March 3, 2016

Connecticut, from the Best Authorities

This map of Connecticut first appeared in General Atlas for Carey’s Edition of Guthrie’s Geography Improved, published in Philadelphia in 1795. The map was created “from the best authorities,” including information from William Blodget’s extraordinarily detailed map of 1791, the first official map of the state. Amos Doolittle (1754–1832), a copperplate engraver in New Haven, produced the map on a scale of 7.5 miles to one inch (12 kilometers to 2.4 centimeters). Largely self-taught, Doolittle was originally a jeweler and silversmith who first attempted engraving while fighting at Lexington and Concord during the American Revolutionary War. He went on to specialize in maps for atlases and illustrations for books. The map has a decorative scene in the lower-right corner with the Connecticut shield and motto, Qui transtulit sustinet (He who transplanted still sustains). Mathew Carey (1760–1839) was an immigrant from Ireland who worked as a publisher in Philadelphia, specializing in maps, atlases, and works of geography. In 1795 he issued the first atlas published in the United States, the American Atlas. Early American publishers such as Carey were not restricted by international copyright agreements and reused European sources to print extensive atlases and geography texts. Carey combined William Guthrie’s European maps, originally published in London in 1770, with updated maps of the United States to produce Guthrie’s Geography Improved. Doolittle developed a strong working relationship with Carey. The map is from the Rochambeau Collection at the Library of Congress, which consists of 40 manuscript maps, 26 printed maps, and a manuscript atlas that belonged to Jean-Baptiste-Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau (1725‒1807), commander in chief of the French expeditionary army (1780‒82) during the American Revolution. Some of the maps were used by Rochambeau during the war. Dating from 1717 to 1795, the maps cover much of eastern North America, from Newfoundland and Labrador in the north to Haiti in the south. The collection includes maps of cities, maps showing Revolutionary War battles and military campaigns, and early state maps from the 1790s.

This Map of the Peninsula between Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, with the Said Bays and Shores Adjacent Drawn from the Most Accurate Surveys

John Churchman (1753–1805), a Quaker surveyor and cartographer from Nottingham, Pennsylvania, produced this hand-colored map for the American Philosophical Society in order to support the proposed construction of a canal between the Delaware and Chesapeake bays. The mapped area covers the Delmarva Peninsula, Chesapeake Bay, and Delaware Bay. It presents in particular detail the anchorages and navigational hazards along the shoals and sandbanks of the Chesapeake and Delaware waters. Churchman shows counties, towns and cities, roads, industries, rivers, swamps, ferries, and the Cape Henlopen lighthouse. This map was one of only seven separately-issued maps produced in America during the American Revolution. No identifying date or place-name appears on the map, which was probably published about 1778. The name “West New Jersey,” which appears in top right-hand corner, denotes a division in New Jersey that was not completely superseded until 1790. Churchman signed an agreement on June 30, 1779, with engraver Daniel Few or Tew, who was to prepare the copper plate for the map. Churchman then presented the map to the American Philosophical Society on July 23, 1779. A committee of the society examined the map and recommended it for publication. The map is from the Rochambeau Collection at the Library of Congress, which consists of 40 manuscript maps, 26 printed maps, and a manuscript atlas that belonged to Jean-Baptiste-Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau (1725‒1807), commander in chief of the French expeditionary army (1780‒82) during the American Revolution. Some of the maps were used by Rochambeau during the war. Dating from 1717 to 1795, the maps cover much of eastern North America, from Newfoundland and Labrador in the north to Haiti in the south. The collection includes maps of cities, maps showing Revolutionary War battles and military campaigns, and early state maps from the 1790s.

Georgia, from the Latest Authorities

This map of Georgia first appeared in General Atlas for Carey’s Edition of Guthrie’s Geography Improved, published in Philadelphia in 1795. It shows the state of Georgia extending through the present-day states of Alabama and Mississippi. The map stretches west to the Mississippi River, south into parts of Florida, northeast to South Carolina, and north to the “Tennassee Government.” The map notes the location of Indian tribes, including the Chacataws (Choctaws), Cherokees, Creeks, Natches (Natchez), and Seminoles. The map is the first to identify Georgia’s counties. Tallahassee County, shown on the Florida border, never actually existed as an official entity, only as an Indian name. Mathew Carey (1760–1839) was an immigrant from Ireland who worked as a publisher in Philadelphia, specializing in maps, atlases, and works of geography. In 1795 he issued the first atlas published in the United States, the American Atlas. Early American publishers such as Carey were not restricted by international copyright agreements and reused European sources to print extensive atlases and geography texts. Carey combined William Guthrie’s European maps, originally published in London in 1770, with updated maps of the United States to produce Guthrie’s Geography Improved. The map was engraved by William Barker (active 1795–1803), who was chiefly a map engraver and specialized in capital script. He made numerous maps for Carey’s 1795 atlas. The map is from the Rochambeau Collection at the Library of Congress, which consists of 40 manuscript maps, 26 printed maps, and a manuscript atlas that belonged to Jean-Baptiste-Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau (1725‒1807), commander in chief of the French expeditionary army (1780‒82) during the American Revolution. Some of the maps were used by Rochambeau during the war. Dating from 1717 to 1795, the maps cover much of eastern North America, from Newfoundland and Labrador in the north to Haiti in the south. The collection includes maps of cities, maps showing Revolutionary War battles and military campaigns, and early state maps from the 1790s.

A Map of Kentucky from Actual Survey

Kentucky was admitted to the Union on June 1, 1792, becoming the 15th state of the United States. In 1793, Elihu Barker created the most accurate map of Kentucky up to that date, A Map of Kentucky from Actual Survey. The map includes Kentucky as well as the bordering “North Western Territory,” Virginia, and the “Tennassee Government.” It shows the mountains of eastern Kentucky and those between the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers in western Kentucky and indicates salt licks throughout the state as well as principal trails, towns, and settlements. Among the towns indicated are Washington, Charleston, Lexington, Versailles, Louisville, and Stanford. The map divides Kentucky into nine counties, but it does not show precise county borders. Barker provides useful descriptive notes, such as “fertile high land where it is reported are quantities of stones of a sulphurous effluvia” and “barren naked land.” Barker engraved the map for Mathew Carey (1760–1839), an immigrant from Ireland who in 1795 published the first atlas in the United States, the American Atlas. The map is from the Rochambeau Collection at the Library of Congress, which consists of 40 manuscript maps, 26 printed maps, and a manuscript atlas that belonged to Jean-Baptiste-Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau (1725‒1807), commander in chief of the French expeditionary army (1780‒82) during the American Revolution. Some of the maps were used by Rochambeau during the war. Dating from 1717 to 1795, the maps cover much of eastern North America, from Newfoundland and Labrador in the north to Haiti in the south. The collection includes maps of cities, maps showing Revolutionary War battles and military campaigns, and early state maps from the 1790s.

The State of New Jersey, Compiled from the Most Authentic Information

This map of New Jersey appeared in General Atlas for Carey’s Edition of Guthrie’s Geography Improved, published in Philadelphia in 1795. The map extends from the Delaware River to the Atlantic Ocean and indicates the state’s principal towns, roads, and counties, as well as mountains, rivers, and the bordering states of New York, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. The map shows the counties of Bergen, Burlington, Cape May, Cumberland, Essex, Gloucester, Hunterdon, Middlesex, Monmouth, Morris, Salem, Somerset, and Sussex. The map was engraved in 1795 by William Barker (active 1795‒1803). Samuel Lewis (1753 or 1754–1822), a Philadelphia draftsman, delineated the “Division line of East and West Jersey.” Trenton, shown on the map on the Delaware River northeast of Philadelphia, became the capital of all of New Jersey in 1790. Mathew Carey (1760–1839) was an immigrant from Ireland who worked as a publisher in Philadelphia, specializing in maps, atlases, and works of geography. In 1795 he issued the first atlas published in the United States, the American Atlas. Early American publishers such as Carey were not restricted by international copyright agreements and reused European sources to print extensive atlases and geography texts. Carey combined William Guthrie’s European maps, originally published in London in 1770, with updated maps of the United States to produce Guthrie’s Geography Improved. The map is from the Rochambeau Collection at the Library of Congress, which consists of 40 manuscript maps, 26 printed maps, and a manuscript atlas that belonged to Jean-Baptiste-Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau (1725‒1807), commander in chief of the French expeditionary army (1780‒82) during the American Revolution. Some of the maps were used by Rochambeau during the war. Dating from 1717 to 1795, the maps cover much of eastern North America, from Newfoundland and Labrador in the north to Haiti in the south. The collection includes maps of cities, maps showing Revolutionary War battles and military campaigns, and early state maps from the 1790s.

Campaign of 1776

This map from around 1780 shows the fighting in New York and New Jersey in 1776, the first full year of the American Revolutionary War. The inset in the upper left shows the campaign in and around Philadelphia in the following year. The main map shows the site of the British landings on Staten Island in preparation for the New York campaign; troop movements and the sites of battles on Long Island, in Westchester County, and on Manhattan Island; and towns and roads in southeastern New York and eastern New Jersey. The index, entitled “Explanation,” describes the main events of the campaign and identifies by letters encampments and the skirmishes and battles between the British-Hessian forces and the Continental Army that occurred between August 22 and November 20, 1776. Notable sites include Point F, at which the colonial militia triumphed in September 1776 at Vanderwater’s Height (present-day Morningside Heights, Manhattan), and Points Q and R, which mark British victories at Fort Washington, New York on November 16 and at Fort Lee, New Jersey on November 18. The inset map of the Philadelphia campaign shows important events that took place between the British landing on the Elk River on August 15, 1777 and the Battle of Germantown on October 4 of that year. The map is from the Rochambeau Collection at the Library of Congress, which consists of 40 manuscript maps, 26 printed maps, and a manuscript atlas that belonged to Jean-Baptiste-Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau (1725‒1807), commander in chief of the French expeditionary army (1780‒82) during the American Revolution. Some of the maps were used by Rochambeau during the war. Dating from 1717 to 1795, the maps cover much of eastern North America, from Newfoundland and Labrador in the north to Haiti in the south. The collection includes maps of cities, maps showing Revolutionary War battles and military campaigns, and early state maps from the 1790s.