kiowa and other Native Americans who resided in the vicinity of Fort Sill. Many of the stories were gathered firsthand by Scott, while others were brought to him by Indians with whom he worked. Scott credits I-See-O (formerly Tah-bone-mah, died 1927) with actively searching out new stories. He “would sometimes be sent to outlying places where rumor pointed to another story—sometimes as far as 150 miles up the Washita . . . this went on until Isee-o said it was no use to search further for there were no more stories.” A combination of historical accounts, firsthand observations, and traditional fables, these stories, Scott wrote, “were the means by which their history, philosophy, and moral precepts were handed down to the younger generations by tales as old as the Kiowa tribe.” The stories are preserved in the Hugh Lenox Scott papers in the Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress. Scott led an eventful life that included, in addition to his service in the American West, stints as acting governor of Cuba, military governor of the Sulu Archipelago, Philippines, superintendent of West Point, and U.S. Army chief of staff. Upon his retirement from the army, Scott accepted an appointment to the Board of Indian Commissioners from 1919 to 1929. Details of his life can be found in a lengthy autobiography, Some Memories of a Soldier (1928).

Kiowa Hunting Practices: Catching Wild Horses

The story presented here is from a compilation of Native American tales gathered by Hugh Lenox Scott (1853‒1934), a cavalry officer in the United States Army, who in 1892 was assigned to Fort Sill, Oklahoma, as commander of Troop L of the Seventh Cavalry, an all-Indian unit comprised of Kiowa, Comanche, and Apache. A West Point graduate who served at various posts in the western United States between 1876 and 1897, Scott developed a great interest in the region’s indigenous populations and became an astute practitioner of Plains Indian sign language, a non-verbal method of communicating with hand signals. Familiarity with sign talk enabled Scott to undertake “an intensive study of every phase of the Indian and his customs.” In particular, he set about collecting stories from the Kiowa and other Native Americans who resided in the vicinity of Fort Sill. Many of the stories were gathered firsthand by Scott, while others were brought to him by Indians with whom he worked. Scott credits I-See-O (formerly Tah-bone-mah, died 1927) with actively searching out new stories. He “would sometimes be sent to outlying places where rumor pointed to another story—sometimes as far as 150 miles up the Washita . . . this went on until Isee-o said it was no use to search further for there were no more stories.” A combination of historical accounts, firsthand observations, and traditional fables, these stories, Scott wrote, “were the means by which their history, philosophy, and moral precepts were handed down to the younger generations by tales as old as the Kiowa tribe.” The stories are preserved in the Hugh Lenox Scott papers in the Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress. Scott led an eventful life that included, in addition to his service in the American West, stints as acting governor of Cuba, military governor of the Sulu Archipelago, Philippines, superintendent of West Point, and U.S. Army chief of staff. Upon his retirement from the army, Scott accepted an appointment to the Board of Indian Commissioners from 1919 to 1929. Details of his life can be found in a lengthy autobiography, Some Memories of a Soldier (1928).

Kiowa Religious Beliefs: The Medicine Bluff at Fort Sill

The story presented here is from a compilation of Native American tales gathered by Hugh Lenox Scott (1853‒1934), a cavalry officer in the United States Army, who in 1892 was assigned to Fort Sill, Oklahoma, as commander of Troop L of the Seventh Cavalry, an all-Indian unit comprised of Kiowa, Comanche, and Apache. A West Point graduate who served at various posts in the western United States between 1876 and 1897, Scott developed a great interest in the region’s indigenous populations and became an astute practitioner of Plains Indian sign language, a non-verbal method of communicating with hand signals. Familiarity with sign talk enabled Scott to undertake “an intensive study of every phase of the Indian and his customs.” In particular, he set about collecting stories from the Kiowa and other Native Americans who resided in the vicinity of Fort Sill. Many of the stories were gathered firsthand by Scott, while others were brought to him by Indians with whom he worked. Scott credits I-See-O (formerly Tah-bone-mah, died 1927) with actively searching out new stories. He “would sometimes be sent to outlying places where rumor pointed to another story—sometimes as far as 150 miles up the Washita . . . this went on until Isee-o said it was no use to search further for there were no more stories.” A combination of historical accounts, firsthand observations, and traditional fables, these stories, Scott wrote, “were the means by which their history, philosophy, and moral precepts were handed down to the younger generations by tales as old as the Kiowa tribe.” The stories are preserved in the Hugh Lenox Scott papers in the Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress. Scott led an eventful life that included, in addition to his service in the American West, stints as acting governor of Cuba, military governor of the Sulu Archipelago, Philippines, superintendent of West Point, and U.S. Army chief of staff. Upon his retirement from the army, Scott accepted an appointment to the Board of Indian Commissioners from 1919 to 1929. Details of his life can be found in a lengthy autobiography, Some Memories of a Soldier (1928).

A Guide to “Aphorisms”

This manuscript is a miscellany of medical texts consisting of a portion of Wasā’il al-wuṣūl ilā masā’il al-fuṣūl (Guide to Aphorisms) by ʻIzz al-Din Ibrahim al-Kashshi (or al-Kissi) as well as fragments of other medical texts. Wasā’il al-wuṣūl ilā masā’il al-fuṣūl is a commentary on Hippocrates’s Aphorisms. It is al-Kashshi’s only surviving work. The volume also contains many medical notes in Arabic and Persian, including a description of the medicinal properties of the flesh of animals and birds, a short treatise on the general classification of drugs, a treatise on ailments and their cures—in which each ailment is followed by a list of associated medicines—and various preparations, including one meant to increase virility. The collection of miscellaneous writings suggests that this manuscript was used as a reference by a practicing physician. Like the Aphorisms of Hippocrates, Wasā’il al-wuṣūl ilā masā’il al-fuṣūl is written in seven chapters. Little is known of al-Kashshi’s life. Surviving manuscript copies of this work are relatively rare, although his text is also preserved in a 14th century commentary by ʻImad al-Din ʻAbd al-Rahim ibn ʻAbdallah. ʻImad al-Din’s commentary is dated 1383, meaning that al-Kashshi was active before then.