March 3, 2016

The Province of New Jersey, Divided into East and West, Commonly Called the Jerseys

William Faden, a noted English publisher who specialized in maps and prints, published The Province of New Jersey, Divided into East and West, Commonly Called the Jerseys in 1777. The map is often considered a revolutionary map, both for its detailed depiction of topography in the northern part of the state and its indication of the boundary lines made in 1743 demarcating “West Jersey” and “East Jersey.” The hand-colored map features an extraordinary number of city and town names throughout the colony. County boundaries, rivers, and roads are indicated, and relief is shown by hachures. A table of  “Astronomical Observations”  in the lower right gives the latitudinal and longitudinal coordinates of five locations—Philadelphia; Lewes, Delaware; “New York fort;” Sandy Hook light house; and Machacamach Fork—with both London and Philadelphia given as the prime meridian. Philadelphia is the prime meridian used on the map. A comparison of place names suggests that this map by Faden was a source for Abel Buell in his Map of United States of North America (1784), the first map published in the United States after independence. Faden published this map in his North American Atlas of 1777. It shows counties, towns and cities, houses, churches, the names of some inhabitants, mills, roads, bridges, ferries, waterfalls, and vegetation. It also shows bays, inlets, shoals, rocks, and channels along the coast, and anchorages in Delaware Bay. A note indicates: “This map has been drawn from the survey made in 1769 by order of the commissioners appointed to settle the partition Line between the provinces of New York & New Jersey by Bernard Ratzer, Lieut. in the 60th. Regt. and from another large survey of the Northern Parts in the possession of the Earl of Dunmore by Gerard Banker. The whole regulated and ascertained by Astronomical observations”

Fort Reno, Oklahoma Territory, 1891

This panoramic map shows Fort Reno, Oklahoma Territory, as it appeared in 1891. Fort Reno was established as a U.S. military camp in 1874 during the American Indian Wars, and was named in honor of Major General Jesse L. Reno, who died in the American Civil War in 1862. The military camp remained fully functional until shortly after Oklahoma achieved statehood in 1907. The map shows the orderly layout of the camp. An index at the bottom of the map indicates the purpose of the buildings, which include barracks and officers’ quarters, store houses, shops (including bakery, butcher, and blacksmith), and service facilities such as stables, laundry, post office, latrines, and two hospitals. Beyond the camp, a train traverses a railroad, labeled “Chocktaw Railroad.” On the far side of the tracks are a cluster of tepees. The panoramic map was a cartographic form in popular use to depict U.S. and Canadian cities and towns in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Also known as bird’s-eye views or perspective maps, these works are representations of cities portrayed as if viewed from above at an oblique angle. Not generally drawn to scale, they show street patterns, individual buildings, and major landscape features in perspective. This map is by Thaddeus Mortimer Fowler (1842–1922), one of the most prolific makers of panoramic maps. Fowler was born in Lowell, Massachusetts, and fought and was wounded in the American Civil War. After working for an uncle who was a photographer, in 1870 he established his own panoramic map firm. Over the course of a long career, Fowler made panoramic maps of cities in 21 states and parts of Canada.

The United States According to the Definitive Treaty of Peace Signed at Paris, September 3, 1783

On August 9, 1783, Philadelphia mapmaker William McMurray placed an advertisement in the Pennsylvania Packet, a Philadelphia newspaper, for a map entitled The United States According to the Definitive Treaty of Peace. McMurray solicited money for the publication of his map by issuing subscriptions. Once a sufficient number of subscriptions were sold, McMurray planned to have his map engraved and printed. The subscriptions were for three-and-a-half dollars: one-and-a-half dollars paid up front, with the remaining two dollars due upon delivery of the map. Unfortunately, orders came slowly and the map was not published until December 1784. This was almost nine months after Abel Buell published his New and Correct Map of the United States of North America, making the map by McMurray the second map printed in the United States after the signing of the Treaty of Paris. This map includes the names and boundaries of the original thirteen states in accordance with the 1783 treaty and also delineates, using colored lines, the boundaries for ten additional unnamed states northwest of the Ohio River. This was in accordance with the Ordinance of 1784, enacted by Congress on April 23 of that year, which called for the territories west of the Appalachian Mountains, north of the Ohio, and east of the Mississippi to be divided into several separate states. The map is hand-colored and relief is shown pictorially. Philadelphia is the prime meridian. An inset map in the lower right on a smaller scale shows the entire continent of North America.

Bird’s Eye View of Asbury Park, New Jersey, 1881

This panoramic map shows Asbury Park, New Jersey, as it appeared in 1881. The ocean is shown at the bottom of the map, with the town extending away from the shoreline. Asbury Park was established in 1871 as an oceanfront community by manufacturer James A. Bradley (1830–1921), and was named for Methodist bishop Francis Asbury (1745–1816). The town boasted attractions such as a boardwalk with pavilions and a pier. On the map, the town has wide streets, ample trees, and three lakes: “Wesley,” “Sunset,” and “Deal.” A railroad bridge—part of the Central Railroad of New Jersey—spans the largest of the three lakes (Deal), and a train is seen moving toward the town. Numerous figures traverse the streets and enjoy the lakes and beaches. On the lower right are several large empty squares, labeled “Hotel Sites.” An inset image at the bottom of the map shows detail of the Asbury Park educational hall. To the right of the inset image is an index indicating the location of the educational hall on the map, as well as that of the public school and several churches (Presbyterian, Catholic, Episcopal, Reformed, Baptist). A notation to the left of the inset image reads: “The growth of this popular seaside resort is unparalleled. There are now over 600 buildings, including hotels. In 1869 it was a wilderness and a barren sand-waste, assessed at only $15,000. In 1880, it was assessed at nearly $1,000,000.” The panoramic map was a cartographic form in popular use to depict U.S. and Canadian cities and towns in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Also known as bird’s-eye views or perspective maps, these works are representations of cities portrayed as if viewed from above at an oblique angle. Not generally drawn to scale, they show street patterns, individual buildings, and major landscape features in perspective. This map is by Thaddeus Mortimer Fowler (1842–1922), one of the most prolific makers of panoramic maps. Fowler was born in Lowell, Massachusetts, and fought and was wounded in the American Civil War. After working for an uncle who was a photographer, in 1870 he established his own panoramic map firm. Over the course of a long career, Fowler made panoramic maps of cities in 21 states and parts of Canada.

Bird’s Eye View of Garfield, New Jersey, 1909

This panoramic map shows a view of Garfield, New Jersey, as it appeared in 1909. Garfield was originally known as East Passaic, but later was named in honor of U.S. President James Garfield. The map shows the town along the banks of the Passaic and Saddle rivers, with several bridges crossing the water. Street names in the town are visible, as well as a railway, labeled “Erie Railroad.” In the lower left corner of the map are five inset images, showing greater detail of several buildings: “Borough Hall,” “First Reformed Church,” Presbyterian Church,” and Garfield’s public schools, “Belmont School,” and “School No. 1.” Five more inset images are at the top of the map, featuring additional structures: a factory for the Passaic & Garfield Construction company (manufacturer of ornamental and building cement blocks); the John Karl real estate office (and the adjacent building, John Karl Plumbing); the large factory compound of the Hammerschlag Manufacturing Company; the Lotsey Toth Plaudersville Cafe; and the Garfield Worsted Mills. Numerous factory and industrial buildings can be seen on the map. The panoramic map was a cartographic form in popular use to depict U.S. and Canadian cities and towns in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Also known as bird’s-eye views or perspective maps, these works are representations of cities portrayed as if viewed from above at an oblique angle. Not generally drawn to scale, they show street patterns, individual buildings, and major landscape features in perspective. This map is by Thaddeus Mortimer Fowler (1842–1922), one of the most prolific makers of panoramic maps. Fowler was born in Lowell, Massachusetts, and fought and was wounded in the American Civil War. After working for an uncle who was a photographer, in 1870 he established his own panoramic map firm. Over the course of a long career, Fowler made panoramic maps of cities in 21 states and parts of Canada.

Wyandotte, Michigan, 1896

This panoramic map shows Wyandotte, Michigan, as it appeared in 1896. The city was built on land originally home to an American Indian tribe called the Wyandot. The map shows the city on the bank of the Detroit River, which provides passage for numerous sailing vessels and other ships. An index at the bottom center of the map indicates the location of various points of interest, including schools, churches, city hall, the opera house, and factories. The schools and churches, which include a German Roman Catholic school, a German Roman Catholic Church, and three German Lutheran churches, reflect the large number of German immigrants living in the town. Industry lines the river, and includes the Wyandotte Boat Company, a hoop and stave works, the Eureka Brewing and Ice Works, the Marx Brothers Brewery, a planing mill, an iron ship builder, a rug and robe factory, an iron works, a lumber yard, and the Michigan Alkali Company. At the bottom of the map, two images provide greater detail of the two factories of the Michigan Alkali Works, which were built by industrialist John Baptiste Ford (1811–1903). On the far side of town, two trains pass, traveling in opposite directions on the Michigan Central Railroad and the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Railroad. The panoramic map was a cartographic form in popular use to depict U.S. and Canadian cities and towns in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Also known as bird’s-eye views or perspective maps, these works are representations of cities portrayed as if viewed from above at an oblique angle. Not generally drawn to scale, they show street patterns, individual buildings, and major landscape features in perspective. This map is by Thaddeus Mortimer Fowler (1842–1922), one of the most prolific makers of panoramic maps. Fowler was born in Lowell, Massachusetts, and fought and was wounded in the American Civil War. After working for an uncle who was a photographer, in 1870 he established his own panoramic map firm. Over the course of a long career, Fowler made panoramic maps of cities in 21 states and parts of Canada.