Arabia and the Qur’an. (The Origin and Nature of Islam). A Historical Study

This book is a study of Arabia, the Qur’an, and Islam by Russian scholar Nikolaĭ Petrovich Ostroumov (1846‒1930). The main text is preceded by Ostroumov’s recollections of his experiences in the 1860s and 1870s as a student at the counter-Muslim department of the Kazan Seminary, where he studied Tartar and Arabic languages and Muslim culture. At the time, the government of the Kazan region, which was populated by Tartars and other Muslim ethnic groups, allowed the teaching of the Tartar language in schools to baptized Tartars and its use in Orthodox churches. One mission of the seminary was to produce government officials who would serve as administrators in regions of Russian Central Asia where a high percentage of the population was Muslim. Many baptized Muslims remained attracted to Islam and in reality knew and understood little of Christian teachings. The formal Tartar language was not much known by the local Tartar people. Classes at the seminary translated Christian religious texts into vernacular Tartar and students at the seminary learned the colloquial language. The main body of the text is in nine chapters, including an introduction and chapters on the geography of Arabia; the history of ancient Arabia; the ancient inhabitants of Arabia; the domestic and social life of the ancient Arabs; the character and morals of the ancient Arabs; the religious beliefs of ancient Arabs; Judaic and Christian sects that influenced the teachings in the Qur’an; Arabic as the language of the Qur’an; and the personality of the Prophet Muhammad. Ostroumov sees hostility to non-Muslims as a characteristic of Islam, reflected in early teachings and manifested in such recent developments as the massacre by the Ottoman Turks in the 1890s of many thousands of Armenians.

Treatise on Arabic Poetry

Tratado de la Poesía Arabe (Treatise on Arabic poetry) is by Emilio Álvarez Sanz y Tubau, a translator and interpreter who was employed by the high commission that exercised administrative authority in the Spanish Moroccan protectorate. Alvarez Sanz lived in Tangier in his youth, where he was recognized as a distinguished student of Arabic. He later perfected his knowledge of Muslim law and the Arabic language at the seminary-university of the Maronite Order in Beirut. In June 1912 he was certified as a translator-interpreter, which enabled him to pursue a career in the Spanish foreign service. Tratado de la Poesía Arabe was published in Tétouan in 1919 and dedicated by the author to Prince Mulay al-Mahdi Bin Ismail. The book begins with a general account of the origins and history of Arabic poetry. Alvarez Sanz traces the evolution of Arabic poetry from the original plain rhymed prose and the rayes (poems in which every two verses are rhymed together) to the high forms of classical poetry in four distinct periods: Yahilium (pre-Islamism); Mujdramun (first period or Islamic); Mualidun (second period after Islam); and Muhadazun (third period to his own time). He describes the importance of zocos (poetry fairs held in different seasons, such as Ukaz); explores why poetry that is declaimed or sung is preferred to the written form; and discusses love as a persistent motif in Arabic poetry. The book is divided into five parts: 1. verse composition and metric art (showing 16 forms); 2. modern metrics (nine forms); 3. folklore, or songs and popular chants; 4. enigmas and logogryphs (special poetic compositions made with intricate words or intertwined sentences); and 5. a selection of examples of “oriental poetry,” with complete poems showing the virtuosity of Arabic artists.

The Horses and Customs of the Sahara Desert

Les chevaux du Sahara et les mœurs du désert (Horses of the Sahara and the ways of the desert) is a study of the horses of North Africa accompanied by ethnographic commentary based on the author’s residence in Algeria as well as on the reflections of ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Jaza’iri, Amir of Mascara (1808‒83). The book is by General Eugène Daumas (1803‒71), a French soldier who participated in his country’s conquest of Algeria. The first half of the volume deals with the Saharan horse, how it differs from the Arabian horse, and details of its uses, care, and breeding. Because the author was first and foremost a cavalry officer, he discusses at length the Saharan horse’s virtues as a military mount. The second half of the volume is devoted to the manners and customs of the inhabitants of North Africa, i.e., the Berbers or, as Daumas calls them, “the people of the tent.” This section is not a comprehensive or scholarly ethnography but rather a collection of observations, folklore, proverbs, and equestrian lore covering war- and peace-making among tribes, hunting, and the husbandry of horses, camel, and sheep. Throughout the volume Daumas supplements his own observations with the testimony of ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Jaza’iri, whom he consulted through correspondence. ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Jaza’iri fought against the French occupation of his country. He was captured and later released from prison, after which he spent the remainder of his life in Bursa, Turkey, and in Damascus, Syria. Through his writing, personal charisma, and especially his defense of the Christian population in the upheavals of 1860, he established a reputation for tolerance that persists to the present day in Europe and the Middle East. The book first appeared in 1851. It was followed by many later editions in French and German. The edition shown here was published in 1862.

Fur Seals on Saint Paul Island, Alaska, in the Bering Sea. July 9, 1899

This image is from the album of photographs compiled by Albert K. Fisher (1856−1948) to document the Harriman Expedition that explored the coast of Alaska in June and July of 1899. Fisher was an ornithologist and vertebrate zoologist who participated in many important scientific expeditions to the American West, including the Death Valley expedition of 1891 and biological surveys in California, Nevada, the Arizona Territory (including New Mexico), Utah, and portions of other western states in 1892. Fisher was also a member of the Harriman Expedition. The photograph is one of 386 preserved in a 127-page album held in the Albert K. Fisher Papers at the Library of Congress. The primary photographer on the expedition was Edward Curtis (1868‒1952). Other photographers and scientists whose images are included in the album are Clinton Hart Merriam, W.H. Averell, Edwin Chapin Starks, Grove Karl Gilbert, Walter Devereux, and Fisher himself. Funded and accompanied by railroad magnate Edward H. Harriman (1848–1909), the expedition, or "floating university" as it was called, included famous scientists, naturalists, artists, writers, and photographers. The results of the expedition’s scientific and ethnological investigations filled 13 volumes that were published between 1901 and 1914. Most of the images in the album are of the Alaska coast, Kodiak, and the Aleutian Islands, but it also includes scenes from the beginning of the expedition in Wyoming, Idaho and on the Snake River in Oregon and in British Columbia, as well as views of Plover Bay, Siberia, which the expedition visited briefly in July 1899.

Tundra on Hall Island, Alaska, in the Bering Sea. July 14, 1899

This image is from the album of photographs compiled by Albert K. Fisher (1856−1948) to document the Harriman Expedition that explored the coast of Alaska in June and July of 1899. Fisher was an ornithologist and vertebrate zoologist who participated in many important scientific expeditions to the American West, including the Death Valley expedition of 1891 and biological surveys in California, Nevada, the Arizona Territory (including New Mexico), Utah, and portions of other western states in 1892. Fisher was also a member of the Harriman Expedition. The photograph is one of 386 preserved in a 127-page album held in the Albert K. Fisher Papers at the Library of Congress. The primary photographer on the expedition was Edward Curtis (1868‒1952). Other photographers and scientists whose images are included in the album are Clinton Hart Merriam, W.H. Averell, Edwin Chapin Starks, Grove Karl Gilbert, Walter Devereux, and Fisher himself. Funded and accompanied by railroad magnate Edward H. Harriman (1848–1909), the expedition, or "floating university" as it was called, included famous scientists, naturalists, artists, writers, and photographers. The results of the expedition’s scientific and ethnological investigations filled 13 volumes that were published between 1901 and 1914. Most of the images in the album are of the Alaska coast, Kodiak, and the Aleutian Islands, but it also includes scenes from the beginning of the expedition in Wyoming, Idaho and on the Snake River in Oregon and in British Columbia, as well as views of Plover Bay, Siberia, which the expedition visited briefly in July 1899.

Yupik Dwelling near Plover Bay (Providence Bay), Siberia

This image is from the album of photographs compiled by Albert K. Fisher (1856−1948) to document the Harriman Expedition that explored the coast of Alaska in June and July of 1899. Fisher was an ornithologist and vertebrate zoologist who participated in many important scientific expeditions to the American West, including the Death Valley expedition of 1891 and biological surveys in California, Nevada, the Arizona Territory (including New Mexico), Utah, and portions of other western states in 1892. Fisher was also a member of the Harriman Expedition. The photograph is one of 386 preserved in a 127-page album held in the Albert K. Fisher Papers at the Library of Congress. The primary photographer on the expedition was Edward Curtis (1868‒1952). Other photographers and scientists whose images are included in the album are Clinton Hart Merriam, W.H. Averell, Edwin Chapin Starks, Grove Karl Gilbert, Walter Devereux, and Fisher himself. Funded and accompanied by railroad magnate Edward H. Harriman (1848–1909), the expedition, or "floating university" as it was called, included famous scientists, naturalists, artists, writers, and photographers. The results of the expedition’s scientific and ethnological investigations filled 13 volumes that were published between 1901 and 1914. Most of the images in the album are of the Alaska coast, Kodiak, and the Aleutian Islands, but it also includes scenes from the beginning of the expedition in Wyoming, Idaho and on the Snake River in Oregon and in British Columbia, as well as views of Plover Bay, Siberia, which the expedition visited briefly in July 1899.

Fur Seals on Saint Paul Island, Alaska, in the Bering Sea. July 9, 1899

This image is from the album of photographs compiled by Albert K. Fisher (1856−1948) to document the Harriman Expedition that explored the coast of Alaska in June and July of 1899. Fisher was an ornithologist and vertebrate zoologist who participated in many important scientific expeditions to the American West, including the Death Valley expedition of 1891 and biological surveys in California, Nevada, the Arizona Territory (including New Mexico), Utah, and portions of other western states in 1892. Fisher was also a member of the Harriman Expedition. The photograph is one of 386 preserved in a 127-page album held in the Albert K. Fisher Papers at the Library of Congress. The primary photographer on the expedition was Edward Curtis (1868‒1952). Other photographers and scientists whose images are included in the album are Clinton Hart Merriam, W.H. Averell, Edwin Chapin Starks, Grove Karl Gilbert, Walter Devereux, and Fisher himself. Funded and accompanied by railroad magnate Edward H. Harriman (1848–1909), the expedition, or "floating university" as it was called, included famous scientists, naturalists, artists, writers, and photographers. The results of the expedition’s scientific and ethnological investigations filled 13 volumes that were published between 1901 and 1914. Most of the images in the album are of the Alaska coast, Kodiak, and the Aleutian Islands, but it also includes scenes from the beginning of the expedition in Wyoming, Idaho and on the Snake River in Oregon and in British Columbia, as well as views of Plover Bay, Siberia, which the expedition visited briefly in July 1899.

Fur Seals on Saint Paul Island, Alaska, in the Bering Sea. July 9, 1899

This image is from the album of photographs compiled by Albert K. Fisher (1856−1948) to document the Harriman Expedition that explored the coast of Alaska in June and July of 1899. Fisher was an ornithologist and vertebrate zoologist who participated in many important scientific expeditions to the American West, including the Death Valley expedition of 1891 and biological surveys in California, Nevada, the Arizona Territory (including New Mexico), Utah, and portions of other western states in 1892. Fisher was also a member of the Harriman Expedition. The photograph is one of 386 preserved in a 127-page album held in the Albert K. Fisher Papers at the Library of Congress. The primary photographer on the expedition was Edward Curtis (1868‒1952). Other photographers and scientists whose images are included in the album are Clinton Hart Merriam, W.H. Averell, Edwin Chapin Starks, Grove Karl Gilbert, Walter Devereux, and Fisher himself. Funded and accompanied by railroad magnate Edward H. Harriman (1848–1909), the expedition, or "floating university" as it was called, included famous scientists, naturalists, artists, writers, and photographers. The results of the expedition’s scientific and ethnological investigations filled 13 volumes that were published between 1901 and 1914. Most of the images in the album are of the Alaska coast, Kodiak, and the Aleutian Islands, but it also includes scenes from the beginning of the expedition in Wyoming, Idaho and on the Snake River in Oregon and in British Columbia, as well as views of Plover Bay, Siberia, which the expedition visited briefly in July 1899.

Plover Bay (Providence Bay), Siberia. July 11, 1899

This image is from the album of photographs compiled by Albert K. Fisher (1856−1948) to document the Harriman Expedition that explored the coast of Alaska in June and July of 1899. Fisher was an ornithologist and vertebrate zoologist who participated in many important scientific expeditions to the American West, including the Death Valley expedition of 1891 and biological surveys in California, Nevada, the Arizona Territory (including New Mexico), Utah, and portions of other western states in 1892. Fisher was also a member of the Harriman Expedition. The photograph is one of 386 preserved in a 127-page album held in the Albert K. Fisher Papers at the Library of Congress. The primary photographer on the expedition was Edward Curtis (1868‒1952). Other photographers and scientists whose images are included in the album are Clinton Hart Merriam, W.H. Averell, Edwin Chapin Starks, Grove Karl Gilbert, Walter Devereux, and Fisher himself. Funded and accompanied by railroad magnate Edward H. Harriman (1848–1909), the expedition, or "floating university" as it was called, included famous scientists, naturalists, artists, writers, and photographers. The results of the expedition’s scientific and ethnological investigations filled 13 volumes that were published between 1901 and 1914. Most of the images in the album are of the Alaska coast, Kodiak, and the Aleutian Islands, but it also includes scenes from the beginning of the expedition in Wyoming, Idaho and on the Snake River in Oregon and in British Columbia, as well as views of Plover Bay, Siberia, which the expedition visited briefly in July 1899.

Cape Upright, Saint Matthew Island, Alaska

This image is from the album of photographs compiled by Albert K. Fisher (1856−1948) to document the Harriman Expedition that explored the coast of Alaska in June and July of 1899. Fisher was an ornithologist and vertebrate zoologist who participated in many important scientific expeditions to the American West, including the Death Valley expedition of 1891 and biological surveys in California, Nevada, the Arizona Territory (including New Mexico), Utah, and portions of other western states in 1892. Fisher was also a member of the Harriman Expedition. The photograph is one of 386 preserved in a 127-page album held in the Albert K. Fisher Papers at the Library of Congress. The primary photographer on the expedition was Edward Curtis (1868‒1952). Other photographers and scientists whose images are included in the album are Clinton Hart Merriam, W.H. Averell, Edwin Chapin Starks, Grove Karl Gilbert, Walter Devereux, and Fisher himself. Funded and accompanied by railroad magnate Edward H. Harriman (1848–1909), the expedition, or "floating university" as it was called, included famous scientists, naturalists, artists, writers, and photographers. The results of the expedition’s scientific and ethnological investigations filled 13 volumes that were published between 1901 and 1914. Most of the images in the album are of the Alaska coast, Kodiak, and the Aleutian Islands, but it also includes scenes from the beginning of the expedition in Wyoming, Idaho and on the Snake River in Oregon and in British Columbia, as well as views of Plover Bay, Siberia, which the expedition visited briefly in July 1899.