The "Graphic" Statistical Maps of Ireland

This set of six statistical maps provides an economic and demographic overview of Ireland in the first half of the 1880s. Color coding is used to show population density, education, religion, agricultural production, wealth (measured by the value of taxed property), and poverty for each of the 32 counties. Small tables in the lower right of each map provide the same data in numerical form for the four provinces into which the counties of Ireland are grouped. Among the notable facts that can be gleaned from the map is the overwhelming predominance of Roman Catholicism in all parts of the country except for Ulster (and especially Antrim and Down, the only counties with a Catholic population of less than 25-30 percent); the high level of “pauperism” (measured as the share of the population receiving some form of relief) in certain southern counties, notably Limerick and Kildare; and the national illiteracy rate of about 25 percent, with a particular concentration of 37.9 percent (more than 40 percent among females) in the province of Connaught. The maps originally appeared as a supplement to The Graphic, a popular British weekly illustrated newspaper published in London.

Map of Central America, 1856

This 1856 map of Central America was created by the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, based on information provided by the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee, and edited and printed by the New York mapmaker and publisher Adolphus Ranney (1824‒74). It shows the extreme southern part of Mexico and the six countries of Central America: Guatemala, Honduras, San Salvador (El Salvador), Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and the Mosquito Coast (later British Honduras, today Belize). Panama is still part of Colombia, which at this time is called New Granada. Relief is shown by hachures, contours, and spot elevations in feet. Depths are shown by soundings in feet. Three inset maps at the lower left show the Bay of Fonseca, the Port of San Juan de Nicaragua, and the southern part of Nicaragua from San Juan to the Bay of Fonseca, i.e., from the Atlantic to the Pacific coasts. The main line of the proposed canal route, running through Lake Nicaragua, is marked on the latter map. In the 1850s, Nicaragua was thought to be the most likely route of an isthmian canal, with Panama not yet seriously considered. Notes on the main map provide information about distances and geographic features, information found on other maps, and competing territorial claims and the status of various boundaries in the region. Under the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, signed by Great Britain and the United States in April 1850, the two powers agreed not to seek exclusive control of the proposed isthmian canal or territory on either side of such a canal, not to fortify any position in the canal area, and not to establish colonies in Central America. The Mosquito Coast, where the British already had settlements, was an exception. The scale of the map is in statute miles.

Map of Lebanon According to Reconnaissance Information Collected by the Topographical Group from the Syria Expedition of 1860-1861

This map of Lebanon showing part of Syria with Damascus was made by French military cartographers in 1862. It is based on information gathered by the topographic unit in the expeditionary corps sent by France to Lebanon in 1860‒61. Lebanon was at that time part of the Ottoman Empire and the central region known as Mount Lebanon was mainly populated by Christians and Druzes. A Maronite peasant uprising in 1858 led to fighting between the two groups, which culminated in the massacre in 1860 by the Druze of about 10,000 Maronite Catholics as well as Greek Catholics and Greek Orthodox. France, exercising its traditional role as the European protector of the Christians of the Middle East, sent a force of 6,000 soldiers to Lebanon, which landed in Beirut on August 16, 1860. The troops remained in the country until June 1861 and succeeded in restoring order. The map shows district borders, cities and towns, railroads, mosques, Christian convents or monasteries, and rivers and other geographic features. Relief is shown by hachures. Heights are indicated in meters. The map has two distance scales: kilometers and nautical miles. The table in the lower right lists all of the districts of Lebanon, with their populations broken down by the seven religions represented in the region: Maronites, “schismatic Greeks” (i.e., Orthodox who recognized the authority of the Greek patriarch of Constantinople), Greek Catholics, Druze, Métoualis (an old term for Lebanese Shiites), Muslims (Sunnis), and Jews. Maronites were the largest group, accounting for 208,180 of the total population of 487,600.

Africa, 1914

This map of Africa was published in Germany in 1914, shortly before the outbreak of World War I. It shows the ocean liner routes between Germany and Africa, as well as coastal and inland routes. Relief is shown by hachures and spot elevations. In the lower left are an illustration of a steamship on the high seas and a listing of the major German steamship lines providing service to Africa, Woermann-Linie A.G., Deutsche Ost-Afrika Linie, Hamburg-Amerika Linie, and Hamburg-Bremer Afrika-Linie A.G. In the upper right is an inset map of the coastal region of the German colony of Cameroon and an inset to the inset showing the inland course of the Cameroon River. Below these maps is another inset showing the eastern part of German East Africa. The key at the lower right indicates the wealth of information contained in the map. Two distance scales are provided, kilometers and nautical miles. Different colors are used to mark the colonial possessions of Germany, Great Britain, Belgium, France, Italy, Portugal, Spain, and Turkey. Symbols indicate cities and towns by population size, forts and military posts, ruins, railroads (operational and planned), caravan routes, mountain passes, wells and springs, and swamps and other geographic features. There is an alphabetical list of abbreviations for geographic terms in local languages and their German equivalents. Roman numerals are used to identify the districts and other administrative divisions in the Belgian Congo and German East Africa. The map was prepared by Wagner & Debes, a German firm that specialized in providing maps for inclusion in the famous guidebooks for travelers published by Karl Baedeker in the 19th and early 20th centuries. A stamp at the bottom indicates that the map was loaned by the American Geographical Society of New York to the Peace Conference at Versailles, 1918‒19.

Giant Bluff. Elk Canyon on Black Hills and Fort Pierre Railroad

This image is from the John C.H. Grabill Collection at the Library of Congress. The 188 photographs that Grabill sent to the Library for copyright protection between 1887 and 1892 are thought to be the largest surviving collection of this gifted early Western photographer’s work. The images document frontier life in Colorado, South Dakota, and Wyoming and include views of hunters, prospectors, cowboys, Chinese immigrants, and U.S. Army personnel, as well as of cattle and sheep ranches, mining operations, towns, natural landmarks, forts, railroads, mills, stagecoaches, and wagons. The collection includes a visual record of railroad development; coaches and wagons; mining, smelting, and milling; freighting; emerging cities and towns; parades; cattle roundups and branding; sheepherding; prospecting; and hunting. A number of the images portray the Lakota Sioux living on or near the Cheyenne River and the Pine Ridge reservations and their contact with U.S. military and government agents, and with William “Buffalo Bill” Cody. Notable Lakota depicted include the chiefs Red Cloud, American Horse, and Standing Elk, and the warrior Plenty Horses. Some of the photographs were taken only days after the 1890 massacre at Wounded Knee near Pine Ridge. Very little is known about Grabill. He arrived in Sturgis, South Dakota, in 1886, where he set up a photographic studio. Information printed on the photographic mounts indicates that he also had studios in Deadwood, Lead City, and Hot Springs, South Dakota, in Colorado, and possibly in Chicago, and that he was the “official photographer of the Black Hills and F.P. [Fort Pierre] R.R. and Home Stake Mining Co.”

Giant Bluff. Elk Canyon on Black Hills and Fort Pierre Railroad

This image is from the John C.H. Grabill Collection at the Library of Congress. The 188 photographs that Grabill sent to the Library for copyright protection between 1887 and 1892 are thought to be the largest surviving collection of this gifted early Western photographer’s work. The images document frontier life in Colorado, South Dakota, and Wyoming and include views of hunters, prospectors, cowboys, Chinese immigrants, and U.S. Army personnel, as well as of cattle and sheep ranches, mining operations, towns, natural landmarks, forts, railroads, mills, stagecoaches, and wagons. The collection includes a visual record of railroad development; coaches and wagons; mining, smelting, and milling; freighting; emerging cities and towns; parades; cattle roundups and branding; sheepherding; prospecting; and hunting. A number of the images portray the Lakota Sioux living on or near the Cheyenne River and the Pine Ridge reservations and their contact with U.S. military and government agents, and with William “Buffalo Bill” Cody. Notable Lakota depicted include the chiefs Red Cloud, American Horse, and Standing Elk, and the warrior Plenty Horses. Some of the photographs were taken only days after the 1890 massacre at Wounded Knee near Pine Ridge. Very little is known about Grabill. He arrived in Sturgis, South Dakota, in 1886, where he set up a photographic studio. Information printed on the photographic mounts indicates that he also had studios in Deadwood, Lead City, and Hot Springs, South Dakota, in Colorado, and possibly in Chicago, and that he was the “official photographer of the Black Hills and F.P. [Fort Pierre] R.R. and Home Stake Mining Co.”

Happy Hours in Camp. G. and Burlington and Missouri River Railroad Engineers Corps and Visitors

This image is from the John C.H. Grabill Collection at the Library of Congress. The 188 photographs that Grabill sent to the Library for copyright protection between 1887 and 1892 are thought to be the largest surviving collection of this gifted early Western photographer’s work. The images document frontier life in Colorado, South Dakota, and Wyoming and include views of hunters, prospectors, cowboys, Chinese immigrants, and U.S. Army personnel, as well as of cattle and sheep ranches, mining operations, towns, natural landmarks, forts, railroads, mills, stagecoaches, and wagons. The collection includes a visual record of railroad development; coaches and wagons; mining, smelting, and milling; freighting; emerging cities and towns; parades; cattle roundups and branding; sheepherding; prospecting; and hunting. A number of the images portray the Lakota Sioux living on or near the Cheyenne River and the Pine Ridge reservations and their contact with U.S. military and government agents, and with William “Buffalo Bill” Cody. Notable Lakota depicted include the chiefs Red Cloud, American Horse, and Standing Elk, and the warrior Plenty Horses. Some of the photographs were taken only days after the 1890 massacre at Wounded Knee near Pine Ridge. Very little is known about Grabill. He arrived in Sturgis, South Dakota, in 1886, where he set up a photographic studio. Information printed on the photographic mounts indicates that he also had studios in Deadwood, Lead City, and Hot Springs, South Dakota, in Colorado, and possibly in Chicago, and that he was the “official photographer of the Black Hills and F.P. [Fort Pierre] R.R. and Home Stake Mining Co.”

Engineers Corps Camp and Visitors

This image is from the John C.H. Grabill Collection at the Library of Congress. The 188 photographs that Grabill sent to the Library for copyright protection between 1887 and 1892 are thought to be the largest surviving collection of this gifted early Western photographer’s work. The images document frontier life in Colorado, South Dakota, and Wyoming and include views of hunters, prospectors, cowboys, Chinese immigrants, and U.S. Army personnel, as well as of cattle and sheep ranches, mining operations, towns, natural landmarks, forts, railroads, mills, stagecoaches, and wagons. The collection includes a visual record of railroad development; coaches and wagons; mining, smelting, and milling; freighting; emerging cities and towns; parades; cattle roundups and branding; sheepherding; prospecting; and hunting. A number of the images portray the Lakota Sioux living on or near the Cheyenne River and the Pine Ridge reservations and their contact with U.S. military and government agents, and with William “Buffalo Bill” Cody. Notable Lakota depicted include the chiefs Red Cloud, American Horse, and Standing Elk, and the warrior Plenty Horses. Some of the photographs were taken only days after the 1890 massacre at Wounded Knee near Pine Ridge. Very little is known about Grabill. He arrived in Sturgis, South Dakota, in 1886, where he set up a photographic studio. Information printed on the photographic mounts indicates that he also had studios in Deadwood, Lead City, and Hot Springs, South Dakota, in Colorado, and possibly in Chicago, and that he was the “official photographer of the Black Hills and F.P. [Fort Pierre] R.R. and Home Stake Mining Co.”

Engineers Corps Camp and Visitors

This image is from the John C.H. Grabill Collection at the Library of Congress. The 188 photographs that Grabill sent to the Library for copyright protection between 1887 and 1892 are thought to be the largest surviving collection of this gifted early Western photographer’s work. The images document frontier life in Colorado, South Dakota, and Wyoming and include views of hunters, prospectors, cowboys, Chinese immigrants, and U.S. Army personnel, as well as of cattle and sheep ranches, mining operations, towns, natural landmarks, forts, railroads, mills, stagecoaches, and wagons. The collection includes a visual record of railroad development; coaches and wagons; mining, smelting, and milling; freighting; emerging cities and towns; parades; cattle roundups and branding; sheepherding; prospecting; and hunting. A number of the images portray the Lakota Sioux living on or near the Cheyenne River and the Pine Ridge reservations and their contact with U.S. military and government agents, and with William “Buffalo Bill” Cody. Notable Lakota depicted include the chiefs Red Cloud, American Horse, and Standing Elk, and the warrior Plenty Horses. Some of the photographs were taken only days after the 1890 massacre at Wounded Knee near Pine Ridge. Very little is known about Grabill. He arrived in Sturgis, South Dakota, in 1886, where he set up a photographic studio. Information printed on the photographic mounts indicates that he also had studios in Deadwood, Lead City, and Hot Springs, South Dakota, in Colorado, and possibly in Chicago, and that he was the “official photographer of the Black Hills and F.P. [Fort Pierre] R.R. and Home Stake Mining Co.”

The Cavalier. The Young Soldier and His Horse on Duty at Camp Cheyenne

This image is from the John C.H. Grabill Collection at the Library of Congress. The 188 photographs that Grabill sent to the Library for copyright protection between 1887 and 1892 are thought to be the largest surviving collection of this gifted early Western photographer’s work. The images document frontier life in Colorado, South Dakota, and Wyoming and include views of hunters, prospectors, cowboys, Chinese immigrants, and U.S. Army personnel, as well as of cattle and sheep ranches, mining operations, towns, natural landmarks, forts, railroads, mills, stagecoaches, and wagons. The collection includes a visual record of railroad development; coaches and wagons; mining, smelting, and milling; freighting; emerging cities and towns; parades; cattle roundups and branding; sheepherding; prospecting; and hunting. A number of the images portray the Lakota Sioux living on or near the Cheyenne River and the Pine Ridge reservations and their contact with U.S. military and government agents, and with William “Buffalo Bill” Cody. Notable Lakota depicted include the chiefs Red Cloud, American Horse, and Standing Elk, and the warrior Plenty Horses. Some of the photographs were taken only days after the 1890 massacre at Wounded Knee near Pine Ridge. Very little is known about Grabill. He arrived in Sturgis, South Dakota, in 1886, where he set up a photographic studio. Information printed on the photographic mounts indicates that he also had studios in Deadwood, Lead City, and Hot Springs, South Dakota, in Colorado, and possibly in Chicago, and that he was the “official photographer of the Black Hills and F.P. [Fort Pierre] R.R. and Home Stake Mining Co.”