Kingdom of Galicia

The first printed map of Galicia with dedicated cartographic plotting was the “Descripción del Reyno de Galizia” (Description of the Kingdom of Galicia) by Hernando Ojea (circa 1560‒1615). That map appeared in the Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (Theater of the world) of Abraham Ortelius (1527‒98), in the edition by Antwerp publisher Jan Baptista Vrients of 1603. The map, despite its many errors, was not soon improved on, and was copied many times, giving rise to a long well-documented history. The version of the map presented here, "Gallaecia Regnum" (Kingdom of Gallicia), comes from the fourth edition of the Gerardi Mercatoris Atlas Sive Cosmographicae Meditationes De Fabrica Mundi et Fabricati Figura (Atlas of the world by Gerard Mercator: finely engraved and drawn), published around 1611 by Jodocus Hondius (1563‒1612) following the work of Gerhard Mercator (1512‒94). It is on a scale similar to the original and maintains the general configuration and the disproportion of some areas, but some slight changes are introduced in the profile of the western coast of Galicia, and in the larger number of mountains. The map title, legend, cardinal directions, and neighboring territories are given in Latin; the Atlantic is labeled Oceanus Occidentalis (Western Ocean). Place-names are in Spanish. Two of the most significant buildings shown are the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela and the Tower of Hercules at La Coruña—the only fully preserved Roman lighthouse still in use for maritime signaling and a UNESCO World Heritage site. Scale is expressed in the legend in two units of measurement: seven Spanish leagues, and six German common miles, each equal to 6.2 centimeters. The verso, pages 117‒18 from the Hondius-Mercator atlas, shows text in French entitled "Galice," with an ornate capital, and marginal headings. The text gives information about Galicia’s climate, livestock, politics and government, towns, rivers, ports, mountains, and the major churches and public figures of Santiago de Compostela.

Province of Ourense

This color lithographic map shows the Province of Ourense in Galicia, northwestern Spain. The map is flanked by a geographical review of the province on the left and a historical overview on the right. Above the map are the provincial shield and illustrations of figures in traditional costumes, allegories, and a dedication. Below the map is a view of the capital of the province, also called Ourense. The map shows the division of the province into partidos (judicial districts); scale is given in both leagues and kilometers. The name of the publisher, Francisco Boronat y Satorre, and the number of the map, 45, appear in the lower left. Boronat produced several editions of atlases of Spain, beginning in 1870 and continuing for the next 20 years. The titles of the atlases varied between editions: España Geográfica Histórica Ilustrada (Illustrated geographical history of Spain) or Atlas Geográfico Histórico de las provincias de España (Historical geographic atlas of the provinces of Spain). Boronat made use of the technology of chromolithography, which represented a great advance over previous methods, which required the hand coloring of printed maps. The technology was developed in Germany in the early 19th century and by 1840 had spread to France and England. In the 1880s Swiss chemist Hans Jakob Schmid invented photochrome, a chromolithographic process using colored black-and-white negatives, which enabled mass production of images in color before the days of color photography.

Battle of Corunna. 16th January 1809

Presented here is a map showing the battlefield positions of British and French troops at the Battle of Corunna (La Coruña in Spanish), in Galicia, northwest Spain, during the Peninsular War of 1808‒14, a conflict that is referred to in Spain as the Guerra de la Independencia (War of Independence). The war pitted the armies of Britain, Spain, and Portugal against the Napoleonic armies of the First French Empire in a fight for control of the Iberian Peninsula. This map appeared in the Atlas to Alison’s History of Europe, the result of a collaboration between historian Archibald Alison (1792‒1867) and the Scottish geographer and cartographer Alexander Keith Johnston (1804‒71). Scale is marked in military steps (1 military step = 0.76 meter) and in miles (1 mile = 1.61 kilometers), and north is oriented to the left. The British initially did not fare well in the campaign, and in December 1808 they retreated at speed toward La Coruña to be evacuated by the fleet. There the exhausted British troops commanded by Major General Sir John Moore, who died on the field of battle, faced numerically superior French forces under Marshal Soult. The French attack was driven off sufficiently for the British to be able to embark on the transports for home that night and the next day. The British army returned to the Iberian Peninsula in May 1809 under the command of Sir Arthur Wellesley, later first Duke of Wellington.

An Exact Draught of the Bay and Harbour of Vigo

This map of the naval engagement at Vigo, in Galicia, northwest Spain, on October 23, 1702, was engraved by James Basire for inclusion in The Continuation of Mr. Rapin’s History of England: from the Revolution to the Present Times by Nicholas Tindal, published in London in 1759. Paul Rapin de Thoyras (1661‒1725) was a French Huguenot whose experiences in the English army led him to write a history of events in England in order to explain them to other Europeans. His text was well received, in England and elsewhere, but it had only reached the late 17th century by his death. Nicholas Tindal’s first translation from the French appeared between 1725 and 1731. Tindal then continued the history up to the accession of King George II in 1727. The Battle of Vigo, also called the Battle of Rande, occurred in the second year of the War of the Spanish Succession (1701‒14). The Anglo-Dutch fleet, commanded by Admiral Sir George Rooke, was about to return from a failed attempt to capture Cadiz when Rooke learned that the Spanish fleet carrying treasure from the Americas, with its escort of French warships, had harbored in Vigo Bay. The battle was a major success for the English and the Dutch. All the French and Spanish ships were captured, sank, ran aground, or set on fire by their crews, and despite the Spanish having already offloaded most of the silver bullion, the victors gained large amounts of treasure and merchandise. The victors began to tow the Santo Cristo de Maracaibo to England, but this largest of the Spanish galleons struck a rock and sank at the entrance to the harbor. The incident was adapted by Jules Verne in Twenty Thousand Leagues under the Sea, in which he describes Captain Nemo and his crew finding treasure among the sunken wrecks. The map is oriented with north to the lower left and shows the forts that the British captured and the defensive boom of masts and chains that the attackers broke through. A decorative cartouche holds the explanatory key; scale is given in miles.

Province of Corunna

This color lithographic map shows the Province of La Coruña in Galicia, northwestern Spain. The map is flanked by a geographical review of the province on the left and a historical overview on the right. Above the map are the provincial shield and illustrations of figures in traditional costumes, allegories, and a dedication. Below the map is a view of the capital of the province, also called La Coruña. The map shows the division of the province into partidos (judicial districts); scale is given in both leagues and kilometers. The name of the publisher, Francisco Boronat y Satorre, and the number of the map, 1, appear in the lower left. Boronat produced several editions of atlases of Spain, beginning in 1870 and continuing for the next 20 years. The titles of the atlases varied between editions: España Geográfica Histórica Ilustrada (Illustrated geographical history of Spain) or Atlas Geográfico Histórico de las provincias de España (Historical geographic atlas of the provinces of Spain). Boronat made use of the technology of chromolithography, which represented a great advance over previous methods, which required the hand coloring of printed maps. The technology was developed in Germany in the early 19th century and by 1840 had spread to France and England. In the 1880s Swiss chemist Hans Jakob Schmid invented photochrome, a chromolithographic process using colored black-and-white negatives, which enabled mass production of images in color before the days of color photography.

Geometric Chart of Galicia: Divided into the Provinces of La Coruña, Lugo, Orense, and Pontevedra; and Subdivided by Judicial Districts and Town Councils

Domingo Fontán (1788‒1866), a leading figure of his day in Galicia, was a polymath—a mathematician, geographer, philosopher, and politician—who, with the work presented here, created the first scientific topographical map of Galicia. It was based on the method of geodesic triangulation, which Fontán had developed. He began work on the project in 1817 but did not receive official support for it until about 12 years later. It took Fontán until 1834 to complete his chart, which is inscribed “Presentada en 1834 a S.M. La Reina Gobernadora Doña Maria Cristina de Borbon (Presented in 1834 to Her Majesty, the Queen Regent, Doña Maria Cristina de Borbon). The work was not printed until 1845, by which time Fontán had made some corrections and enhancements to the original manuscript. He moved to Paris to oversee the printing process, for which 12 lithographic plates were engraved on stone by L. Bouffard; the chart was printed by Joseph Lemercier. The scale of 1:100,000 is also expressed in leagues of 20,000 feet, and miles in degrees and in thousands of meters (kilometers). An explanatory key appears on the last page. The Carta geométrica de Galicia (Geometric chart of Galicia), despite its high quality, accuracy, and detail, did not receive the distribution it deserved and was not even considered an "official map." Its ultimate recognition was due mainly to the influence it had on geographers such as Francisco de Coello (1822‒98), whose debt to Fontán he acknowledged in the maps of the Galician provinces in his Atlas de España y sus posesiones de ultramar (Atlas of Spain and its overseas possessions). It is through these later maps that Fontán’s work became, albeit indirectly, known to the public.

Province of Lugo

This color lithographic map shows the Province of Lugo in Galicia, northwestern Spain. The map is flanked by a geographical review of the province on the left and a historical overview on the right. Above the map are the provincial shield and illustrations of figures in traditional costumes, allegories, and a dedication. Below the map is a view of the capital of the province, also called Lugo. The map shows the division of the province into partidos (judicial districts); scale is given in both leagues and kilometers. The name of the publisher, Francisco Boronat y Satorre, and the number of the map, 42, appear in the lower left. Boronat produced several editions of atlases of Spain, beginning in 1870 and continuing for the next 20 years. The titles of the atlases varied between editions: España Geográfica Histórica Ilustrada (Illustrated geographical history of Spain) or Atlas Geográfico Histórico de las provincias de España (Historical geographic atlas of the provinces of Spain). Boronat made use of the technology of chromolithography, which represented a great advance over previous methods, which required the hand coloring of printed maps. The technology was developed in Germany in the early 19th century and by 1840 had spread to France and England. In the 1880s Swiss chemist Hans Jakob Schmid invented photochrome, a chromolithographic process using colored black-and-white negatives, which enabled mass production of images in color before the days of color photography.

Province of Pontevedra

This color lithographic map shows the Province of Pontevedra in Galicia, northwestern Spain. The map is flanked by a geographical review of the province on the left and a historical overview on the right. Above the map are the provincial shield and illustrations of figures in traditional costumes, allegories, and a dedication. Below the map is a view of the capital of the province, also called Pontevedra. The map shows the division of the province into partidos (judicial districts); scale is given in both leagues and kilometers. The name of the publisher, Francisco Boronat y Satorre, and the number of the map, 22, appear in the lower left. Boronat produced several editions of atlases of Spain, beginning in 1870 and continuing for the next 20 years. The titles of the atlases varied between editions: España Geográfica Histórica Ilustrada (Illustrated geographical history of Spain) or Atlas Geográfico Histórico de las provincias de España (Historical geographic atlas of the provinces of Spain). Boronat made use of the technology of chromolithography, which represented a great advance over previous methods, which required the hand coloring of printed maps. The technology was developed in Germany in the early 19th century and by 1840 had spread to France and England. In the 1880s Swiss chemist Hans Jakob Schmid invented photochrome, a chromolithographic process using colored black-and-white negatives, which enabled mass production of images in color before the days of color photography.

Kābul, Number 528, Volume 33, Issue 7, September-October 1963

Kābul was a monthly periodical of the Anjuman-i Adabi Kabul (Kabul Literary Society), first issued on December 15, 1931. It published original and translated works, often short or longer essays dealing with the history, archaeology, literature, culture, languages, and society of Afghanistan. It also published news reports relating to both national and international events. In its first year, the magazine was printed in 40 to 60 pages per issue. This later grew to around 80‒120 pages per issue. The contributors to the magazine included such Afghan literary-nationalist writers as Qari ʻAbd Allah (1871–1944), Mir Ghulam Mohammad Ghubar (1895–1978), Ahmad ʻAli Kuhzad (born 1907), ʻAbd al-Hayy Habibi (1910–84), and others who played critical roles in the historicization and characterization of Afghan identity in the 20th century. Between 1931 and 1938 Kābul published only Persian material within the framework of Anjuman-i Adabi Kabul. It later branched into two separate publications and became a Pushto magazine, while continuing to publish a Persian edition. Pushto Tolanah (The Pushto Society), established in 1939 to promote Pushto-Afghan history, literature, and language, took charge of the Pushto edition within the organization of the newly-formed governmental media department, Riyasat-i Mustaqil-i Matbu’at (Autonomous Directorate of Publications). The magazine was one of the oldest and most popular publications to appear under the royal regime in Afghanistan. After the communists came to power in 1979 and the country descended into conflict and political instability, the magazine was no longer published in a stable and continuous manner. Presented here are 375 issues of the magazine from between 1933 and 1964, from the collections of the Library of Congress.

Kābul, Number 529, Volume 33, Issue 8, October-November 1963

Kābul was a monthly periodical of the Anjuman-i Adabi Kabul (Kabul Literary Society), first issued on December 15, 1931. It published original and translated works, often short or longer essays dealing with the history, archaeology, literature, culture, languages, and society of Afghanistan. It also published news reports relating to both national and international events. In its first year, the magazine was printed in 40 to 60 pages per issue. This later grew to around 80‒120 pages per issue. The contributors to the magazine included such Afghan literary-nationalist writers as Qari ʻAbd Allah (1871–1944), Mir Ghulam Mohammad Ghubar (1895–1978), Ahmad ʻAli Kuhzad (born 1907), ʻAbd al-Hayy Habibi (1910–84), and others who played critical roles in the historicization and characterization of Afghan identity in the 20th century. Between 1931 and 1938 Kābul published only Persian material within the framework of Anjuman-i Adabi Kabul. It later branched into two separate publications and became a Pushto magazine, while continuing to publish a Persian edition. Pushto Tolanah (The Pushto Society), established in 1939 to promote Pushto-Afghan history, literature, and language, took charge of the Pushto edition within the organization of the newly-formed governmental media department, Riyasat-i Mustaqil-i Matbu’at (Autonomous Directorate of Publications). The magazine was one of the oldest and most popular publications to appear under the royal regime in Afghanistan. After the communists came to power in 1979 and the country descended into conflict and political instability, the magazine was no longer published in a stable and continuous manner. Presented here are 375 issues of the magazine from between 1933 and 1964, from the collections of the Library of Congress.